Shanti Parva

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Yudhisthira receives counsel from sages (shown) and from dying Bhisma on proper governance, justice and rule of law in Shanti parva.

The Shanti Parva (Sanskrit: शान्ति पर्व), or the "Book of Peace," is the twelfth of eighteen books of the Indian Epic Mahabharata. It has 3 sub-books and 366 chapters.[1][2] It is the longest book among the 18 books of the Epic.

The book is set after the war is over, the two sides have accepted peace, and Yudhisthira starts his rule of the Pandava kingdom. Shanti parva recites duties of the ruler, dharma and good governance as counseled by dying Bhishma as well as various Rishis.[3] The parva includes many symbolic tales such as one about "starving and vegetarian Vishvamitra stealing meat during a famine" and fables such as "the fowler and pigeons". The book also includes a theory of caste and a comparative discussion between a rule of truth versus a rule of rituals, declaring truth to be far superior over rituals.[4] Shanti parva has been widely studied for its treatises on jurisprudence, prosperity and success.[5][6]

Structure and chapters[edit]

Yudhisthira arrives in Hastinapur to be coronated as king of the combined Kaurava and Pandava kingdoms.

This Parva (book) has 3 sub-parvas (sub-books or little books) and 366 adhyayas (sections, chapters).[1][2] The sub-parvas in this book are:

1. Rajadharma anusasana Parva[1][4]
This sub-book describes the duties of kings and leaders, among other things.
2. Apaddharma anusasana Parva[4]
This sub-book describes the rules of conduct when one faces adversity.
3. Moksha dharma Parva[1]
This sub-book describes behavior and rules to achieve moksha (emancipation, release, freedom).

Shanti parva begins with sorrowful Yudhisthira lamenting the loss of human lives during the war. He announces his desire to renounce the kingdom, move into a forest as a mendicant and live in silence. He receives counsel from his family and then sages Narada and Vyasa, as well as Devala, Devasthana and Kanwa.[4] The parva includes the story of king Janaka and the queen of the Videhas, presenting the theory of true mendicant as one who does not crave for material wealth, not one who abandons material wealth for an outward show. Arjuna argues it is more virtuous to create and maintain virtuous wealth and do good with it, than to neither create nor have any. Yudhisthira challenges Arjuna how would he know. Sage Vyasa then intervenes and offers arguments from Vedas that support Arjuna's comments, and the story of Sankha and Likhita. Krishna concurs with Arjuna and Vyasa, and adds his own arguments.[1][4]

Shanti parva recites a theory of governance and duties of a leader.[3] This theory is outlined by dying Bhisma to Yudhisthira and his brothers (shown), as well as words from sage Vidura.[2]

Shanti parva is a treatise on duties of a king and his government, dharma (laws and rules), proper governance, rights, justice and describes how these create prosperity. Yudhisthira becomes the king of a prosperous and peaceful kingdom, Bhima his heir apparent, sage Vidura the prime minister, Sanjaya the finance minister, Arjuna the defense and justice minister, and Dhaumya is appointed one responsible to service priests and counsels to the king.[2][4] This books also includes a treatise on yoga as recited by Krishna.

English translations[edit]

Shanti Parva was composed in Sanskrit. Several translations of the book in English are available. Two translations from 19th century, now in public domain, are those by Kisari Mohan Ganguli[2] and Manmatha Nath Dutt.[1] The translations vary with each translator's interpretations.

Clay Sanskrit Library has published a 15 volume set of the Mahabharata which includes a translation of Shanti Parva by Alex Wynne. This translation is modern and uses an old manuscript of the Epic. The translation does not remove verses and chapters now widely believed to be spurious and smuggled into the Epic in 1st or 2nd millennium AD.[7]

Debroy, in 2011, notes[8] that updated critical edition of Shanti Parva, after removing verses and chapters generally accepted so far as spurious and inserted into the original, has 3 sub-books, 353 adhyayas (chapters) and 13,006 shlokas (verses).

