Shah Rukh Khan

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Shah Rukh Khan
Shahrukh Khan CE.jpg
Khan at the audio launch of Chennai Express (2013)
Born Shahrukh Khan
(1965-11-02) 2 November 1965 (age 48)
New Delhi, India[1]
Residence Mumbai, Maharashtra, India[2]
Occupation Actor, producer, television presenter
Years active 1988–present
Net worth Increase US $600 million (2014)[3]
Religion Islam
Spouse(s) Gauri Khan (m. 1991)
Children 3
Signature ShahRukh Khan Sgnature.jpg

Shah Rukh Khan also known as SRK (born Shahrukh Khan; 2 November 1965),[4] is an Indian actor, producer, television personality and philanthropist. Referred to in the media as "Baadshah of Bollywood" or "King Khan", he has appeared in over 50 Hindi films in genres including romance, action and comedy. His work in Bollywood has earned him numerous accolades, including fourteen Filmfare Awards from thirty nominations. His eighth Filmfare Best Actor Award put him in a tie for the most in that category. For his contribution to film, the Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 2005 and the Government of France awarded him the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2007, and later in 2014 the Légion d'honneur—France's highest civilian award. Khan was the second-richest actor in the world in 2014, with a net worth of US$600 million.

Khan started his career in theatre and appeared in several television series in the late 1980s. He made his Bollywood debut in 1992 with Deewana. Early in his career, Khan was recognised for his unconventional choice of portraying negative roles in films including Darr (1993), Baazigar (1993), and Anjaam (1994). He then rose to prominence by playing a series of roles in romantic comedies and dramas including Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995), Dil To Pagal Hai (1997), Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998), and Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001). Khan later earned wide critical acclaim in the drama Devdas (2002), for his portrayal of a NASA scientist in Swades (2004), as a hockey coach in Chak De! India (2007), and as the titular character in My Name Is Khan (2010). Thirteen of the films he has acted in have accumulated gross earnings of over INR1 billion (US$17 million) worldwide,[5] making him one of the most successful leading actors of Hindi cinema.[6]

Khan is currently co-chairman of the motion picture production company Red Chillies Entertainment and its subsidiaries, and is a co-owner of the Indian Premier League cricket team Kolkata Knight Riders. In 2007, he made his debut as a television presenter with the Star Plus game show Kaun Banega Crorepati. Media often label him "Brand SRK" because of his brand endorsement and entrepreneurship ventures. Khan has also been involved in philanthropic endeavours related to health care, relief funds, and children's education—for which he was honoured with UNESCO's Pyramide con Marni award in 2011. He is considered to be one of the biggest film stars in cinematic history and has a massive fan following; the Los Angeles Times described him as "the world's biggest movie star".[7] He regularly features in listings of the most influential people in Indian culture and in 2008, Newsweek named him one of the 50 most powerful people in the world.

Early life and background

Khan with his wife Gauri in 2012; they married before he began his film career

Khan was born on 2 November 1965 in New Delhi, India.[1] brought up in Mangalore for the first five years of his life.[8][a] His grandfather Ifthikar Ahmed served as chief engineer in Mangalore port in the 1960s.[10] His father Meer Taj Mohammed Khan, an ethnic Pashtun, was an Indian independence activist from Peshawar, British India (present-day Pakistan).[11] According to Khan, his paternal grandfather was born in Afghanistan.[12] Shahrukh Khan's father came to New Delhi from Qissa Khawani Bazaar in Peshawar before the 1947 partition of India.[13] His mother Lateef Fatima was the daughter of a senior government engineer.[14] Although she was reported to be the adopted daughter of Shah Nawaz Khan, a Major General in the Indian National Army, the army denied those reports.[15] According to Khan, his father was related to Shah Nawaz Khan. His parents met when his mother was involved in an auto accident and his father donated blood for her.[16] Khan described himself on Twitter as "half Hyderabadi (mother), half Pathan (father), some Kashmiri (grandmother)".[17]

Khan grew up in the Rajendra Nagar neighbourhood of Delhi.[18] Khan attended St. Columba's School where he received the school's highest award, the Sword of Honour.[19] He enrolled at Hansraj College (1985–1988) to earn his Bachelors degree in Economics, but spent much of his time at Delhi's "Theatre Action Group" (TAG),[20] where he studied acting under the mentorship of theatre director Barry John.[21] He started studying for a Masters Degree in Mass Communications at Jamia Millia Islamia, but left to pursue his career.[22] He also attended the National School of Drama, Delhi during his early career in Bollywood.[23] His father died of cancer when Khan was in his mid teens, and his mother died in 1990 after a prolonged illness.[24] The death of Khan's parents at an early age affected him greatly because he was very attached to them. He described these events as a motivator for his own work ethic.[25]

Khan moved to Mumbai in 1991.[26] He married Gauri Chibber, a Punjabi Hindu, in a traditional Hindu wedding ceremony on 25 October 1991.[27][28] According to Khan, while he strongly believes in Islam, he also values his wife's religion. At home, his children follow both religions; the Qur'an is situated next to the Hindu deities.[29] They have a son Aryan (born 1997) and a daughter Suhana (born 2000).[22] In 2013 they became parents of a third child named AbRam[30] through a surrogate mother.[31] Khan's older sister Shehnaz also lives with them in their Mumbai mansion named Mannat.[32]

Film career

1988–92: Television and film debut

Khan's first starring role was in Lekh Tandon's television series Dil Dariya, but because of production delays, the 1988 television series Fauji was his television debut. He played the leading role of Commando Abhimanyu Rai in the critically acclaimed show, which earned him mass recognition.[26][33] This led to starring roles in Aziz Mirza's television series Circus (1989–90) and Mani Kaul's miniseries Idiot (1991).[34] He also played a minor role in the made-for-television English-language film In Which Annie Gives It Those Ones (1989).[35] Khan's appearances in these serials led critics to compare his look and acting style with those of film actor Dilip Kumar.[36]

