Pramukh Swami Maharaj
|Pramukh Swami Maharaj|
December 7, 1921
Chansad, Vadodara, India
|Guru||Shastri Yagnapurushdãs, Sadhu Gnãnjivandas|
|Quotation||"In the joy of others, lies our own"|
Pramukh Swami Maharaj (Gujarati: પ્રમુખ સ્વામી મહારાજ) (born Shantilal Patel, 7 December 1921; ordained Shastri Narayanswarupdas) is the current guru and is regarded as the fifth spiritual successor of Swaminarayan by the BAPS Swaminarayan Sanstha, an international Hindu socio-spiritual organization.
- 1 Early years
- 2 Early years as a Sadhu
- 3 President of BAPS
- 4 As President and Guru of BAPS
- 5 Significance in BAPS
- 6 Controversy
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Shantilal was born in the village of Chansad, Gujarat, on 7 December 1921. His parents, Motibhai and Diwaliben Patel, were disciples of Shastriji Maharaj and followers of the Akshar Purushottam faith. Motibhai and Diwaliben were both involved in the Swaminarayan fellowship; Diwaliben’s family’s association with the Swaminarayan fellowship extended to the time of Bhagatji Maharaj. Shastriji Maharaj had blessed young Shantilal at birth, and had told his father, “This child is ours; when the time is ripe, please give him to us. He will lead thousands to the devotion of God. Through him, thousands will attain liberation.”
Shantilal’s mother described him as a calm and soft-spoken, yet energetic and active child. His childhood friends recall that Shantilal developed a reputation in the town and in school as an honest, reliable, mature, and kindhearted boy. Even as a child, he possessed an uncommon empathy that led others to seek out and trust his opinions and judgments in matters large and small. Shantilal was raised in a simple home environment, as his family was of modest means. Although he excelled in his studies, in the seventeen years he spent at home before becoming a sadhu, Shantilal only had the opportunity to attend school for six years. As he grew older, Shantilal helped his household by doing chores on the family farm.
Early spiritual inclination
Shantilal was strongly inclined towards spirituality from a young age. Upon completing his schoolwork, he would often rush off to the village’s Hanuman temple, where he and a childhood friend would listen to the discourses of a Hindu "holy man" named Haridas. Shantilal’s daily “darshan”, or worship, at the Swaminarayan mandir in Chansad, and his association with Shastriji Maharaj and his disciple sadhus whenever they came to the village, further reflected Shantilal’s affinity for spirituality. Shantilal took his meals only after having darshan at the Swaminarayan Mandir. He would often meet other sadhus who passed through the village from the holy places of pilgrimage in North India. Swaminarayan sadhus, such as Ghanshyam Swami and Balmukund Swami, frequently visited Chansad and other nearby villages; Shantilal regularly engaged in serving them during those visits.
As a teenager, Shantilal’s bond with Shastriji Maharaj deepened, and his devoutness and intellect impressed many in the fellowship. Many felt it was only a matter of time until Shantilal would embark upon a monastic life by joining the order of Swaminarayan sadhus under Shastriji Maharaj.
Entering the monastic life
On 7 November 1939, when Shantilal was seventeen years old, he received a letter from his guru, Shastriji Maharaj, asking him to join the sadhus. His parents gave their permission and blessings, and Shantilal left home that day to join Shastriji Maharaj and his sadhus.
Shastriji Maharaj gave Shantilal primary initiation, parshad diksha, at Ambli-Vadi Pol in Ahmedabad on 22 November 1939, and renamed him Shanti Bhagat. One of Shastriji Maharaj’s first requests to the newly-initiated Shanti Bhagat was for him to study Sanskrit; Shanti Bhagat complied with this wish, and excelled in his studies.
Soon thereafter, on 10 January 1940 at the Akshar Deri in Gondal, Shanti Bhagat was given the bhagvati diksha, initiated as a sadhu, and named Sadhu Narayanswarupdas (meaning “the form of Narayan”). Upon giving him this name, Shastriji Maharaj elaborated, “His face carries the brilliance of God, so I name him Narayanswarupdas (the servant of the form of God).” Yogiji Maharaj also gave Narayanswarupdasji his blessings, observing, “He will surely become great.”
Renouncing worldly pleasures, Sadhu Narayanswarupdas adopted vows of celibacy (‘’nishkam‘’), non-covetousness (‘’nirlobh‘’), non-taste (‘’nisswad‘’), non-attachment (‘’nissneh‘’) and humility (‘’nirman‘’) and committed himself to lifelong dedication and service to God and humanity.