Salient features[edit]

Shanti parva - the longest book and most number of verses - has a number of treatises and fables embedded in it. Examples include a theory on caste,[9] a theory on governance,[10] and the fable of the wicked fowler and compassionate pigeons.[4]

Shanti parva on caste[edit]

Chapters 188 and 189 of the parva begin by reciting Bhrigu's theory of varna (color, caste), according to whom Brahmins were white, Kshatriyas red, Vaisyas yellow, and Sudras black. Rishi Bharadwaja asks how can castes be discriminated when in truth all colors are observed in every class of people, when in truth people of all groups experience the same desire, same anger, same fear, same grief, same fatigue, same hunger, same love and other emotions? Everyone is born the same way, carries blood and bile, and dies the same way, asserts Bharadwaja. Why do castes exist, asks Bharadwaja? Bhrigu replies there is no difference among castes. It arose because of differentiation of work. Duty and rites of passage are not forbidden to any of them.[1][4] According to John Muir, Shanti Parva and its companion book Anushasana Parva claim neither birth, nor initiation, nor descent, nor bookish knowledge determines a person's merit; only their actual conduct, expressed qualities and virtues determine one's merit.[11] There is no superior caste, claims Shanti parva.[12]

Shanti parva on governance[edit]

The parva dedicates over 100 chapters on duties of a king and rules of proper governance. A prosperous kingdom must be guided by truth and justice.[13] Chapter 58 of Shanti parva suggests the duty of a ruler and his cabinet is to enable people to be happy, pursue truth and act sincerely. Chapter 88 recommends the king to tax without injuring the ability or capacity of those who create wealth, just like bees harvest honey from flower, keepers of cow draw milk without starving the calf or hurting the cow; those who cannot bear the burden of taxes, should not be taxed.[2] Chapter 267 suggests the judicial staff to reflect before sentencing, only sentence punishment that is proportionate to the crime, avoid harsh and capital punishments, and never punish the innocent relatives of a criminal for the crime.[14] Several chapters, such as 15 and 90, of the parva claim the proper function of a ruler is to rule according to dharma; he should lead a simple life and he should not use his power to enjoy the luxuries of life.[1][3] Shanti parva defines dharma not in terms of rituals or any religious precepts, but in terms of that which increases Satya (truth), Ahimsa (non-violence), Asteya (non-stealing of property created by another), Shoucham (purity), and Dama (restraint).[15][16] Chapter 109 of Shanti parva asserts rulers have a dharma (duty, responsibility) to help the upliftment of all living beings. The best law, claims Shanti parva, is one that enhances the welfare of all living beings, without injuring any specific group.[1][17]

The fowler and the pigeons[edit]

The fable of the fowler and the pigeons is recited in Shanti parva.

Shanti parva recites many symbolic fables and tales,[18] one of which is the fable of the fowler and the pigeons. This fable is recited in Chapters 143 through 147, by Bhisma to Yudhisthira, as a lesson on virtue, profit and desire:[19] A wicked fowler made his living by capturing wild birds in the forest, by cruel means, and selling them for their meat or as pets. One day, while he was in the forest, a cold storm blew in. The storm knocked down a pigeon, who lay helpless on ground, trembling in cold. The fowler picked up the pigeon and put her in a cage to sell her. The storm continued. The fowler decided to take shelter and spent the cold night under a tree. As he sat under a huge tree, he loudly called on all deities and creatures abode the tree to allow him shelter as he is their guest. On one of the branches of the tree lived a pigeon family, whose lady-of-the-nest had gone out for food but not returned. The male pigeon lamented how he missed his wife, cooing, "One's home is not a home, it is a wife that makes a home. Without my wife, my house is desolate. If my wife does not come back today, I do not want to live, for there is no friend like a wife."[4] That missing wife of lamenting pigeon was in the cage below.

The pigeon in the cage called out her pigeon husband, and asked him not to worry about her or his own desire, but to treat the fowler as a guest to the best of his abilities. The fowler is cold and hungry, said the she-pigeon. Be hospitable to him, do not grieve for me. One should be kind to everyone, even those who have done you wrong, said the she-pigeon. The pigeon husband, so moved by his wife's request, flew down and welcomed the fowler. The pigeon asked what he could provide to make the fowler comfortable. The fowler said a warm fire could drive his cold away. So, the pigeon collected some dry leaves and set them ablaze.[4] The fire warmed up the fowler, who then told the male pigeon he was very hungry. The pigeon had no food to offer to his guest. So, the pigeon walked around the fire three times, then told the fowler to eat him, and the pigeon entered the fire to provide a meal for the fowler. The pigeon's compassion shook the fowler, who began reflecting on his life. The fowler resolved to be compassionate to all creatures. He silently released the female pigeon from the cage. She, who had just lost her pigeon husband in fire, was so deeply in love that she too walked into the fire. The fowler cried, and was overwhelmed with sadness for all the injury and pain he had caused to wild birds over the years.[1]