In 1991, Khan moved to Mumbai and received his first film offer, Hema Malini's directorial debut Dil Aashna Hai.[23][26] However, production delays meant his second film Deewana (1992), in which he starred alongside Divya Bharti as the second lead behind Rishi Kapoor, was released first.[37] Deewana became a box office hit and launched Khan's career in Bollywood.[38] He earned the Filmfare Best Male Debut Award for the performance.[39] In 1992, he played the titular character in the comedy Raju Ban Gaya Gentleman, which was his first of many collaborations with actress Juhi Chawla and became a box office hit.[40]

1993–94: The Anti-Hero

In 1993, Khan garnered appreciation for portraying negative roles; an obsessive lover and a murderer in the box office hits Darr and Baazigar respectively.[41] The "Encyclopedia of Hindi Cinema" said "he defied the image of the conventional hero in both these films and created his own version of the revisionist hero".[42] Darr marked the first of Khan's many collaborations with filmmaker Yash Chopra and his company Yash Raj Films. Khan's stammering and the use of the phrase, "I love you, K-k-k-Kiran," in Darr were popular with audiences.[43] Baazigar, in which Khan played an ambiguous avenger who murders his girlfriend, shocked Indian audiences with an unexpected violation of the standard Bollywood formula.[44] His performance in Baazigar, which would be his first of many appearances with actress Kajol, won him his first Filmfare Best Actor Award.[42]

In 1994, Khan played a love-struck musician in Kundan Shah's comedy-drama film Kabhi Haan Kabhi Naa; his performance earned him a Filmfare Critics Award for Best Performance. In a retrospective review in 2004 for Rediff.com, Sukanya Verma called it Khan's best performance.[45] In 2006, Khan considered this film to the best one he has acted in.[46] The same year, Khan played an obsessive lover in Anjaam, co-starring Madhuri Dixit. The film was a commercial failure[47] but Khan's performance earned him the Filmfare Best Villain Award.[42]

1995–97: The Romantic Hero

In 1995, Khan starred in two box-office hits. His first release was Rakesh Roshan's melodramatic thriller Karan Arjun, in which Khan was a part of an ensemble cast that included Salman Khan, Kajol, Mamta Kulkarni, Raakhee and Amrish Puri. The film, which dealt with the concept of reincarnation, became the second-highest grossing film of the year in India.[48] He followed that with Aditya Chopra's directorial debut, the romance Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge. Khan did not initially want to play the role of a loverboy, but this film is credited with establishing him as a romantic hero.[49] The film was a major critical and commercial success and became the year's top-grossing production in India and abroad; it was declared an "all time blockbuster" by Box Office India.[48][50] It remains the longest-running film in the history of Indian cinema; as of 2013, it was still playing at the Maratha Mandir theatre in Mumbai.[51] Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge has grossed over INR1.2 billion (US$20 million) worldwide.[52] The film won ten Filmfare Awards, and Khan's performance as a young NRI who falls in love with Kajol's character during a trip across Europe won him critical acclaim and his second Best Actor Award at Filmfare.[42] Raja Sen of Rediff.com said, "Khan gives a fabulous performance, redefining the lover for the 1990s with great panache. He's cool and flippant, but sincere enough to appeal to the [audience]. The performance itself is, like the best in the business, played well enough to come across as effortless, as non-acting."[53] Khan appeared in a total of seven films that year.

1996 was a disappointing year for Khan because the four films he appeared in were critical and commercial disappointments.[54] In 1997, however, his starring role in Subhash Ghai's social drama Pardes earned him accolades that included a nomination for Best Actor at Filmfare. Khan portrayed Arjun, a musician facing a moral dilemma. The film also featured Mahima Chaudhry and Apurva Agnihotri. Later that year, Khan starred opposite Juhi Chawla in Aziz Mirza's romantic comedy Yes Boss. Upon release, the film performed moderately well at the box-office.[55] Khan's final release of 1997 was Yash Chopra's blockbuster musical romance Dil to Pagal Hai. This film about a love triangle also featured Madhuri Dixit and Karishma Kapoor; it was Khan's second collaboration with Chopra. Khan portrayed Rahul, a stage director who falls in love with one of his new actresses. The film and his performance in it met with critical appreciation; Khan won his third Best Actor Award at Filmfare.[42][55] He appeared in several other productions that year, including the action thriller Koyla.

1998–2002: International recognition

In 1998, Khan appeared in three films and made one special appearance. His first release was Mahesh Bhatt's action comedy Duplicate opposite Juhi Chawla and Sonali Bendre. The film, in which he portrayed a double role, was the first of his many collaborations with Yash Johar's production company Dharma Productions. The film was a commercial failure.[56] The same year, Khan won critical praise for his performance in Mani Ratnam's acclaimed Dil Se.., the third in Ratnam's trilogy of terror films after Roja (1992) and Bombay (1995) that depict human relationships against a background of Indian politics.[57][58] Khan played the part of Amarkant "Amar" Varma, an All India Radio correspondent who develops an infatuation for a mysterious terrorist played by Manisha Koirala.[59] Rediff.com said, "Khan delivers a compelling performance ... He plays the part with taut restraint, and expresses exasperation superbly".[60] The film failed financially in India but was a commercial success overseas,[61] becoming the first Indian film to enter the top 10 at the United Kingdom box office.[62]

His final release of the year was Karan Johar's candyfloss romance Kuch Kuch Hota Hai, in which he starred with Kajol and Rani Mukerji. The film was declared an "all time blockbuster", and earned a worldwide gross of over INR1 billion (US$17 million).[63] Khan played the role of Rahul Khanna, a college student who falls in love with his best friend Anjali (Kajol) after the death of his wife Tina (Rani Mukerji). His performance won him the Best Actor award at the Filmfare Awards ceremony for the second consecutive year.[42] Khan's only release in 1999 was Baadshah, in which he starred opposite Twinkle Khanna. It underperformed at the box office but earned Khan a Filmfare Award nomination for Best Performance in a Comic Role.[64] Khan turned producer in 1999 in a collaboration with actress Juhi Chawla and director Aziz Mirza for a production company called Dreamz Unlimited.[65] The company's first production, Phir Bhi Dil Hai Hindustani (2000), starring Khan and Chawla, opened to mixed reviews from critics and audiences, and was a commercial failure.[66]