Early years as a Sadhu
As a young sadhu, Sadhu Narayanswarupdas studied Sanskrit and the Hindu scriptures at Bhadaran and Khambhat, earning the title “Shastri” upon mastering both scripture and philosophy. In addition to his studies, Shastri Narayanswarupdas routinely engaged in a multitude of activities, including cleaning the temple compounds, cooking for sadhus and devotees, and many other duties. Shastri Narayanswarupdas also played a significant role throughout the construction of the Atladra mandir in the early 1940s. During the construction, he sustained chemical burns and blisters on his body after mixing the lime to be used in construction, yet he persisted unflinchingly in performing his service despite the injuries. Serving concurrently as Shastriji Maharaj’s personal secretary, Shastri Narayanswarupdas also gained a comprehensive understanding of BAPS’ broader affairs and activities. In 1946,when Shastri Narayanswarupdas was 25, Shastriji Maharaj appointed him the head, or ‘’kothari‘’, of the large BAPS mandir in Sarangpur. As head of the mandir, Shastri Narayanswarupdas oversaw a major expansion of the temple facilities despite considerable financial constraints. His leadership and unassuming personality in the midst of significant hardships earned him the respect of his fellow sadhus and devotees, and presaged the significant responsibility that his guru would soon entrust to him.
President of BAPS
Appointment as President
In the early part of 1950, Shastriji Maharaj wrote several letters to 28-year-old Shastri Narayanswarupdas expressing his wish to appoint him the president of the organization. Twice Shastri Narayanswarupdas wrote back respectfully declining, citing his young age and inexperience, and the presence of many senior sadhus who would be more suited to the responsibility. Shastriji Maharaj continued to insist, sending several senior devotees to convince Shastri Narayanswarupdas. Perceiving it to be his guru’s inner wish, Shastri Narayanswarupdas ultimately acquiesced.
On 21 May 1950 at Ambli-Vali Pol in Amdavad, Shastriji Maharaj appointed Shastri Narayanswarupdas, then merely 28 years of age, as the administrative president (‘’Pramukh‘’) of BAPS. Since that time, Shastri Narayanswarupdas has been widely known as “Pramukh Swami.” At the ceremony, Shastriji Maharaj placed his own shawl around Shastri Narayanswarupdas’s shoulders, and asked Yogiji Maharaj to bless him. Shastri Narayanswarupdas then addressed the group, “I feel overwhelmed by the kindness and love showered upon me so lavishly here by my guru, Shastriji Maharaj, and by my mentor Yogiji Maharaj. Always will this day remain sacred for me, in that I am considered worthy of so great a trust and confidence by the two most noble souls of our fellowship, and by you all despite my young age.” Despite being appointed the president of the organization just hours before, that evening, Shastri Narayanswarupdas was found washing the cooking utensils and dishes used by the devotees who had attended the ceremony. This incident was emblematic of the humble style of servant-leadership that would characterize the next six decades of his presidency.
Service under Yogiji Maharaj
Pramukh Swami continued to serve as the president of BAPS under guru Yogiji Maharaj after Shastriji Maharaj died in 1951. He became particularly esteemed for his aptitude as an organizer and administrator, fulfilling all of Yogiji Maharaj’s goals and dreams for the organization. For instance, Pramukh Swami helped Yogiji Maharaj in expanding the faith to England and East Africa in 1960 and 1970, constructing new temples, and instituting new programs within the organization. Throughout these efforts, Pramukh Swami remained unassuming in his conduct and uncomplaining during the hardships he encountered.
Before he died in 1971, Yogiji Maharaj had explained to sadhus and devotees, “From now onwards, Pramukh Swami Maharaj will carry on my work…Pramukh Swami is my everything.” With these and other sentiments, Pramukh Swami’s predecessors identified him as the spiritual leader and guide for followers of BAPS.
As President and Guru of BAPS
Under Pramukh Swami Maharaj’s leadership, BAPS has rapidly grown into a global Hindu organization and has witnessed a significant expansion in many measurable parameters. Currently, BAPS encompasses over one million devotees, more than 900 sadhus, 3,300 mandirs and congregations, over 7,200 weekly assemblies, and a host of humanitarian and charitable activities. Pramukh Swami accompanied Yogiji Maharaj on their spiritual tour of East Africa in 1960 as well as in 1970, and embarked upon his first overseas visit as the ‘’guru‘’, or spiritual leader, of BAPS in 1974. In the decades that have followed, his 27 international spiritual tours have spanned over fifty countries in five continents.