Critical reception[edit]

Scholars[20][21] have questioned the chronology and content of many chapters in Shanti Parva and its companion book the Anushasana Parva. These scholars ask whether these two books represent wisdom from ancient India, or were these chapters smuggled in to spread social and moral theories during India's medieval era or during second millennium AD.[22] Iyer, in 1923, compared different versions of Shanti Parva manuscripts found in east, west and south India, in Sanskrit and in different Indian languages. The comparison showed that while some chapters and verses on moral and ethical theories are found in all manuscripts, there are major inconsistencies between many parts of the manuscripts. Not only is the order of chapters different, large numbers of verses were missing, entirely different or somewhat inconsistent between the manuscripts. The most inconsistent sections were those relating to social customs, castes, and certain duties of kings. Iyer claims[23] these chapters were smuggled and interpolated into the Mahabharata, or the answers rewritten to suit regional agenda or views. Hiltebeitel similarly has questioned the chronology and authenticity of some sections in Shanti and Anushasana Parvas.[24]

Quotations and teachings[edit]

Rajadharma anushasana parva, Chapter 25:

Sorrow comes after happiness, and happiness after sorrow;
One does not always suffer sorrow, nor always enjoy happiness.

Only those who are stolid fools, and those who are masters of their souls, enjoy happiness here;
They, however, who occupy an intermediate position suffer misery.

Happiness and misery, prosperity and adversity, gain and loss, death and life, in their turn, visit all creatures;
The wise man, endued with equanimous soul would neither be puffed up with joy, nor be depressed with sorrow.

VyasaShanti Parva, Mahabharata Book xii.25.23-31[25]

Rajadharma anushasana parva, Chapter 56:

There is nothing which leads so much to the success of kings as Truth,
the king who is devoted to Truth enjoys happiness both here and hereafter.
Even to the Rishis, O king, Truth is the greatest wealth,
Likewise for the kings, there is nothing that so much creates confidence in them as Truth.

BhismaShanti Parva, Mahabharata Book xii.56.17-18[26]

Apaddharma anushasana parva, Chapter 138:

Nobody is nobody's friend,
nobody is nobody's wellwisher,
persons become friends or enemies only from motives of interest.

BhismaShanti Parva, Mahabharata Book xii.138.108[27]

Apaddharma anusasana parva, Chapter 142:

I do not instruct you regarding duty from what I have learned from the Vedas alone;
What I have told you is the result of wisdom and experience, it is the honey that the learned have gleaned.
Kings should collect wisdom from various sources,
One cannot go successfully in the world with the help of a one sided morality;
Duty must originate from understanding, the practices of the good should always be determined.
A king by the help of his understanding and guided by knowledge gathered from various sources,
should so arrange that moral laws may be observed.

Bhisma to YudhisthiraShanti Parva, Mahabharata Book xii.142.3-7[28]

Moksha dharma parva, Chapter 259:

All men who live on this earth, are filled with doubts regarding the nature of Righteousness.
What is this that is called Righteousness? Whence does Righteousness come?

YudhisthiraShanti Parva, Mahabharata Book xii.259.1-2[29]

Moksha dharma parva, Chapter 259:

Righteousness begets happiness as its fruit;
There is nothing superior to truth; Everything is supported by truth, and everything depends on truth.

One should not take other's properties, that is an eternal duty;
A thief fears everybody, he considers other people as sinful as himself;
A pure hearted person is always filled with cheerfulness, and has no fear from anywhere;
Such a person never sees his own misconduct in other persons.

A person should never do that to others, which he does not like to be done to him by others;
Whatever wishes one cherishes about his own self, one should certainly cherish regarding another.

The Creator ordained Virtue, gifting it with the power of holding the world together.

BhismaShanti Parva, Mahabharata Book xii.259.5-25[30]

Moksha dharma parva, Chapter 299:

There is no fixed time for the acquisition of righteousness. Death waits for no man. When man is constantly running towards the jaws of Death, the accomplishment of righteous acts is proper at all times. Like a blind man who, with attention, is capable of moving about his own house, the man of wisdom, with mind set on Yoga, succeeds in finding the track he should follow. (...) One who walketh along the track recommended by the understanding, earns happiness both here and hereafter.