Khan's next release was Mansoor Khan's action drama Josh. The film starred Khan as the leader of a Christian gang in Goa, with Aishwarya Rai playing his twin sister. The film was a box office success.[66] Vinayak Chakravorty of Hindustan Times wrote that Khan "basks in his tailormade role, donning with panache the garb of a streetsmart tough".[67] Khan's next role was that of a Muslim archaeologist who is beaten to death during the unrest following the partition of India in Hey Ram. Directed by and co-starring Kamal Hassan, the film was critically acclaimed and was selected as India's entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the Oscars that year.[68] Khan dubbed for his own lines for the Tamil version of the film.[69] His final release of 2000 was Aditya Chopra's romantic drama Mohabbatein, which co-starred Amitabh Bachchan. The film was a major financial success,[66] in India and abroad.[61] Khan's performance as a music teacher was acclaimed by critics; Taran Adarsh of Bollywood Hungama called him "outstanding".[70] Khan was awarded his second Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor for his performance in Mohabbatein.[71]

Khan with co-star Aishwarya Rai at the home video launch of their film Devdas (2002)

In 2001, Khan produced and portrayed the title role in Santosh Sivan's historical epic Aśoka, a partly fictionalised account of the life of Ashoka the Great. The film was screened at the Venice Film Festival and the 2001 Toronto International Film Festival to a positive response,[72] but it performed poorly in Indian box offices.[73] The film, which also featured Kareena Kapoor, received generally positive reviews; Khan received favourable reactions for his performance. Rediff.com said, "he puts in a strong performance, in this well defined role".[74] Khan's next film was the family drama Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham, in which he reunited with Karan Johar as part of an ensemble cast that included Amitabh Bachchan, Jaya Bachchan, Kajol, Kareena Kapoor and Hrithik Roshan. The film was a major financial success in India[73] and tbecame he top-grossing Indian production of all time in the overseas market until 2006, earning over INR1.17 billion (US$19 million) worldwide.[52] Khan's portrayal of Rahul Raichand, an adopted son of Bachchan's character who disowns him for marrying a girl (Kajol) belonging to a lower socio-economic group than his family, met with wide public appreciation. Taran Adarsh said, "Khan sparkles yet again", and that he performed the part "with amazing poise, class, honesty and maturity".[75] It earned him another nomination for the Filmfare Best Actor Award. Khan said Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham was "a turning point in his career".[76]

In 2002, Khan played the title role in Sanjay Leela Bhansali's period romance Devdas. This was the third Hindi film adaptation of Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay's novel of the same name; it was the most expensive Bollywood film ever made at the time.[77] Khan starred as a rebellious alcoholic opposite Aishwarya Rai and Madhuri Dixit. Khan's performance was well received and earned him another Filmfare Best Actor Award.[39] The film became the highest-grossing film of the year in India and abroad, earning INR840 million (US$14 million) worldwide.[52][78][79] Devdas won numerous awards, including 10 Filmfare Awards (including 'Best Scene'),[80][81] and received a special screening at the 2002 Cannes Film Festival.[82] It also received a BAFTA nomination for Best Foreign Language Film,[83] and was India's entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the Oscars.[68] In an interview with Rediff.com, Khan said, "We stars live in this bubble where everyone is smiling at you, where everyone loves you. Somehow, you lose touch with real, deep down sadness. Working on this film put us in touch with that emotion."[23] After the release of the film, Khan took a six-month break from acting, during which he said he "just enjoyed the feeling of being sad".[23] Khan appeared in three other productions that year, including the long-delayed family drama Hum Tumhare Hain Sanam.

In December 2001, Khan suffered a spinal injury while performing an action sequence for a special appearance in Krishna Vamsi's Shakti: The Power.[84] He flew to Lucknow a week later for a series of stage shows, which further aggravated his condition. By the time he returned to Mumbai, Khan was experiencing severe pain. He was subsequently diagnosed with a prolapsed disc between vertebrae six and seven. Khan tried multiple alternative therapies but nothing effected a permanent solution; he was still in pain during the shooting of Devdas.[84]

2003: Spine surgery

Because of Khan's spinal injury, he was in acute pain while shooting Chalte Chalte (2003) and Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003).[84][85] By the beginning of 2003, his condition had worsened.[84][86] In February, doctors told Khan that he had to undergo an urgent Anterior Cervical Discectomy.[86][87][88] The surgery took place on 24 February in Wellington Hospital, London, and lasted for one hour. A titanium disc was inserted into his spine; he was discharged after two days but faced several post-operative problems.[84][87] Afterwards, Khan resumed shooting Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003) and Main Hoon Na (2004) in June of the same year but he reduced his workload and the number of films he worked on each year.[85]

Khan's first film release of 2003 was his own production of Aziz Mirza's, Chalte Chalte, a romance dealing with the troubles faced by a married couple, in which Khan starred opposite Rani Mukerji. The film was moderately successful in India and fared better in external markets.[89][90] His follow-up release was Kal Ho Naa Ho, a comedy-drama set in New York City; it was written by Karan Johar, directed by Nikhil Advani, and co-starred Jaya Bachchan, Preity Zinta and Saif Ali Khan. Khan received unanimous critical appreciation for his portrayal of Aman Mathur, a man with a fatal heart disease. The Hindu said, "His enthusiasm unbounded, his energy unbridled, Shah Rukh is in form here. And as a guy with a few days to live and a life to spend in a moment, he looks for your sympathy. He reduces many to tears. And with each tear he rises a rank higher in the echelons of actors".[91] The film was a critical and commercial success, becoming the second-highest-grossing film domestically and the top-grossing Bollywood film in external markets that year.[61][89] It garnered a worldwide gross of INR780 million (US$13 million)[52] and earned Khan another Filmfare Best Actor Award nomination.[92]