On 4 June 1971, in the village of Sankari, Pramukh Swami Maharaj consecrated the first temple after Yogiji Maharaj’s death. Since then, Pramukh Swami Maharaj has inaugurated hundreds of temples and centers around the world, leading to his recognition by the Guinness Book of World Records for having consecrated the greatest number of Hindu temples. Outside India, such temples include shikharbaddha temples in the metropolitan areas of Houston, Atlanta, Chicago, London, Toronto, and Nairobi. The temple in the Atlanta metro area is currently recognized as the largest traditional Hindu temple outside the Indian subcontinent. Within India, Pramukh Swami Maharaj is credited as the inspirer of the Swaminarayan Akshardham complexes in Gandhinagar and New Delhi, itself the world’s largest comprehensive Hindu temple. In discussing BAPS’ efforts to construct traditional Hindu temples around the world, Pramukh Swami emphasizes the importance of such houses of worship in modern society and values and faith they inspire in members of the community.
In addition to meeting with and providing spiritual guidance to devotees during his international visits, Pramukh Swami has also met with other religious and civic leaders. Professor Brian Hutchinson notes that in speaking with these individuals, Pramukh Swami “consistently emphasizes what religions hold in common and advocates cooperation between them with the purpose of uplifting the moral and religious life of mankind.” The sentiments Pramukh Swami shared with world religious leaders at the 2000 Millennium World Peace Summit at the United Nations reflected a similar message. In his address, Pramukh Swami emphasized the goal of cooperation and mutual respect among religions, for “religion is that which spreads love for one another.” He also expressed a desire that all forms of organized religion be able to coexist in harmony, noting that “flourishing together is the secret of peace.” In particular, Pramukh Swami analogized every religion to a goldmine of values from which all people could draw lessons for life. Pramukh Swami also encouraged his fellow spiritual leaders to teach their followers that religion does not grow by quantity of followers, but by quality of spirituality. In his words, “a Hindu should become a better Hindu, a Jew should become a better Jew, a Christian should become a better Christian, a Muslim should become a better Muslim. If the follower of every religion becomes a better and true follower then our world will be a much better world.”
This vision of harmony through dialogue with other religious leaders, with followers, and with self characterizes Pramukh Swami’s message both within BAPS and beyond. During the 2002 communal riots in Gujarat and the terrorist attack on the Akshardham complex in Gandhinagar, Pramukh Swami Maharaj urged the general public to maintain peace and unity. Pramukh Swami’s response and guidance during these trying times have been commended by leaders and commentators, including the National Security commando in charge of the rescue mission during the Akshardham attack, who later asserted that “what [Pramukh Swami] did was unbelievable. He pieced society back together.”
Celebrating Hindu culture
In addition, Pramukh Swami has led BAPS’ efforts in conducting a number of large-scale cultural festivals, with the aim of fostering better understanding and appreciation of Hindu traditions and promoting moral and spiritual living. The month-long Cultural Festival of India held in Edison, New Jersey during the summer of 1991, for instance, showcased traditional Indian arts, architecture, dance, and music as well as Hindu culture and spirituality, aiming to foster deeper intercultural and interfaith understanding to the over one million visitors who attended.
Beginning with his first sadhu initiation ceremony in January 1971, Pramukh Swami Maharaj has also initiated over 850 youth into the sadhu fold. Hutchinson observes that Pramukh Swami’s “selfless love…was his most frequently and enthusiastically reported characteristic that had influenced persons to become devotees and sadhus.” After renouncing worldly ambitions, these sadhus are guided by Pramukh Swami in their service of God and society. Milestone events in this realm include the bicentenary celebrations of Swaminarayan in 1981 and of Gunatitanand Swami in 1985, which saw the initiation of 200 and 173 sadhus, respectively, in a single day. Most recently, on 14 March 2012, the 91-year old spiritual leader initiated 68 youths from around the world into the monastic order during a ceremony in Sarangpur, Gujarat.
Leadership of BAPS charitable and humanitarian endeavors
In conjunction with his spiritual and cultural roles, Pramukh Swami Maharaj has also spearheaded BAPS’ international humanitarian efforts through BAPS Charities. These activities have included:
- Assistance during natural disasters, including famine relief, cattle camps, and earthquake relief work in India, the United States, Haiti, and other nations.
