Shanghai Tower

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Shanghai Tower
上海中心大厦
Shànghǎi Zhōngxīn Dàshà
Shanghai Tower.jpg
The Shanghai Tower (center) in March 2014 following its topping out.
General information
Status Topped-out
Location Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai
Coordinates 31°14′08″N 121°30′04″E / 31.2355°N 121.501°E / 31.2355; 121.501Coordinates: 31°14′08″N 121°30′04″E / 31.2355°N 121.501°E / 31.2355; 121.501
Construction started 29 November 2008
Estimated completion 2014
Opening c.2015[1]
Cost US$2.2 billion
Height
Architectural 632 m (2,073 ft)
Top floor 556.7 m (1,826 ft)
Technical details
Floor count 121
(floors below ground: 2)
Floor area 380,000 m2 (4,090,300 sq ft) above grade
170 m2 (1,800 sq ft) below grade
Design and construction
Architect Gensler
Engineer

Thornton Tomasetti

TJAD 同济设计
Main contractor Shanghai Construction
References
[2][3][4]

The Shanghai Tower (Chinese: 上海中心大厦; pinyin: Shànghǎi Zhōngxīn Dàshà; literally "Shanghai Central Tower") is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai.[5] Designed by Gensler, it is the tallest of a group of three adjacent supertall buildings in Pudong, the other two being the Jin Mao Tower and the Shanghai World Financial Center. Construction work on the tower began in November 2008.[5] Upon its completion in 2014, the building will stand approximately 632 metres (2,073 ft) high and will have 121 stories, with a total floor area of 380,000 m2 (4,090,000 sq ft).[6][7][8] It is expected to open to the public in 2015.[1]

Following its topping out on 3 August 2013, the Shanghai Tower is currently the tallest building in China and the second-tallest in the world, surpassed by the Burj Khalifa in Dubai.[9][10] It is also China's tallest structure of any kind, surpassing the 600-metre (2,000 ft) Canton Tower in Guangzhou. However, if Changsha's planned Sky City, which is planned to reach a height of 838 m (2,749 ft), is completed to plan and on schedule, it will overtake both the Shanghai Tower and the Burj Khalifa in height.[11]

Planning[edit]

Planning models for the Lujiazui financial district dating back to 1993 show plans for a close group of three supertall skyscrapers.[12] The first of these, the Jin Mao Tower, was completed in 1998; the adjacent Shanghai World Financial Center (SWFC) opened in 2008.[13]

Design[edit]

The Shanghai Tower was designed by the American architectural firm Gensler, with American-educated Chinese architect Jun Xia leading the design team.[14][15] The tower takes the form of nine cylindrical buildings stacked atop each other, totalling 121 floors, all enclosed by the inner layer of the glass façade.[4] Between that and the outer layer, which twists as it rises, nine indoor zones will provide public space for visitors.[4][10] Each of these nine areas will have its own atrium, featuring gardens, cafés, restaurants and retail space and providing 360-degree views of the city.[16]

Both layers of the façade will be transparent, and retail and event spaces will be provided at the tower's base.[4] The transparent façade is a unique design feature, because most buildings have only a single façade using highly reflective glass to lower heat absorption, but the Shanghai Tower's double layer of glass will eliminate the need for either layer to be opaqued.[17] Once opened, the tower is expected to accommodate as many as 16,000 people on a daily basis.[18]

In September 2011, the Japanese firm Mitsubishi Electric Corp. announced that it had won a bid to construct the Shanghai Tower's elevator system. Mitsubishi Electric will supply all of the tower's 106 elevators, including three high-speed models capable of travelling at 1,080 metres (3,540 ft) per minute – the equivalent of 64.8 kilometres (40.3 mi) per hour, or 18 metres/second. At the time of their installation in 2014, they will be the world's fastest single-deck elevators (18 metres/second) and double-deck elevators (10 metres/second).[19] The building will also hold the record for the world's furthest-travelling single elevator, at 578.5 metres (1,898 ft), surpassing the record held by the Burj Khalifa.[20]

When completed, the Shanghai Tower will join the Jin Mao Tower and SWFC to form the world's first adjacent grouping of three supertall buildings. Its 320-room Jin Jiang Hotel, located between the 84th and 110th floors, will be the tallest hotel in the world at the time of its completion.[2][21] The tower's sub-levels provide parking spaces for 1,800 vehicles.[2]

