Shanty town

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"Shantytown" and "Hutment" redirect here. For the created gold-mining town in New Zealand, see Shantytown, New Zealand.
Shanty town in Soweto, South Africa, 2005

A shantytown is a settlement of plywood, corrugated metal, sheets of plastic, and cardboard boxes. They are usually found on the periphery of cities, public parks, or near railroad tracks, rivers, lagoons or city trash dump sites. Sometimes called a squatter, informal or spontaneous settlement, shanty towns often lack proper sanitation, safe water supply, electricity, hygienic streets, or other basic human necessities.

Shanty towns are mostly found in developing nations, but also in some parts of developed nations.[1][2][3]

Etymology[edit]

A shanty town in Jakarta, Indonesia

Shanty is probably from Canadian French chantier, a winter station established for the organization of lumberjacks.[4]

Hutment means an "encampment of huts". When the term is used by the military, it means "temporary living quarters specially built by the army for soldiers".[5] The term is also a synonym for shanty town, particularly in developing countries.

Features[edit]

Shanty towns sometimes have an active informal economy, such as garbage sorting, pottery making, textiles and leather works. This allows the poor to earn a livelihood. The above shanty town image is from Ezbet Al Nakhl, in Cairo Egypt, where garbage is sorted manually. Residential area is visible at the top of the image.

Since construction is informal and unguided by urban planning, there is typically no formal street grids, numbered or named streets; they lack some or all basic public services such as sewage network, electricity, safe running water, rain water drainage, garbage removal, access to public transport, insect and disease control services. Even if these resources are present, they are likely to be disorganized, unreliable and poorly maintained. Shanty towns also tend to lack basic services present in more formally organized settlements, including policing, mail delivery, medical services and fire fighting. Fires are a particular danger for shanty towns not only for the lack of fire fighting stations and the difficulty fire trucks have traversing the absence of formal street grids,[6] but also because of the high density of buildings and flammability of materials used in construction[7] A sweeping fire on the hills of Shek Kip Mei, Hong Kong, in late 1953 left 53,000 squatter dwellers homeless, prompting the colonial government to institute a resettlement estate system.

Shanty towns have high rates of crime, suicide, drug use and disease. However, Swiss journalist Georg Gerster has noted (with specific reference to the invasões of Brasilia) that "squatter settlements [as opposed to slums], despite their unattractive building materials, may also be places of hope, scenes of a counter-culture, with an encouraging potential for change and a strong upward impetus". [8] Stewart Brand has also written, more recently, that "squatter cities are Green. They have maximum density—­a million people per square mile in Mumbai—­and minimum energy and mate­rial use. People get around by foot, bicycle, rickshaw, or the universal shared taxi ... Not everything is efficient in the slums, though. In the Brazilian favelas where electricity is stolen and therefore free, Jan Chipchase from Nokia found that people leave their lights on all day. In most slums recycling is literally a way of life." (2010)[9]

Examples[edit]

A shanty town near Cape Town, South Africa. These slums were built by the apartheid era government to segregate people by color and ethnic origin. The above Khayelitsha Township is Africa's largest, with shanty homes served with disorganized electrical lines, with one shed showing a car parked inside.

Developing countries[edit]

Shanty towns are present in a number of countries. The largest shanty town in Asia is Orangi in Karachi, Pakistan [10]

While shanty towns are less common in Europe, the growing influx of illegal immigrants have fueled shantytowns in cities commonly used as a point of entry into the EU, including Athens and Patras in Greece.[11] In francophone countries, shanty towns are referred to as bidonvilles (French for "can town" - can being a reference to tin metal); such countries include Tunisia and Haiti.

Other countries with shanty towns include South Africa (where they are often called Townships) or imijondolo, Kenya (including the Kibera and Mathare slums), the Philippines (often called squatter areas), Venezuela (where they are known as barrios), Brazil (favelas), Argentina (villas miseria), West Indies such as Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago (where they are known as Shanty town), and Peru (where they are known as "young towns"). In Russia, shanty towns - called truščóba (трущобы) - are present in smaller cities as well in Chelobityevo outside Moscow.[12][13] There is also a major shanty town population in countries such as Bangladesh,[14] and the People's Republic of China.[15][16][17]

Developed countries[edit]

Although shantytowns are less common in developed countries, there are some cities that have them. In Madrid, Spain, a low-class neighborhood named Cañada Real (which is considered a shanty town) has no formal education system, professional nurseries or modern health clinics and is considered the largest slum in Europe.[18] In Portugal, shanty towns known as "barracas" or "bairros de lata" are made up of immigrants from former Portuguese African colonies and Gypsies from Eastern Europe. Most of them are located in Lisbon Metropolitan Area. In the United States, some cities such as Newark and Oakland have witnessed the creation of tent cities. Other settlements in developed countries that are comparable to shanty towns include the Colonias near the border with Mexico, and bidonvilles in France, which may exist in the peripheries of some cities.

