A shared universe is a fictional universe in which multiple works are set. One or more authors may contribute works to a shared universe. The works within the universe may share characters, settings, and other story elements, with or without continuity. Shared universes can be found in literature, comic books, films, television, anime and manga and are most commonly seen in fantasy, science fiction, comedy and a few more genres.
- 1 Definitions
- 2 Characteristics
- 3 Expansion of existing material
- 4 Original settings
- 5 List of shared universes
- 5.1 Books
- 5.2 Films
- 5.3 Television
- 5.4 Anime and manga
- 5.5 Games
- 5.6 Crossover-based universes
- 6 See also
- 7 References
There is no formal definition of when the appearance of fictional characters in separate works constitutes a shared universe. Fiction in some media, such as most television programs and many comic book titles, is understood to require the contribution of multiple authors and does not by itself create a shared universe. Incidental appearances, such as that of d'Artagnan in Cyrano de Bergerac, may instead be considered literary cameo appearances. More substantial interaction between characters from different sources is often marketed as a crossover. While crossovers occur in a shared universe, not all crossovers are intended to merge their settings' back-stories and are instead used for marketing, parody, or to explore "what-if" scenarios.
The modern definition of copyright, especially under United States copyright law, considers the expansion of a previous work's setting or characters to be a derivative work. This often necessitates licensing agreements for new material being considered for publication (unless the author is the same). For this reason, fan fiction and other amateur works written in established settings without permission are sometimes distinguished from shared universe writings or described as employing a "stolen universe". However, fair use claims have been raised and not all authors believe that fan fiction should be distinguished from other literature in this manner.
In a process similar to brand licensing, the intellectual property owners of established fictional settings at times allow others to author new material and create an expanded universe. Such franchises, generally based on television programs or film, allow for the creation and distribution of novels, video games, original sound recordings and other media based on the original product. However, not all shared universe settings are simply the expansion or combination of pre-existing material by new authors. At times, an author or group of authors engineer a setting specifically for development by multiple authors, often through collaboration.
Continuity methods and issues
It can become difficult for writers contributing to a shared universe to maintain consistency and avoid contradicting details in earlier works, especially when a shared universe grows to be very large. The version deemed "official" by the author or company controlling the setting is known as canon. Not all shared universes have a controlling entity capable of or interested in determining canonicity, and not all fans agree with these determinations when they occur. A fanon may instead find some degree of consensus within the setting's fandom.
Some writers, in an effort to ensure that a canon can be established and to keep details of the setting believable, employ tools to correct contradictions and errors that result from multiple contributors working over a long period of time. One such tool is retconning, short for "retroactive continuity", which resolves errors in continuity that came about through previously-written conflicting material. While most retcons serve to preserve continuity, a more severe form of retcon involves a wholesale rewrite of the groundwork for the entire setting.
Contributors to expanded universes, also known as tie-in writers, have sometimes been stereotyped as "hacks" because such writing is perceived as less creative or of consistently poor quality. These stereotypes have been disputed by authors who consider contributing to a larger work "intellectually demanding." The inclusion of professional and award-winning authors in this category have also done much to change public perception of writing in a shared universe.
Readers may also object when a story or series is integrated into a shared universe, feeling it "requir[es] one hero's fans to buy other heroes' titles", or leads to mischaracterizations and inappropriate comparisons.
Expansion of existing material
In 1941, writer Gardner Fox at All-American Comics (later part of DC Comics) created the Justice Society of America in All-Star Comics #3, credited with being the first superhero team-up and laying the groundwork for the DC Universe, the first comic book shared universe. By 1961, Marvel Comics writer and editor Stan Lee, working with artists Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko, merged the bulk of the publisher's comics characters into the Marvel Universe. Both settings have suffered from the creative difficulties of maintaining a complex shared universe handled by large numbers of writers and editors. DC has substantially altered its in-universe chronology several times, in series such as Crisis on Infinite Earths in 1985, Zero Hour in 1994, and Infinite Crisis in 2005. As of 2007, Marvel has rebooted its continuity only once, in Spider-Man: One More Day. They instead set stories in an increasing number of alternate realities, each with an assigned number in a greater "multiverse". DC and Marvel have also periodically co-published series in which their respective characters meet and interact. These intercompany crossovers have typically been written as self-limiting events that avoid implying that the DC Universe and Marvel Universe co-exist. Exceptions include the twenty-four comics released under the metafictional imprint Amalgam Comics in 1996, depicting a shared universe populated by hybridizations of the two companies' characters. Marvel has since referred to this as part of its setting's greater multiverse by labeling it Earth-692.
