Shànghǎi Zhōngxīn Dàshà
The Shanghai Tower (center) in March 2014 following its topping out.
|Location||Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai|
|Construction started||29 November 2008|
|Architectural||632 m (2,073 ft)|
|Top floor||556.7 m (1,826 ft)|
(floors below ground: 2)
|Floor area||380,000 m2 (4,090,300 sq ft) above grade
170 m2 (1,800 sq ft) below grade
|Design and construction|
|Main contractor||Shanghai Construction Group|
The Shanghai Tower (Chinese: 上海中心大厦; pinyin: Shànghǎi Zhōngxīn Dàshà; literally: "Shanghai Central Tower") is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai. Designed by Gensler, it is the tallest of a group of three adjacent supertall buildings in Pudong, the other two being the Jin Mao Tower and the Shanghai World Financial Center. Construction work on the tower began in November 2008. The building stands approximately 632 metres (2,073 ft) high and has 121 stories, with a total floor area of 380,000 m2 (4,090,000 sq ft). It is expected to open to the public in 2015.
Following its topping out on 3 August 2013, the Shanghai Tower is currently the tallest building in China and the second-tallest in the world, surpassed only by the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. It is also China's tallest structure of any kind, surpassing the 600-metre (2,000 ft) Canton Tower in Guangzhou. However, if Changsha's planned Sky City, which is planned to reach a height of 838 m (2,749 ft), is completed to plan and on schedule, it will overtake both the Shanghai Tower and the Burj Khalifa in height.
Planning models for the Lujiazui financial district dating back to 1993 show plans for a close group of three supertall skyscrapers. The first of these, the Jin Mao Tower, was completed in 1998; the adjacent Shanghai World Financial Center (SWFC) opened in 2008.
The Shanghai Tower was designed by the American architectural firm Gensler, with American-educated Chinese architect Jun Xia leading the design team. The tower takes the form of nine cylindrical buildings stacked atop each other, totalling 121 floors, all enclosed by the inner layer of the glass façade. Between that and the outer layer, which twists as it rises, nine indoor zones will provide public space for visitors. Each of these nine areas will have its own atrium, featuring gardens, cafés, restaurants and retail space and providing 360-degree views of the city.
Both layers of the façade will be transparent, and retail and event spaces will be provided at the tower's base. The transparent façade is a unique design feature, because most buildings have only a single façade using highly reflective glass to lower heat absorption, but the Shanghai Tower's double layer of glass will eliminate the need for either layer to be opaqued. Once opened, the tower is expected to accommodate as many as 16,000 people on a daily basis.
In September 2011, the Japanese firm Mitsubishi Electric Corp. announced that it had won a bid to construct the Shanghai Tower's elevator system. Mitsubishi Electric will supply all of the tower's 106 elevators, including three high-speed models capable of travelling at 1,080 metres (3,540 ft) per minute – the equivalent of 64.8 kilometres (40.3 mi) per hour, or 18 metres/second. At the time of their installation in 2014, they will be the world's fastest single-deck elevators (18 metres/second) and double-deck elevators (10 metres/second). The building will also hold the record for the world's furthest-travelling single elevator, at 578.5 metres (1,898 ft), surpassing the record held by the Burj Khalifa.
When completed, the Shanghai Tower will join the Jin Mao Tower and SWFC to form the world's first adjacent grouping of three supertall buildings. Its 320-room Four Season Hotel, located between the 84th and 110th floors, will be the tallest hotel in the world at the time of its completion. The tower's sub-levels provide parking spaces for 1,800 vehicles.
The Shanghai Tower incorporates numerous green architecture elements ; its owners, Shanghai Tower Construction and Development, hope to be awarded certifications from the China Green Building Committee and the U.S. Green Building Council for the building's sustainable design. The design of the tower's glass facade is intended to reduce wind loads on the building by 24%. This reduces the amount of construction materials needed; the Shanghai tower used 25% less structural steel than a conventional design of a similar height. As a result, the building's constructors are expected to save an estimated US$58 million in material costs. Construction practices were also optimised for sustainability. Though the majority of the tower's energy will be provided by conventional power systems, vertical-axis wind turbines located near the top of the tower will generate up to 350,000 kWh of supplementary electricity per year. The double-layered insulating glass façade is intended to reduce the need for indoor air conditioning, and is composed of an advanced reinforced glass with a high tolerance for shifts in temperature. In addition, the building's heating and cooling systems will use geothermal energy sources.
In 2008, the site – previously a driving range – was prepared for construction. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on 29 November 2008, after the tower had passed an environmental impact study.
A repetitive slip-forming process was used to construct the tower's core floor-by-floor. By late April 2011, the tower's steel reinforcement had risen to the 18th floor, while its concrete core had reached the 15th floor, and floor framing had been completed up to the fourth floor. By late December 2011, the tower's foundations had been completed, and its steel construction had risen above the 30th floor. By early February 2012, the tower's concrete core had risen to a height of 230 metres (750 ft), with around fifty floors completed. In the first months of 2012, cracks began appearing in the roads near the tower's construction site. These were blamed on ground subsidence, which was likely caused by excessive groundwater extraction in the Shanghai area, rather than by the weight of the Shanghai Tower.
By May 2012, the tower's core stood 250 metres (820 ft) high, while floors had been framed to a height of 200 metres (660 ft). By early September 2012, the core had reached a height of 338 metres (1,109 ft). By the end of 2012, the tower had reached the 90th floor, standing approximately 425 metres (1,394 ft) tall. By 11 April 2013, the tower had reached 108 stories, standing over 500 metres (1,600 ft) tall and exceeding the heights of its two neighbouring supertall skyscrapers, the Jin Mao Tower and the Shanghai World Financial Center.
Construction crews laid the final structural beam of the tower 3 August 2013, thus topping out the tower as the world's second-tallest building. A topping-out ceremony was held at the site of the last beam. During the ceremony, Gensler co-founder Art Gensler stated that:
|“||The Shanghai Tower represents a new way of defining and creating cities. By incorporating best practices in sustainability and high-performance design, by weaving the building into the urban fabric of Shanghai and drawing community life into the building, Shanghai Tower redefines the role of tall buildings in contemporary cities and raises the bar for the next generation of super-highrises.||”|
The principal architect of the project, Jun Xia, was quoted as saying, “With the topping out of Shanghai Tower, the Lujiazui trio will serve as a stunning representation of our past, our present and China’s boundless future." Gu Jianping, general manager of the Shanghai Tower Construction Company, expressed the firm's wish "to provide higher quality office and shopping space, as well as contribute to the completeness of the city skyline's and the entire region's functionality". Jianping also hinted at the future possibility of a public museum in the building.
In January 2014, the tower passed the 600-metre (2,000 ft) mark, as its construction entered its final phase. In February 2014, two Russian urban explorers, Vadim Makhorov and Vitaly Raskalov, climbed the Shanghai Tower and released video footage taken from a crane at the tower's top. The tower's interior construction is scheduled for completion in 2014, and it will open to the public in 2015.
- List of tallest buildings in Shanghai
- List of tallest buildings in the world
- List of buildings with 100 floors or more
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shanghai Tower.|
- Official website
- Gensler blog entries on the Shanghai Tower
- "INTERVIEW: Gensler's Chris Chan on the Sustainable Shanghai Tower, Asia's Tallest Skyscraper". Inhabitat. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
Shanghai World Financial Center
Tallest building in China
632 metres (2,073 ft)
Shanghai World Financial Center
|Tallest building in Shanghai
632 metres (2,073 ft)