ParāśaraShanti Parva, Mahabharata Book xii.299[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Shanti Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1903)
  2. ^ a b c d e f Shanti Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, Published by P.C. Roy (1890)
  3. ^ a b c S. N. Mishra (2003). Public governance and decentralisation, Vol. 1. Mittal Publications. p. 935. ISBN 81-7099-918-9. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j John Murdoch (1898), The Mahabharata - An English Abridgment, Christian Literature Society for India, London, pages 108-115
  5. ^ Sivakumar & Rao (2010), An integrated framework for values-based management – Eternal guidelines from Indian ethos, International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, 3(5), pages 503-524
  6. ^ Harrop Freeman (1959), An Introduction to Hindu Jurisprudence, The American Journal of Comparative Law, 8(1), pages 29-43
  7. ^ Alex Wynne, Book XII - Volume 3, The Clay Sanskrit Library, Mahabharata: 15-volume Set, ISBN 978-0-8147-9453-1, New York University Press, Bilingual Edition
  8. ^ Bibek Debroy, The Mahabharata : Volume 3, ISBN 978-0143100157, Penguin Books, page xxiii - xxiv of Introduction
  9. ^ John Murdoch, Caste: Its Supposed Origin: Its History; Its Effects: The Duty of Government, Hindus and Christians with respect to it and its prospects, p. 5, at Google Books
  10. ^ S. Garg, Political Ideas of Shanti Parva, The Indian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 65, No. 1 (Jan.-March, 2004), pages 77-86
  11. ^ John Muir, Metrical Translations from Sanskrit Writers, Oxford University, Trubner & Co., London, pages 260-264
  12. ^ Alain Daniélou (1993), Virtue, Success, Pleasure, and Liberation: The Four Aims of Life in the Tradition of Ancient India, ISBN 978-0892812189, Page 26
  13. ^ Sarkar, B. K. (1921), The Hindu theory of the state, Political Science Quarterly, 36(1), pages 79-90; Sarkar, B. K. (1920), The Theory of Property, Law, and Social Order in Hindu Political Philosophy, International Journal of Ethics, 30(3), pages 311-325; Sarkar, B. K. (1919), Hindu theory of international relations, The American Political Science Review, 13(3), pages 400-414
  14. ^ Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator), Chapter 267, Shanti Parva The Mahabharata, Published by P.C. Roy (1890), page 385
  15. ^ Suda, J. P. (1970), DHARMA: ITS NATURE AND ROLE IN ANCIENT INDIA, The Indian Journal of Political Science, pages 356-366
  16. ^ Muniapan & Dass (2008), Corporate social responsibility: A philosophical approach from an ancient Indian perspective, International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, 1(4), pages 408-420
  17. ^ D. Hema (2010), Good Governance Models from Ancient India and Their Contemporary Relevance: A Study, IBA Journal of Management & Leadership, Volume 2, Issue 1, pages 75-88
  18. ^ Horace Hayman Wilson, Essays on Sanskrit literature, Volume I (Editor: Reinhold Rost), p. 286, at Google Books
  19. ^ Shanti Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1903), page 220-222
  20. ^ E. Washburn Hopkins, Epic Chronology, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 24 (1903), pages 7-56
  21. ^ V.V. Iyer (1922), Notes on a study of the preliminary chapters of The Mahabharata - An attempt to separate genuine from spurious matter, Ramaswami Sastrulu & Sons, Madras
  22. ^ VISHNU S. SUKTHANKAR (1933), The Mahabharata, Critically Edited Version A history of the debate of various conflicting versions of the Mahabharata, University of Goettingen Archives, Germany, Prologue section
  23. ^ V.V. Iyer (1922), Notes on a study of the preliminary chapters of The Mahabharata - An attempt to separate genuine from spurious matter, Ramaswami Sastrulu & Sons, Madras, pages 270-282, also see pages 1-19
  24. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel, (2001) Rethinking the Mahabharata: A Reader's Guide to the Education of the Dharma King, ISBN 0-226-34054-6, University of Chicago Press, see Chapter 1, Introduction
  25. ^ Shanti Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1903), Chapter 25, page 30-31 Abridged
  26. ^ Shanti Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1903), Chapter 56, page 78
  27. ^ Shanti Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1903), Chapter 138, page 202
  28. ^ Shanti Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1903), page 218
  29. ^ Shanti Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1903), page 385
  30. ^ Shanti Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1903), page 385-386
  31. ^ Mahabharat, Shanti Parva: Part II. Section CCXCIX p. 367-368.

External links[edit]