Sustainability[edit]

The Shanghai Tower incorporates numerous green architecture elements ; its owners, Shanghai Tower Construction and Development, hope to be awarded certifications from the China Green Building Committee and the U.S. Green Building Council for the building's sustainable design.[4] The design of the tower's glass facade is intended to reduce wind loads on the building by 24%. This reduces the amount of construction materials needed; the Shanghai tower used 25% less structural steel than a conventional design of a similar height.[17] As a result, the building's constructors are expected to save an estimated US$58 million in material costs.[22] Construction practices were also optimised for sustainability. Though the majority of the tower's energy will be provided by conventional power systems, vertical-axis wind turbines located near the top of the tower will generate up to 350,000 kWh of supplementary electricity per year.[18] The double-layered insulating glass façade is intended to reduce the need for indoor air conditioning, and is composed of an advanced reinforced glass with a high tolerance for shifts in temperature.[23] In addition, the building's heating and cooling systems will use geothermal energy sources.[24]

Construction history[edit]

In 2008, the site – previously a driving range[25] – was prepared for construction,[26][27] and a groundbreaking ceremony was held on 29 November 2008, after the tower had passed an environmental impact study.[8]

A repetitive slip-forming process was used to construct the tower's core floor-by-floor.[28] By late April 2011, the tower's steel reinforcement had risen to the 18th floor, while its concrete core had reached the 15th floor, and floor framing had been completed up to the fourth floor.[28] By late December 2011, the tower's foundations had been completed, and its steel construction had risen above the 30th floor.[29] By early February 2012, the tower's concrete core had risen to a height of 230 metres (750 ft), with around fifty floors completed.[30] In the first months of 2012, cracks began appearing in the roads near the tower's construction site. These were blamed on ground subsidence, which was likely caused by excessive groundwater extraction in the Shanghai area, rather than by the weight of the Shanghai Tower.[31]

By May 2012, the tower's core stood 250 metres (820 ft) high, while floors had been framed to a height of 200 metres (660 ft).[22] By early September 2012, the core had reached a height of 338 metres (1,109 ft).[32] By the end of 2012, the tower had reached the 90th floor, standing approximately 425 metres (1,394 ft) tall.[33] By 11 April 2013, the tower had reached 108 stories, standing over 500 metres (1,600 ft) tall and exceeding the heights of its two neighbouring supertall skyscrapers, the Jin Mao Tower and the Shanghai World Financial Center.[34]

Construction crews laid the final structural beam of the tower 3 August 2013, thus topping out the tower as the world's second-tallest building.[9][35] A topping-out ceremony was held at the site of the last beam.[9][36] During the ceremony, Gensler co-founder Art Gensler stated that:

The Shanghai Tower represents a new way of defining and creating cities. By incorporating best practices in sustainability and high-performance design, by weaving the building into the urban fabric of Shanghai and drawing community life into the building, Shanghai Tower redefines the role of tall buildings in contemporary cities and raises the bar for the next generation of super-highrises.[37]

The principal architect of the project, Jun Xia, was quoted as saying, “With the topping out of Shanghai Tower, the Lujiazui trio will serve as a stunning representation of our past, our present and China’s boundless future."[37] Gu Jianping, general manager of the Shanghai Tower Construction Company, expressed the firm's wish "to provide higher quality office and shopping space, as well as contribute to the completeness of the city skyline's and the entire region's functionality". Jianping also hinted at the future possibility of a public museum in the building.[35]

In January 2014, the tower passed the 600-metre (2,000 ft) mark, as its construction entered its final phase.[38] In February 2014, two Russian urban explorers, Vadim Makhorov and Vitaly Raskalov, climbed the Shanghai Tower and released video footage taken from a crane at the tower's top.[39] The tower's interior construction is scheduled for completion in 2014, and it will open to the public in 2015.[1]