2004–10: Dominance at Filmfare

2004 was a critically and commercially successful year for Khan. He transformed Dreamz Unlimited into Red Chillies Entertainment, with his wife Gauri serving as a producer.[93] He produced and starred in Farah Khan's directorial debut, the action comedy Main Hoon Na—a fictionalized account of India–Pakistan relations, which became the second-highest earner of the year.[94] He then played Indian Air Force pilot Squadron Leader Veer Pratap Singh in Yash Chopra's love saga Veer-Zaara. The film, in which Priety Zinta portrayed Singh's love interest, Pakistani woman Zaara Haayat Khan, was the biggest hit of 2004 in India; it earned a worldwide gross of over INR940 million (US$16 million)[52][94] and was screened at the 55th Berlin Film Festival to critical appreciation.[95] Veer-Zaara earned Khan appreciation; Rama Sharma from The Tribune wrote, "Shah Rukh Khan here scales the heights of sensitivity, rising above the mundane. His expressions are mature and reach out to touch the heart of the common man."[96]

In December 2004, Khan received wide critical acclaim for his performance in Ashutosh Gowariker's social drama Swades, which also featured Gayatri Joshi. Swades narrates the story of a NASA scientist who returns to India to get in touch with his roots. Several film critics considered Khan's performance in the film to be his best to date.[97] Critic Jitesh Pillai said, "Ultimately your heart leaps out to the magical Shah Rukh Khan, who unarguably gives his career's finest performance ... you can feel the earnestness of his intentions, the wetness of his tears".[98] Filmfare included his performance in the 2010 issue of the "Top 80 Iconic Performances".[99] Swades was featured on Rediff.com's list of the 10 Best Bollywood Movies of the Decade.[97] Khan was nominated for the Filmfare Best Actor Award for all three of his 2004 releases and eventually won the award for Swades.[39]

Khan's only release in 2005—other than special appearances—was Paheli, in which he starred opposite Rani Mukerji. It was screened at the Golden Globes, the Sundance Film Festival and the Palm Springs International Film Festival.[100] It was also chosen as India's official entry in the Oscars for the 79th Academy Awards.[68] Despite failing at the box office, Paheli and Khan's performance in it were critically acclaimed; Raja Sen said his performance "justifies his supremacy in the film world".[101]

In 2006, Khan collaborated with Karan Johar for the third time in the adult-drama Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna. The film had an ensemble cast including Amitabh Bachchan, Preity Zinta, Abhishek Bachchan, Rani Mukerji and Kirron Kher, and told the story of two unhappily married couples in New York who have in an extramarital affair. The film received polarizing reviews from film critics but emerged as India's highest-grossing film in the overseas market,[61] earning more than INR1.13 billion (US$19 million) worldwide.[52] Khan played the titular role in the action thriller Don, a remake of the 1978 film of the same name. The film, and Khan's performance in it, received mixed comments from film critics. His performance was extensively compared to that of Amitabh Bachchan, the actor in the original film.[102] Taran Adarsh said Khan "does very well as Don. He enacts the evil character with flourish. But he fails to carry off the other role [Vijay] with conviction. It looks made up, it doesn't come natural to him at all."[102] Conversely, Derek Elley of Variety said, "it's hard to accept [Khan] as the title character" and that "Khan is far more convincing as Vijay, playing up to his rom-com fanbase with plenty of boyish humor".[103] Don performed well in India[104] and was the second-highest grossing film of the year in the overseas market.[61] It grossed INR1.04 billion (US$17 million) worldwide.[52] Both Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna and Don earned Khan Best Actor nominations at the Filmfare Awards, which he co-hosted.[105]

In 2007, Khan starred in Yash Raj Films' Chak De! India, a semi-fictional account of the Indian women's national hockey team. Khan said that while his background as part of his university's hockey team helped him during the filming,[106] he felt playing again after a long time was "very difficult and different". Khan tore a hamstring three days before the end of filming.[107] Chak De! India was a major critical and commercial success in India and abroad,[108] earning over INR1.03 billion (US$17 million) worldwide.[52] Rajeev Masand from CNN-IBN wrote of Khan's performance, "For the first time since Swades, Shah Rukh plays a role without any of his typical trappings, without any of his trademark quirks ... He plays Kabir Khan like a real flesh-and-blood human being".[109] Filmfare included his performance in their 2010 issue of the "Top 80 Iconic Performances".[110] Chak De! India became the third-highest grossing film of 2007[111] in India and won Khan another Filmfare Award for Best Actor.[39] In the same year, Khan starred in Farah Khan's reincarnation melodrama Om Shanti Om alongside Deepika Padukone, Shreyas Talpade and Arjun Rampal. Khan played Om Prakash Makhija, a 1970s junior artiste who is reborn in the 2000s as a superstar named Om Kapoor. Khan's performance was generally well received by critics; Khalid Mohammed from Hindustan Times wrote, "the enterprise belongs to Shah Rukh Khan, who tackles comedy, high drama and action with his signature style—spontaneous and intuitively intelligent".[112] The film became the highest grossing motion picture of 2007 in India[111] and the external market[61] with a worldwide gross of over INR1.48 billion (US$25 million).[52] Om Shanti Om earned Khan his second nomination of the year for Best Actor at Filmfare.[113]

In 2008, Khan collaborated for the third time with Aditya Chopra on the romantic drama Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi opposite newcomer Anushka Sharma. Khan played Surinder Sahni, a shy man with low self-esteem, whose love for his accidental wife Sharma, causes him to transform himself into Raj, a loud, fun-loving alter-ego. The film received mixed reviews from critics, but was declared a blockbuster at the box office.[114] Khan's performance was appreciated by critics; Rachel Saltz of The New York Times wrote, "The Surinder/Raj dual role seems tailor-made (probably was) for Mr. Khan, who gets to show off his twin talents: he suffers nobly and entertains with panache".[115] It earned Khan another nomination for Best Actor at the Filmfare ceremony. In December the same year, Khan suffered a serious shoulder injury while filming a small role in Mudassar Aziz's Dulha Mil Gaya. He underwent extensive physiotherapy sessions at the time but the intense pain left him almost immobile and he had arthroscopic surgery in February 2009.[116][117] In 2009, Khan appeared in an extended, special appearance in the film Billu, playing Bollywood superstar Sahir Khan—a fictionalised version of himself.[118]