The Star Wars franchise takes a unique view regarding the canon properties of its expanded universe, introducing a four-tier system based on compatibility with the original six films. Star Trek canon is less well-defined, generally excluding not only licensed works such as books and video games and acknowledging that "even events in some of the movies have been called into question". Both franchises have blurred the lines between canon and non-canon content by adopting unofficial material into later official productions. 
The spin-off media extending of the universe originating in Doctor Who is particularly complex due to the permissive stance on licensing and canon taken by the BBC. This expanded universe has relatively little consistency given its division into audio plays produced by Big Finish and the BBC, the New Adventures universe novel, or a universe based on comics published in Doctor Who Magazine and other publications.
The expansion of existing material into a shared universe is not restricted to settings licensed from movies and television. For example, Larry Niven opened his Known Space setting to other writers initially because he considered his lack of military experience to prevent him from adequately describing the wars between mankind and the Kzinti. The degree to which he has made the setting available for other writers became a topic of controversy, when Elf Sternberg created an erotic short story set in Known Space following an author's note from Niven indicating that "[i]f you want more Known Space stories, you'll have to write them yourself". Niven has since clarified that his setting is still to be used only "under restricted circumstances and with permission", which Niven granted to the several authors of the Man-Kzin Wars series. By contrast, author Eric Flint has edited and published collaborations with fan fiction writers directly, expanding his 1632 series.
A setting may also be expanded in a similar manner after the death of its creator, although this posthumous expansion does not meet some strict definitions of a shared universe. One such example is August Derleth's development of the Cthulhu Mythos from the writings of H. P. Lovecraft, an approach whose result is considered by some to be "completely dissimilar" to Lovecraft's own works. Less controversial posthumous expansions include Ruth Plumly Thompson's and later authors' sequels to L. Frank Baum's Oz stories and the further development of Isaac Asimov's Foundation universe by Greg Bear, Gregory Benford, and David Brin.
Although DC and Marvel's successful shared universe approaches to comics have set them apart from competitors in the industry, other companies have attempted similar models. Valiant Comics and Crossgen both produced titles primarily set from their inception in a single, publisher-wide shared universe, known respectively as Unity and the Sigilverse.
Many other published works of this nature take the form of a series of short-story anthologies with occasional standalone novels. Examples include Robert Lynn Asprin's Thieves' World, C. J. Cherryh's Merovingen Nights and Janet Morris' Heroes in Hell.
Role-playing games are inherently designed to include some aspects of the shared universe concept, as individual games are derived from the core material. Campaign settings, such as Dungeons & Dragons's Faerûn, Dragonlance and Eberron, provide a more detailed world in which novels and other related media are additionally set. Living campaigns, including the RPGA's Living Greyhawk or the AEG-sanctioned Heroes of Rokugan, provide an opportunity for individual games hosted worldwide to take part in a single continuity.
The influence of the Internet on collaborative and interactive fiction has also resulted in a large number of amateur shared universe settings. Amateur authors have created shared universes by contributing to mailing lists, story archives and Usenet. One of the earliest of these settings, SFStory, saw its spin-off setting Superguy cited as illustrative of the potential of the Internet. Another example is the furry-themed Tales from the Blind Pig created at the Transformation Story Archive, which differs from many amateur settings both by having an organized effort to maintain consistent canon and by having seen some limited publication. Other early examples include the Dargon Project and Devilbunnies.
At least one publisher has introduced a division specifically for encouraging and handling shared universe fiction.
- Thomas Hardy's "Wessex"
- L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz series
- H. P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos
- Agatha Christie's universe
- J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium comprising The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion
- Isaac Asimov
- Frank Herbert's Dune
- Arkady and Boris Strugatsky's Noon Universe
- David Eddings
- Larry Niven's Known Space
- Sime – Gen Universe by Jacqueline Lichtenberg
- C. J. Cherryh
- Janet Morris's Heroes in Hell
- Stephen King's novels and short stories
- Eric Flint's Assiti Shards series
- Sharon Lee and Steve Miller's Liaden universe
- David Brin's Uplift Universe
- David Weber's Honorverse
- S. M. Stirling's Nantucket/Emberverse series
- Simon R. Green's Deathstalker series
- All of Bret Easton Ellis's novels share places timelines and characters including Camden, a fictional college
- Rick Riordan's Percy Jackson & the Olympians (its spin-off The Heroes of Olympus) and The Kane Chronicles
- J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter
- R. Scott Bakker's The Prince of Nothing and The Aspect-Emperor
- David Mitchell's universe explained in his novels Black Swan Green and The Bone Clocks
- Jim Butcher's The Dresden Files
- Joe Hill's universe comprising his novels and other works
- Cassandra Clare's The Shadowhunter Chronicles
- Erin Hunter's Warriors
- Brandon Sanderson's "Cosmere" includes Elantris, The Stormlight Archive and other works
- William Faulkner's "Yoknapatawpha County"
- DC Universe
- Marvel Universe
- Image Universe
- Valiant Universe
- CrossGen Universe/Sigilverse
- 2000 AD and Judge Dredd
- Donald Duck universe
A film universe is a derivative of the shared universe that applies to films. Notable examples of the film universe include:
- Universal Monsters
- The Showa era of Toho's daikaiju films, e.g. Godzilla and Mothra
- It also includes the television series Zone Fighter
- The original Superman films starring Christopher Reeve, alongside Supergirl and Superman Returns.