Construction gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Tall towers: Signs in the sky". The Economist. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c "Shanghai Tower – The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012. 
  3. ^ "Shanghai defies slump with tallest building plan". Reuters. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Shanghai Tower News Release". Gensler. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008. 
  5. ^ a b "Shanghai Tower Breaks Ground". Luxist.com. 29 November 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  6. ^ "Shanghai Tower". Emporis. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
  7. ^ "超高楼"上海中心"尚未展开正式设计招标" (in Chinese). Xinmin. 26 October 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
  8. ^ a b "上海中心大厦项目环境影响报告书简本公示" (PDF) (in Chinese). Envir.gov.cn. 13 August 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2008. 
  9. ^ a b c "China tallest tower gets final beam". BBC. 3 August 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  10. ^ a b "Tallest Chinese building features indoor gardens". Shanghai Daily. 24 July 2008. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008. 
  11. ^ "Work on China’s 838-metre high 'Sky City' starts". Emirates 24/7. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
  12. ^ "上海浦东拟建世界第一高楼 外形酷似方尖碑" (in Chinese). People.com.cn. 26 October 2007. Archived from the original on 29 October 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
  13. ^ "China's tallest tower opens". BBC. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  14. ^ Ben Ikenson (July 2013). "Gensler's Secret Sauce". Metropolis Magazine. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  15. ^ "Taking Education to New Heights: Alum Designs Tallest Building in China". University of Colorado Alumni Spotlight. 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  16. ^ Woo Seung-hyun (2010). "Integrated design of technology and creative imagination on supertall building" – p. 30–31 in Korean, p. 32–33 in English. Space Magazine. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  17. ^ a b CleanTechies (25 March 2010). "The Shanghai Tower: The Beginnings of a Green Revolution in China". Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  18. ^ a b Beaton, Jessica (8 February 2011). "Shanghai Tower: A 'thermos flask' to the sky". CNN. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  19. ^ "World's fastest elevator: in China, but made in Japan". Wall Street Journal. 28 September 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
  20. ^ "Mitsubishi Electric to Install World's Fastest Elevators in Shanghai Tower". Mitsubishi Electric. 28 September 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  21. ^ "Shanghai Tower J Hotel on course to set the world record". 4Hoteliers.com. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  22. ^ a b "In Progress: Shanghai Tower/Gensler". Huffington Post. 4 May 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  23. ^ "Glass walls technological first for new tallest tower". Shanghai Daily. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  24. ^ "Shanghai Tower – future living today". Pacific Rim Construction Magazine. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  25. ^ ""上海中心"规划方案曝光 将成上海最高观光平台" (in Chinese). Sina.com. 24 April 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
  26. ^ "Shanghai draws up plan for nation's tallest building". China Daily. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
  27. ^ "Construction of high-rise "Shanghai Center" to start". Chinaview.cn. 17 February 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
  28. ^ a b "Construction Update: Shanghai Tower". GenslerOn.com. 25 May 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  29. ^ "Still building, China readies world's second-tallest skyscraper". Forbes.com. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  30. ^ "China’s Risky Skyscraper Extravaganza". The Epoch Times. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
  31. ^ "Shifting foundations threaten to undermine China's cities". The Guardian. 3 April 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  32. ^ "Huge, huger, hugest: Shanghai skyscrapers walking tour". CNNGo.com. 30 August 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012. 
  33. ^ "Tallest Lujiazui tower reaches 425m, still growing". Shanghai Daily. 27 December 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  34. ^ "Shanghai Tower Construction Continues Despite Rumors of salt in concrete sand". NextBigFuture.com. 25 April 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  35. ^ a b "上海中心大厦结构封顶" [Shanghai Tower topped out] (in Simplified Chinese). China News. 3 August 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  36. ^ "Topping-out ceremony held for China's tallest building". Xinhua. 3 August 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  37. ^ a b "Gensler Tops Out China's Tallest Tower in Shanghai". AZoBuild.com. 3 August 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  38. ^ "Tower passes the 600-meter mark". Eastday.com. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  39. ^ "Russian daredevils scale the Shanghai Tower, China's new tallest building". The Guardian. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 

External links[edit]

Records
Preceded by
Shanghai World Financial Center

Tallest building in China

2013–Present
632 metres (2,073 ft)
Succeeded by
None
Preceded by
Shanghai World Financial Center
Tallest building in Shanghai
2013–Present
632 metres (2,073 ft)
Succeeded by
None