After turning down a starring role in Danny Boyle's Slumdog Millionaire (2008), Khan began shooting My Name Is Khan, his fourth collaboration with director Karan Johar and his sixth with Kajol.[119] The film is based on a true story and set against the backdrop of perceptions of Islam after the 11 September attacks. Khan plays Rizwan Khan, a Muslim suffering from mild Asperger syndrome who sets out on a journey across America to meet the country's president. To properly portray the character, Khan spent several months researching his role by reading books, watching videos and talking to people affected by the condition.[120] In an interview with Hindustan Times, he said, "Whenever you're dealing with a disorder or a near atypical situation, the first thought is that the sort of parameters you have to set that in no which way you are derogatory or deriding the disorder ... The second part is you have to come as close to reality in depicting that characterization and so one had to study a lot and one does get worried".[121] Upon release, My Name is Khan received positive reviews from critics and became one of the highest-grossing Bollywood films of all time outside India.[52][61] Khan's performance was appreciated by most critics; Jay Wesissberg from Variety said, "Khan uses the mannerisms associated with Asperger's—averted eyes, springy steps, stuttered repetitions of memorized texts—yet captures the personality beneath the condition in a standout performance sure to receive the Autism Society's gold seal of approval".[122] My Name is Khan earned Khan his eighth Filmfare Award for Best Actor,[39] equalling the record for most all-time wins in the category with actor Dilip Kumar.[123]

2011–13: Major commercial successes

In 2011, Khan produced and starred alongside Arjun Rampal and Kareena Kapoor in Anubhav Sinha's science fiction superhero film Ra.One. The film follows the story of a London-based videogame designer who creates a villain character who escapes into the real world. It was billed as Bollywood's most expensive production; it had an estimated budget of INR1.25 billion (US$21 million).[124][125] Khan was involved in several aspects of the making of Ra. One—he volunteered to write the film's console game script, dubbed for it, oversaw its technical development and wrote the digital comics based on the film's characters.[126][127] Despite negative media coverage of the film's box office performance, Ra.One was a financial success with a gross of INR2.4 billion (US$40 million).[128][129] The film received mixed reviews from critics. For his portrayal of a dual role, Khan received mixed comments; while most critics praised his performance as the robotic superhero G.One, they panned his portrayal of videogame designer Shekhar. Daily News and Analysis said, "Khan is in his element and endearing as superhero G.One, but annoyingly [over the top] as video game creator Shekhar".[130]

Khan with his Jab Tak Hai Jaan co-stars Katrina Kaif (left) and Anushka Sharma (right) at a promotional event in 2012

Khan's second release of 2011 was Don 2, a sequel to the 2006 hit Don.[131] To prepare for his role, Khan exercised extensively and performed most of the stunts himself.[132] His performance earned him positive reviews from critics; Nikhat Kazmi of The Times of India said, "Shah Rukh remains in command and never loses his foothold, neither through the dramatic sequences nor through the action cuts".[133] The film was a major success in India and it became the year's highest-grossing Bollywood production abroad, earning a worldwide gross of around INR2.06 billion (US$34 million).[134][135] Don 2 was showcased at the 62nd Berlin International Film Festival[136] and at the 2012 International Film Festival of Marrakech in Morocco, where Don was also shown.[137] It earned Khan another nomination for Best Actor at the Filmfare ceremony.[138]

Khan's only release in 2012 was Yash Chopra's romantic drama Jab Tak Hai Jaan, in which he starred opposite Katrina Kaif and Anushka Sharma. It was the fourth collaboration between Chopra and Khan[139] and was Chopra's last directorial venture before his death on 21 October 2012.[140] The film received positive to mixed reviews from critics in India and positive reviews from critics abroad. Jab Tak Hai Jaan became one of the highest-grossing Bollywood films of all time, both in India and abroad; it was declared a "worldwide blockbuster", earning over INR2.11 billion (US$35 million) worldwide.[141][142] The film was showcased at the 2012 International Film Festival of Marrakech in Morocco.[137] For his performance in the film, Khan was nominated for a Filmfare Award for Best Actor.

In August 2013, Khan produced and appeared in Rohit Shetty's action comedy Chennai Express for his company Red Chillies Entertainment. The film earned mixed critical reviews, broke many box office records for Hindi films in both India and abroad, and became the film quickest to enter the coveted Bollywood 100 Crore Club at the time.[143][144][145] The film also broke the record of 3 Idiots to become the highest-grossing Bollywood film of all time. It eventually grossed almost INR4 billion (US$66 million) in worldwide ticket sales[146] and is currently the second highest-grossing Bollywood film worldwide.[145] On 7 March 2013—a day before International Women's DayTimes of India reported that Khan had said that starting with this film, he wants the name of his lead female co-stars to appear above his own in the credits.[147] Chennai Express was released on 8 August 2013.

2014 onwards

In March 2014, Khan signed director Rahul Dholakia's next film, titled Raees and co-starring Nawazuddin Siddiqui. He also signed Maneesh Sharma's film Fan, which was produced by Excel Entertainment and Yash Raj Films respectively.[148][149] In July that year, Khan finished filming for Farah Khan's ensemble comedy Happy New Year, which co-stars Deepika Padukone, Abhishek Bachchan and Boman Irani.[150]

Non-film work

Television

In addition to his pre-film career television appearances, Khan has hosted some game shows. In 2007, he replaced Amitabh Bachchan for one season as the host of Kaun Banega Crorepati, the Indian version of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?.[151] A year later, Khan began hosting Kya Aap Paanchvi Pass Se Tez Hain?, the Indian version of Are You Smarter Than a 5th Grader?.[152] In 2011, Khan returned to television, appearing on Zor Ka Jhatka: Total Wipeout, the Indian version of Wipeout, which is broadcast on Imagine TV; scenes featuring Khan were shot at the Yash Raj Studios in Mumbai.[153] Contrary to his earlier television anchoring jobs, Zor Ka Jhatka: Total Wipeout opened with low viewer ratings; these continued declining during its run, which ended in less than a month after fifteen episodes had been aired.[153] Khan has hosted numerous awards shows, including the Filmfare Awards.[154]