- Alien, Predator, Alien vs. Predator and Prometheus
- Ghostbusters and its the sequel; followed by a video game and related media.
- Bongy Westphall Universe
- Kevin Smith's View Askewniverse
- Most of Quentin Tarantino's movies, including Reservoir Dogs, Pulp Fiction and Django Unchained.
- The Stargate franchise comprising the original film and related media, including:
- X-Men and the Fantastic Four reboot 
- Spy Kids and Machete
- Daredevil and Elektra
- The Librarian
- Transformers 
- The Marvel Cinematic Universe, composed of feature films, short films, television series and other related media
- The film Legion followed by the television series Dominion
- DC Comics' new universe composed of Man of Steel, Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, and future Justice League films
- Valiant Comics 
- The flim Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius, followed by two spin-off series:
- Most of the DC Universe Animated Original Movies take place in different universes, with the exception of:
- Marvel's Heroes United films featuring Iron Man in companion of Hulk and Captain America
- Guiding Light and other sister shows:
- Jim Henson's The Muppets and Sesame Street
- 77 Sunset Strip, Bourbon Street Beat, Hawaiian Eye and Surfside 6
- Coronation Street, Emmerdale, Grange Hill, Brookside, EastEnders and Hollyoaks
- The Beverly Hillbillies, Petticoat Junction,Green Acres and Hogan's Heroes
- General Hospital, The Young Marrieds, One Life to Live, All My Children, Ryan's Hope, Loving, The City and web series What If...
- The Whoniverse, comprising Doctor Who, Torchwood, The Sarah Jane Adventures, K-9 and related media.
- Batman (including its spin-off film) and The Green Hornet
- The Star Trek, universe comprising the original series and its four spin-off television series and 12 movies
- Dragnet, Adam-12, Emergency! and Sierra
- The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Rhoda, Phyllis and Lou Grant
- The "Toei tokusatsu universe" comprising Kamen Rider, Kikaider, Super Sentai and Metal Hero
- Cannon and Barnaby Jones
- Battlestar Galactica (1978-1980; rebooted in 2004)
- Diff'rent Strokes, The Facts of Life and Hello, Larry
- The Dukes of Hazzard and spin-off Enos
- Followed by the film Moonrunners
- Magnum, P.I., Simon & Simon. Whiz Kids, Murder, She Wrote and The Law & Harry McGraw
- Cheers, The Tortellis, Wings, Mad About You, The John Larroquette Show, Frasier, Friends, Caroline in the City, The Single Guy and Joey
- The Cosby Show and spin-off A Different World
- The Golden Girls, Empty Nest, Nurses and The Golden Palace
- L.A. Law and Civil Wars
- Matlock, Mission: Impossible, Mannix, Jake and the Fatman, Diagnosis: Murder and Promised Land
- Full House, Perfect Strangers, Family Matters, Step by Step, Boy Meets World, Meego and Girl Meets World
- The Law & Order franchise
- Power Rangers, Masked Rider and Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation
- The X-Files, Millennium and The Lone Gunmen
- NYPD Blue, Public Morals and Brooklyn South
- Walker, Texas Ranger and Sons of Thunder
- ER, Third Watch and Medical Investigation
- JAG, First Monday, NCIS, Hawaii Five-0 and Scorpion
- Everybody Loves Raymond and The King of Queens
- The Pretender and Profiler
- The Practice, Ally McBeal, Gideon's Crossing, Boston Public and Boston Legal
- The Buffyverse, comprising Buffy the Vampire Slayer, spin-off Angel and related media
- Dawson's Creek and spin-off Young Americans
- The CSI franchise comprising CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, and three spin-offs (Miami, NY and Cyber).