Development[edit]

Shanty towns may be large or small settlements. Above shanty town is in Hong Kong.

While most shanty towns begin as precarious establishments haphazardly thrown together without basic social and civil services, over time, some have undergone a certain amount of development. Often the residents themselves are responsible for the major improvements.[19] Community organizations sometimes working alongside NGO's, private companies, and the government, set up connections to the municipal water supply, pave roads, and build local schools.[19] Some of these shanties have become middle class suburbs. One such extreme example is the Los Olivos Neighborhood of Lima, Peru. The Megaplaza shopping mall, one of Lima's largest, along with gated communities, casinos, and even plastic surgery clinics, are just a few of many developments that have transformed what used to be a decrepit shanty.[19] A few Brazilian favelas have also seen improvements in recent years, enough so to attract tourists who flock to catch a glimpse of the colorful lifestyle perched atop Rio de Janeiro's highlands.[20] Development occurs over a long period of time and newer towns still lack basic services. Nevertheless there has been a general trend whereby shanties undergo gradual improvements, rather than relocation to even more distant parts of a metropolis and replacement by gated communities constructed over their ruins.[21] Many shanty towns are starting to implement composting toilets[22] and solar panels,[23] also many of the people living in slums may have access to cell phones and even the internet.[24] However, in spite of all this, inequality associated with shanty towns has only increased over time.[25]

An impoverished American family living in a shanty during the Great Depression. Photographed by Dorothy Lange in 1936
Shanty town along the Martin Pena Canal in Puerto Rico, United States (1970s).[1]

Regional names[edit]

Chabolas a plomo - shanty town perched on the side of a steep mountain in Latin America.
Dharavi shanty town in Mumbai, India.

Specific places[edit]

Shanty town by a canal in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

People and organizations[edit]

A shanty town in Manila, Philippines.

Related concepts[edit]

A riverside shanty town near Dhaka, Bangladesh.

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b What America Looked Like: Puerto Rican Slums in the Early 1970s The Atlantic (July 17, 2012)
  2. ^ Greek immigration crisis spawns shanty towns and squats Nick Squires and Paul Anast, The Telegraph, (September 7, 2009)
  3. ^ Showdown Looms Over Europe's Largest Shantytown LAUREN FRAYER, National Public Radio (Washington DC), April 27, 2012
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online
  5. ^ "Hutment". Free Dictionary. Retrieved April 6, 2013. 
  6. ^ Jorge Hernández. "Sólo tres unidades de bomberos atienden 2 mil barrios de Petare" (in Spanish). 
  7. ^ See the report on shack fires in South Africa by Matt Birkinshaw [1] as well as the wider collection of articles in fires in shanty towns at [2]
  8. ^ Georg Gerster, Flights of Discovery: The Earth from Above, 1978, London: Paddington, p. 116
  9. ^ Stewart Brand, "Stewart Brand on New Urbanism and squatter communities", The New Urban Network, reprinted from Whole Earth Discipline, Penguin,
  10. ^ 5 biggest slums in the world Daniel Tovrov, IB Times (December 9, 2011)
  11. ^ Squires, Nick; Anast, Paul (September 7, 2009). "Greek immigration crisis spawns shanty towns and squats". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  12. ^ For Russia’s Migrants, Economic Despair Douses Flickers of Hope MICHAEL SCHWIRTZ, New York Times (February 9, 2009)
  13. ^ Moscow's Muslim Slums Now Breeding Grounds for Despair Moscow Times (2010)
  14. ^ Health and Social Conditions in the Dhaka Slums.
  15. ^ Demolitions limit slum villages to city outskirts.
  16. ^ "Slums" sting Chinese cities, hamper building of harmonious society.
  17. ^ Jane Kelly, Review: Planet of Slums, By Mike Davis, Verso, 2006, £15.99. Socialist Outlook: SO/10 - Summer 2006.
  18. ^ Fotheringham, Alasdair (November 27, 2011). "In Spain's heart, a slum to shame Europe". The Independent (London). 
  19. ^ a b c "Some 'Young Towns' in Lima Not So Young Anymore", Council on Hemispheric Affairs, August 16, 2011.
  20. ^ Clarke, Felicity (May 16, 2011). "Favela Tourism Provides Entrepreneurial Opportunities in Rio". Forbes. 
  21. ^ Informality: Re-Viewing Latin American Cities, Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanitie.
  22. ^ Bill Gates' foundation puts money on solar-powered toilet - AlertNet
  23. ^ Youth Bring Low-Cost Solar Panels to Kenyan Slum | Worldwatch Institute
  24. ^ "IT for schools,Schools,Education,Technology,UK news,Online learning e-learning (Education)". The Guardian (London). May 8, 2001. 
  25. ^ "UN study says wealth gap in Latin America increases- A study by the United Nations suggests the gap between the rich and the poor in much of Latin America is widening.". BBC News. August 21, 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  26. ^ "SA’s post-apartheid failure in squatter camps". MoneyWeb. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 

External links[edit]