Stage performances

Khan during a performance in a concert at the Army Stadium in Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2010

Khan is a frequent stage performer and has participated in several world tours and concerts. In 1997, he performed in Asha Bhosle's Moments in Time concert in Malaysia. In 1998, he returned to Malaysia to perform with Karisma Kapoor for the Shahrukh—Karisma: Live in Malaysia concert.[155] The same year, he participated in the "The Awesome Foursome" world tour across the UK, Canada and the U.S. along with Juhi Chawla, Akshay Kumar and Kajol.[156] In 1999, Khan resumed the tour in Malaysia, in which Salman Khan and Twinkle Khanna replaced Akshay Kumar and Kajol.[157]

In November 2002, Khan took part in the Fire & Flames concert in Malaysia, alongside Rani Mukerji, Saif Ali Khan, Raageshwari and a 40-member troupe of dancers and singers, including Shreya Ghoshal.[158] In the same year, he participated in the show From India With Love in the UK, along with Amitabh Bachchan, Aamir Khan, Preity Zinta and Aishwarya Rai. It took place at two outdoor venues, Manchester's Old Trafford and London's Hyde Park, and was attended by over 100,000 spectators.[159]

Khan performed alongside Rani Mukherji, Arjun Rampal and Ishaa Koppikar in a 2010 concert at the Army Stadium in Dhaka, Bangladesh.[160] The next year he joined Shahid Kapoor and Priyanka Chopra in the Friendship Concert, celebrating 150 years of India-South Africa friendship in Durban, South Africa.[161] In 2013, Khan performed a tribute to his mentor filmmaker Yash Chopra at the Zee Cine Awards along with Katrina Kaif, Karisma Kapoor and Anushka Sharma.[162]

Khan started an association with the "Temptations" series of concert tours by singing, dancing and performing skits alongside Arjun Rampal, Priyanka Chopra and other Bollywood stars in Temptations 2004, a stage show that toured 22 venues across the world.[163] The show played to 15,000 spectators at Dubai's Festival City Arena.[164] In 2008, Khan set up Temptation Reloaded, a series of concerts that toured several countries. The show, which featured Kareena Kapoor, Katrina Kaif, Ganesh Hegde, Javed Ali and Anusha Dandekar, started at the Ahoy in Rotterdam, Netherlands.[165] Another tour was held with Bipasha Basu and others in 2012 in Jakarta,[166] and in 2013 another series of concerts visited Auckland, Perth and Sydney; it featured Madhuri Dixit, Jacqueline Fernandez, Honey Singh and Meiyang Chang.[167]

Endorsements

Khan at a Tag Heuer press conference, promoting the Carrera Monaco GP watch in 2012

Khan is often labelled "Brand SRK" by media organisations because of his brand endorsement and entrepreneurship ventures.[168][169] Celebrity endorsements in India began in the late 1980s. Khan's first advertising venture was with Liberty Shoes in 1988. He also worked for Brahmaputra Tea in 1993.[170] From 1999, Khan's career in television advertising increased significantly.[171] He is one of the highest paid Bollywood endorsers and one of the most visible celebrities in television advertising, with up to a 6 per cent share of the television advertisement market.[172][173] A survey conducted by AdEx India ranked him first on the list of high profile brand ambassadors for 2008,[174] a year in which Khan endorsed 39 brands—the most of all Indian celebrities on television.[175]

Khan has endorsed prominent brands including Pepsi, Nokia, Hyundai, Dish TV, D'decor, LUX and TAG Heuer.[171][173] He has been named "Brand Ambassador of the Year" at various business awards ceremonies.[176] In 2005, Khan launched his own perfume called "Tiger Eyes by SRK", which is manufactured by the French perfume brand Jeanne Arthes.[177]

Khan has also been engaged as a brand ambassador to represent sport leagues, resorts and Indian states. He represented Force India, the Formula One racing team representing India in international motor race championships in 2007,[178] the live entertainment theatre and leisure destination Kingdom of Dreams in 2010,[179] the Champions League Twenty20 annual international cricket competition in 2011,[180] the state of West Bengal in 2011,[181][182] and film complex Prayag Film City in Chandrakona, West Bengal in 2012.[183]

For a time, Khan's brand value was thought to have declined slightly because of his status as an ageing superstar. Pepsi replaced Khan with the younger star Ranbir Kapoor in 2009.[169] In 2013, however, he was still among the top celebrity endorsers;[184] Forbes India named him "Shah Rukh Inc" and declared him India's biggest brand.[185] In 2014, The Times of India reported that Khan had doubled his fee for promoting a pan masala brand after learning they had first approached another actor.[186] At INR200 million (US$3.3 million), this was one of the most lucrative deals for a Bollywood actor ever.[187]

Ownership of IPL cricket team

Khan interacting with the media after KKR's maiden IPL title

In 2008, Khan in partnership with Juhi Chawla and her husband Jay Mehta acquired ownership rights for the franchise representing Kolkata in the Twenty20 cricket tournament Indian Premier League (IPL) for US$75.09 million. they have since named the team Kolkata Knight Riders (KKR).[188] As of 2009, KKR was one of the richest teams in the IPL and had been ranked as the most valued with a brand value of $42.1 million.[189] KKR was the most profitable and successful franchise in the IPL.[190] The team was surrounded with controversy and performed poorly on the field during the first three years of the tournament.[191] Their performance improved during the fourth season in 2011; they became the champions in 2012[191] and 2014.[192]

Khan performed alongside Sunidhi Chauhan and Shriya Saran at the opening ceremony of the 2011 season, where they danced to Tamil songs.[193] He appeared again in 2013 alongside Katrina Kaif, Deepika Padukone and Pitbull.[194] In April 2012, Khan was served a notice by the Rajasthan Police for smoking in public after he was seen smoking on camera during a match between KKR and the Rajasthan Royals.[195] In May of the same year, the Mumbai Cricket Association banned him from the Wankhede Stadium for five years for arguing with security guards and officials after a match between KKR and The Mumbai Indians.[196] Khan later apologised to his fans after his team won the final match at Chennai.[197]