- Band of Brothers and The Pacific
- Crossing Jordan and Las Vegas
- The Firefly franchise comprising the original series, followed by the film Serenity and other related media
- Smallville (followed by a comic book series)
- Disney Channel sitcoms produced by It's a Laugh Productions
- One Tree Hill and Life Unexpected
- Nickelodeon sitcoms produced by Dan Schneider: Drake & Josh, Zoey 101, iCarly, Victorious, Sam & Cat and Henry Danger
- Grey's Anatomy and spin-off Private Practice
- Prison Break and Breakout Kings
- Bones and spin-off The Finder
- Supernatural and proposed spin-off Supernatural: Bloodlines
- Criminal Minds, spin-off Criminal Minds: Suspect Behavior and upcoming spin-off Criminal Minds: Beyond Borders
- Eureka, Warehouse 13 and Alphas
- Breaking Bad and Better Call Saul
- Flashpoint and The Listener
- The Vampire Diaries and spin-off The Originals
- Pretty Little Liars and spin-offs Pretty Dirty Secrets and Ravenswood
- The Walking Dead and upcoming spin-off Fear the Walking Dead
- All seasons of American Horror Story shared the same timeline 
- Arrow, spin-off The Flash and an upcoming spin-off featuring various characters from both series, e.g. The Atom, Captain Cold, Heat Wave, etc.
- It will include an animated series based on Vixen
- Penny Dreadful
An animated universe is a derivative of the shared universe that applies to animated works, including animated television series and films, which share the same characters and continuity with each other. It may also derive from the characters and continuity of previous literary serial works, including comics, and thus may be termed the same as the literary work it was derived from. Notable examples of the animated universe include:
- Looney Tunes, Merrie Melodies, and Scooby Doo
- Several Hanna-Barbera cartoons have also shared the same universe:
- The "Trumptonshire Trilogy" comprising Camberwick Green, Trumpton and Chigley
- Masters of the Universe, which included He-Man and She-Ra in the 1980s
- Series produced by Sunbow Entertainment, based on Hasbro toys:
- The Real Ghostbusters and Extreme Ghostbusters
- DuckTales, Darkwing Duck, Goof Troop, Raw Toonage, Bonkers and Quack Pack
- Tiny Toon Adventures (and spin-off The Plucky Duck Show), Animaniacs, Pinky and the Brain (and spin-off Pinky, Elmyra & the Brain) and Freakazoid!
- Rugrats (and spin-off All Grown Up!), The Wild Thornberrys and Rocket Power
- The DC animated universe
- X-Men, Fantastic Four, Iron Man, Spider-Man and The Incredible Hulk (1994-1997)
- Space Ghost Coast to Coast, Aqua Teen Hunger Force, The Brak Show and Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law
- Dexter's Laboratory and The Powerpuff Girls
- Cow and Chicken and I Am Weasel
- Recess, The Proud Family, Kim Possible, Lilo & Stitch and American Dragon: Jake Long
- Family Guy, American Dad! and The Cleveland Show (1999–present)
- The Grim & Evil franchise, comprising the series The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy and Evil Con Carne
- Avatar: The Last Airbender and spin-off/sequel The Legend of Korra
- Ben 10 and The Secret Saturdays
- Handy Manny and Special Agent Oso
- Wolverine and the X-Men and The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes! (2009-2013)
- Transformers: Prime, Transformers: Rescue Bots and Transformers: Robots in Disguise
- Secret Mountain Fort Awesome, Uncle Grandpa and Steven Universe
- Ultimate Spider-Man, Avengers Assemble and Hulk and the Agents of S.M.A.S.H. (2012–present)
Anime and manga
Japan has also created many animated universes:
- Akira Toriyama's various serious including Dr. Slump, Dragon Ball and his other one-shot manga series (1979-2007)
- Gundam "metaseries" (1979–present)
- Mazinger has crossed over with other robot fighter anime such as Devilman, Getter Robo and Grendizer
- The Scramble Wars universe includes AD Police, Bubblegum Crisis, Gall Force and Riding Bean
- Super Dimension series
- The Brave series of the 90s particularly had GaoGaiGar spawning Betterman in the same universe
- Gokinjo Monogatari and its spinoff Paradise Kiss
- Outlaw Star and Angel Links (1998-1999)
- Higurashi When They Cry and Umineko: When They Cry have a character in common
- Fate/stay and Tsukihime have a character in common, and most other works by Type-Moon and stories by Kinoko Nasu have more or less distant links between them.