Humanitarian causes

Khan is known for keeping his social commitments and humanitarian work low-profile.[198] In an interview with The Guardian, he said he keeps his charity work guarded because of his religious beliefs. He said: "Somewhere in the Quran it says that if you do charity for a reason, it's not charity."[199] In 2009, when news broke that Khan had committed to bear all expenses for the treatment of two Kashmiri orphan children who suffered severe burns during a terrorist attack in Srinagar, it was revealed that he had been anonymously donating to Nanavati Hospital in Vile Parle for nine years.[200]

Khan with Dmitry Medvedev, Prime Minister of Russia during the latter's visit to India in 2010

Khan has been brand ambassador of various governmental campaigns, including Pulse Polio and National AIDS Control Organisation.[171] He is a member of the board of directors of Make-A-Wish Foundation in India,[201] and in 2011 he was appointed by the UNOPS as the first global ambassador of the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council.[202]

Khan has performed in charity and benefit concerts including the Help Telethon Concert to raise money for the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. He, together with Rani Mukerji and director Karan Johar donated INR11.5 million (US$190,000) to the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's Tsunami Relief Fund for the tsunami-affected areas in India.[203][204] Khan organised and participated in the "Temptations 2005" show in New Delhi, which raised funds for the disabled rights group National Centre For Promotional of Employment for Disabled People.[205] He and other Bollywood stars took part in "The "Rock on For Humanity" concert", which raised over INR30 million (US$500,000) to help children affected by the 2008 Bihar flood.[206]

Khan has pledged to further the cause of child education in India.[207] He has recorded a series of public service announcements championing good health, child immunisation and proper nutrition,[208] and joined India's Health Ministry and UNICEF in a nationwide child immunisation campaign as part of National Rural Health Mission of India.[208] In 2011, he teamed up with Amitabh Bachchan and Judi Dench to promote Resul Pookutty's foundation that works to improve the living conditions of underprivileged people in India.[209] The same year, he received UNESCO's Pyramide con Marni award for his charitable commitment to provide education for children, becoming the first Indian to win the accolade.[210] During his multiple appearances at the NDTV Greenathon, Khan has adopted up to twelve villages to provide with electricity as part of the solar energy harnessing project's initiative "Light A Billion Lives".[211][212]

Artistry

Khan is one of the most celebrated actors in India.[213] He is well-known for his devotion to his work and his ability to commit heavily to each role.[214][215] Director Aziz Mirza describes Khan as a "natural" actor who has "a rawness in him" and "a crowd appeal, even when he was just with friends".[216] Despite the adulation, Khan has often been criticised for his lack of subtlety in performing roles.[217] In the book Everybody Wants a Hit: 10 Mantras of Success in Bollywood Cinema, author Derek Bose wrote, "The joke going around then was that Shahrukh Khan had no more than five expressions to play about with and by cleverly juggling them in film after film, made his mark as a superstar".[218]

Khan at the Berlin Film Festival in 2008

Khan's film roles have spanned several genres and various character types.[219] His initial film roles saw him play characters who displayed high levels of energy and enthusiasm. According to Daily News and Analysis, "he came, sliding down stairs on a slab of ice, cartwheeling, somersaulting, lips trembling, eyes trembling, bringing to the screen the kind of physical energy not seen since Shammi Kapoor in his heydays. This was a totally different kind of acting from we had ever seen—visceral, intense, maniacal one moment and cloyingly boyish the next."[220] He established his career in Bollywood by playing anti-hero roles in Baazigar and Darr (both 1993).[220] At the time, playing a negative role was considered risky for a leading man in Bollywood; Khan was subsequently credited for "pushing the envelope" by choosing to play such characters.[219][220]

Beginning in 1995, Khan portrayed lead roles in a series of romantic comedies and family dramas that led Harish Dugh of The Indian Express to write, "The die was cast when Khan replaced the Bachchan bravado with the portrayal of a very humane and likeable, simple and feeling young man".[219][221] These roles earned Khan widespread adulation from the audience and established his image as an icon of romance in India.[221] However, his typecasting in such roles has met with polarised reactions from commentators; the author Arnab Ray wrote that Khan "became trapped in the conventional romantic lover-boy image, continuing to essay, over the years, a series of roles that were mind-numbingly alike".[220] Aseem Chhabra of Rediff.com said he "plays the romantic man with such pizzazz and in the old-world style that he is treat to watch, as he woos the hearts of his co-stars and his audience!"[222] In 2013, the author Anupama Chopra said, "You have to admire his ability to play the romantic hero. We've seen him do it for two decades but he still makes it compelling."[223]

Khan has intermittently tried to break away from romantic roles, and has garnered praise for portraying more complex and challenging characters in films including Dil Se.. (1998), Swades (2004), Chak De! India (2007) and My Name Is Khan (2010).[213][219] In 2010, Filmfare included Khan's performances in Swades and Chak De! India in its listing of the "80 Iconic Performances".[99][110] The Indian Express said, "[Khan] has tailored and leveraged his acting skills in such a versatile manner as to impress a demanding audience world-over with his ability to change his acting in a manner unforeseen in the annals of Indian cinema".[219]

Wealth and popularity

Khan was given the birth name "Shahrukh" ("Face of the King"), but he prefers his name to be written as "Shah Rukh Khan", and is commonly referred to by the abbreviation SRK.[4] Khan is considered one of the biggest movie stars in the world and is named in the media as "King Khan", "The Baadshah of Bollywood", and "The King of Bollywood".[199][224][225] In 2011, Steven Zeitchik of the Los Angeles Times said, "He is the biggest movie star you've never heard of. And perhaps the world's biggest movie star, period."[7] His fan base is estimated to number over one billion.[226] Khan's popularity in India has been attributed to his emergence during the liberalisation and changing economic scenario of the 1990s; he was able to personify "the restless spirit of post-liberalization, ambitious, assertive and yet feel-good India".[227][228][229]

Khan is considered one of the wealthiest and most powerful celebrities in India. In 2009, his net worth was estimated at over US$540 million.[230] In 2013, according to the Hurun Report, Khan was placed in the 114th position on a list of the wealthiest Indians, with personal assets of over $400 million.[231][232] In 2014, the firm Wealth X ranked Khan second in their listing of the richest actors in the world, with an estimated net worth of $600 million. Khan was the only Bollywood actor to feature in the list.[3][233][234]

Khan was placed at number one on Box Office India's list of top actors for the first time in 1994, and repeated the feat in 1995 and 1998, and from 2002 to 2008.[235] For his work in the 2000s, Khan was considered one of the ten "Most Powerful Entertainers of the Decade" by FICCI.[236] In 2008, Newsweek named him one of the 50 most powerful people in the world.[237] Khan was placed first on Forbes India's "Celebrity 100 list", a list based on the income and popularity of Indian celebrities, for 2012 and 2013.[185][238] Khan owns several properties in India and abroad. Mannat, his residence in Mumbai, is a tourist spot and a heritage building deemed important to the townscape and hence exempt from demolition.[2] Khan owns a house in New Delhi,[239] a GB£20 million apartment in London,[240] and INR4 billion (US$66 million) of property in Dubai that includes a villa on the Palm Jumeirah.[230][241]

A 2007 poll by the magazine Eastern Eye named Khan the sexiest Asian man;[242] he was ranked third in the same magazine's polls in 2008[243] and 2011.[244] He has regularly featured among the top ten on The Times of India's list of the 50 most desirable men in India.[245][246] Media have said his dimples are one of his distinctive physical features.[247] Khan has also achieved recognition as a style icon in India.[248] In 2011, the British edition of GQ magazine featured him as one of the best dressed men in the world.[249] The following year, the Indian edition of GQ included Khan in their listing of Bollywood's 11 best dressed men.[250] Despite his fame, in August 2009 Khan was detained at the Newark, New Jersey airport when a name similar to his "popped up on the computer". He was taken to a room where officers and other detainees recognised him and asked for autographs.[251]

In the media

Khan at the launch of his official Opus, in 2011

Khan's popularity has been documented in several Indian and international non-fiction films. In 2005, Nasreen Munni Kabir produced and directed a two-part documentary titled The Inner and Outer World of Shah Rukh Khan. The film featured the "Temptations 2004" concert tour and contrasted Khan's inner world of family and daily life with the outer world of his work.[252] Khan has also been the subject of the Danish film Larger Than Life (2003) and the German film Shah Rukh Khan: In Love with Germany (2008).[253][254] In 2010, the Discovery Travel & Living channel produced a ten-part miniseries titled Living with a Superstar—Shah Rukh Khan.[172][255] The same year, Discovery Channel aired a television special titled Revealed: Shah Rukh Khan, in which social anthropologists, filmmakers, scholars, critics and lifestyle commentators analysed the impact of Khan's image in India and abroad.[255] The actor-director Makarand Deshpande directed a feature film named Shahrukh Bola "Khoobsurat Hai Tu" (2010), which centres around an obsessive female fan of Khan.[256]

In 2005, Khan was the subject of 20 paintings by Indian artist Anjana Kuthiala.[257] Greatly inspired by M.F. Husain's work with actress Madhuri Dixit, Kuthiala chose Khan to be the muse and subject of her collections.[258] Khan and Priyanka Chopra, Kajol and Hrithik Roshan had their likenesses made into a series of miniature dolls for Hasbro and the UK-based Bollywood Legends Corporation.[259] In 2007, Khan became the third Indian actor to have his wax statue installed at London's Madame Tussauds museum.[260] Additional versions of the statue were installed at Madam Tussauds' museums in Los Angeles, Hong Kong, New York and Washington.[261]

Several books about Khan were published in 2007. Still Reading Khan by Mushtaq Sheikh describes Khan's family life and features rare photographs.[262] The book was re-released in a second edition at the end of the year with the title Shah Rukh Can.[263] Anupama Chopra published a biography of Khan titled King of Bollywood: Shahrukh Khan and the Seductive World of Indian Cinema, set against the background of the Indian film industry.[264] Also in 2007, Deepa Gahlot published SRK: King Khan, which features an analysis of Khan's life and career.[265] In 2012, Khan became the first Indian actor and the second Indian citizen after Sachin Tendulkar to have his biography, titled King Khan: The Official Opus of Shah Rukh Khan, published by Kraken Opus.[266][267]

Selected filmography

Year Film Role Notes
1992 Deewana Raja Sahai Filmfare Award for Best Debut
1993 Baazigar Ajay Sharma / Vicky Malhotra Filmfare Award for Best Actor
1994 Kabhi Haan Kabhi Naa Sunil Filmfare Critics Award for Best Performance
1994 Anjaam Vijay Agnihotri Filmfare Award for Best Villain
1995 Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge Raj Malhora Filmfare Award for Best Actor
1997 Dil To Pagal Hai Rahul Filmfare Award for Best Actor
1998 Kuch Kuch Hota Hai Rahul Khanna Filmfare Award for Best Actor
2000 Mohabbatein Raj Aryan Malhotra Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor
2002 Devdas Devdas Mukherjee Filmfare Award for Best Actor
2004 Swades Mohan Bhargava Filmfare Award for Best Actor
2007 Chak De! India Kabir Khan Filmfare Award for Best Actor
2010 My Name Is Khan Rizwan Khan Filmfare Award for Best Actor

Awards and nominations

Khan's work in Bollywood films has garnered him fourteen Filmfare Awards from thirty nominations, including eight for Best Actor; tied for the most in the category with Dilip Kumar. He was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India in 2005,[39] and the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the Government of France in 2007 for his contribution to films.[268] He was honoured with the Légion d'honneur—France's highest civilian honour—on 1 July 2014.[269]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ There was some confusion because Khan seemingly contradicted himself in an interview, saying that he was born and brought up in Mangalore[9] but he later confirmed his birthplace as Delhi, and that he was brought up in Mangalore for the first five years.[8]

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Bibliography and further reading

External links