- Reki Kawahara's universe consists of Sword Art Online and Accel World
- The CLAMP group's series including Cardcaptor Sakura, Tsubasa Chronicle and xxxHolic among others
- Dijiko and Puchiko of Di Gi Charat are also characters in Cromartie High School (episode 25)
- A Certain Magical Index and its spin-offs A Certain Scientific Railgun and A Certain Scientific Accelerator
- Sekaiichi Hatsukoi is set in the same universe as Junjou Romantica, created by Shungiku Nakamura.
- One Piece is set in the same universe as one of its author's, Eiichiro Oda, previous work, the One-Shot Monsters
- Detective Conan and Magic Kaito
- Transformers: Unicron Trilogy (Armada, Energon and Cybertron)
- Grand Theft Auto and Manhunt by Rockstar Games
- Half-Life and Portal by Valve Corporation
- Tomb Raider, Hitman, Legacy of Kain, and Kane & Lynch by Square Enix (Eidos and IO Interactive)
- Eve Online by CCP Games
- Dead or Alive and the Ninja Gaiden reboot by Tecmo
- Dynasty Warriors, Samurai Warriors and Warriors Orochi by Koei
- King's Field and Demon's Souls by From Software
- The Marathon Trilogy and Pathways into Darkness by Bungie
- Hero Universe by Hero Games
- Mario, Donkey Kong, Yoshi and Wario
- The Legend of Zelda
- Kid Icarus
- Star Fox
- Rayman and spin-off Raving Rabbids
- Tom Clancy's gaming universe comprising Ghost Recon, Splinter Cell and H.A.W.X
- Assassin's Creed, Far Cry and Watch Dogs
- Sonic the Hedgehog
- Sega AM2's Virtua series (Virtua Fighter, Virtua Cop, Daytona USA, Fighting Vipers and Shenmue)
- Samba de Amigo
- Space Channel
- Crazy Taxi
- Jet Set Radio
- Alex Kidd
- Skies of Arcadia
- Super Monkey Ball
- Golden Axe
- Streets of Rage
- NiGHTS and Burning Rangers
- Street Fighter, Final Fight, Captain Commando, Saturday Night Slam Masters, Rival Schools, Strider and Darkstalkers
- The Mega Man franchise
- The Simpsons, Futurama, and Family Guy
- Disney's House of Mouse
- Once Upon a Time and Once Upon a Time in Wonderland
- Famicom Jump: Hero Retsuden and Famicom Jump II: Saikyō no Shichinin
- Compati Hero series (crossover between Ultraman, Kamen Rider and Gundam)
- Super Robot Wars
- The King of Fighters
- Iron Man and X-O Manowar in Heavy Metal
- Marvel vs. Capcom series (the first four games)
- Fighters Megamix
- Super Smash Bros.
- Capcom vs. SNK: Millennium Fight 2000 and Capcom vs. SNK 2: Mark of the Millennium 2001
- Kingdom Hearts (mixture between Disney, Final Fantasy, and The World Ends with You)
- Namco Super Wars
- DreamMix TV World Fighters
- Crash Bandicoot Purple: Ripto's Rampage and Spyro Orange: The Cortex Conspiracy
- Nicktoons: Freeze Frame Frenzy
- Sega Superstars
- Capcom Fighting Evolution
- Namco × Capcom, Project X Zone and Project X Zone 2
- NeoGeo Battle Coliseum
- Jump Super Stars and Jump Ultimate Stars
- Nicktoons Unite! series
- Battle Stadium D.O.N
- Cartoon Network Racing
- Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games
- Cross Edge
- Mortal Kombat vs. DC Universe
- Tatsunoko vs. Capcom: Ultimate All-Stars
- Cartoon Network Universe: FusionFall
- Lego Universe
- Poker Night at the Inventory and Poker Night 2
- Epic Mickey
- Cartoon Network: Punch Time Explosion
- Street Fighter X Tekken
- Pokémon Conquest (crossover between Pokémon and Nobunaga's Ambition)
- Street Fighter X Mega Man
- Disney Infinity
- J-Stars Victory VS
- Hyrule Warriors (mixture between The Legend of Zelda and Dynasty Warriors)
- Tekken X Street Fighter
- Shin Megami Tensei X Fire Emblem
- Heroes of the Storm
- Expanded universe
- Fictional crossover
- Fictional universe
- Intercompany crossover
- Media franchise
- Setting (narrative)
- Sister show
- Spin-off (media)
- Tommy Westphall Universe
- Wold Newton Universe
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