- Educational endeavors, such as literacy campaigns, as well as operating nursery, primary and secondary schools as well as colleges, institutes of higher learning, and student hostels.
- Ecological projects, such as installing irrigation systems in water-scarce communities and a range of tree planting, well recharging, and recycling projects.
- Medical services, including operating charitable hospitals and hosting diagnostic camps, free medicine distributions, and blood and marrow donation drives.
- Anti-addiction campaigns, which have inspired many to abstain from or give up alcohol, tobacco, and other addictions.
Under Pramukh Swami’s leadership and vision, these and other humanitarian endeavors continue to provide lasting benefits for thousands of individuals worldwide.
Significance in BAPS
Followers of BAPS believe Pramukh Swami Maharaj to be a manifestation of ‘’Akshar‘’, the form of the eternal abode of God. As Akshar he is also in constant communion with God. Accordingly, Pramukh Swami Maharaj is considered by devotees to be “the perfect servant of God, …totally filled with God and therefore worthy of reverence and worship.”
As the current living guru, Pramukh Swami Maharaj is considered by followers of BAPS to be the ideal ‘’sadhu‘’, the perfect devotee, and the principal target for emulation by all spiritual aspirants. He is often described by followers as a personification of the sacred scriptures. He is viewed as “fully ‘’brahmanized‘’,” or having achieved the ultimate level of spiritual development.
Devotees consider Pramukh Swami to exemplify all the ideals of the religion; he is viewed as the first disciple, most faithful in his observance of the commandments, most active in propagation of the religion, the best interpreter of the meaning of the scriptures, and the most effective in eradicating the ignorance that separates man from God. His conduct is hence considered to be that of the “ideal saint” and “perfect ‘’bhakta‘’ (devotee),” providing a tangible and graspable example for the spiritual aspirant to follow. Devotees view Pramukh Swami’s staunch respect for Shastriji Maharaj and Yogiji Maharaj as the model of devotion to one’s guru.
Pramukh Swami’s practice of carrying the ‘’murti‘’ of Bhagwan Swaminarayan before him and directing all garlands or offerings presented to him to the image is also seen as a paradigm of humility and selflessness. Similarly, devotees view Pramukh Swami’s actions in September 2002, when he appealed for peace and forgiveness of Muslim militants who killed 32 people and injured dozens more in an attack on Akshardham Gandhinagar, to epitomize the Hindu tenet of ahimsa, or nonviolence. Pramukh Swami’s personality and conduct thus serve as exemplars for devotees striving to progress personally and spiritually.
Followers believe that by associating with Pramukh Swami Maharaj, they may rid themselves of their vices, baser instincts, and worldly attachments. Earning the grace of the guru, devotees believe, will enable them to achieve liberation in which they would escape the cycle of births and deaths and attain ‘’Akshardham‘’ (God’s divine abode).
For a devotee of BAPS, Pramukh Swami Maharaj serves as the essential spiritual link between him/herself and God. According to the teachings of Swaminarayan, devotees consider God (Swaminarayan) to be manifest through Pramukh Swami Maharaj. Thus, his followers believe that by offering devotion to Pramukh Swami, they offer it to Swaminarayan himself.
Pramukh Swami is approached by many followers for guidance in all aspects of life. Devotees frequently take to him matters of personal, family, and business affairs and seek his guidance. This type of communication is thought to be an important aspect of the guru-disciple relationship. Accordingly, Pramukh Swami spends much time counseling devotees in person or by letters or telephone. Women cannot directly receive advice from Pramukh Swami due to his vows as a sadhu in the Swaminarayan tradition that prohibit him from interacting directly with females. Women have to ask male relatives to approach Pramukh Swami on their behalf, or have written messages sent to him to ask for guidance.
Raymond Williams reports that through such pastoral counseling, “Pramukh Swami instructs his followers to believe in God, because without belief in the inspiration of God and faith, nothing is possible.” Young devotees approaching Pramukh Swami for advice and guidance are often counseled to focus on their education. Williams notes that devotees trust Pramukh Swami’s advice due to his theological role as guru and manifestation of Akshar, but also because “as a world-renouncer, he is impartial and gains no personal advantage from helping them with decisions."
Pramukh Swami Maharaj has said that the purpose of his providing advice on such a range of matters is not to establish the devotees in business or to enable them to become wealthy, but to relieve them of anxieties about mundane affairs so they can attend to their spiritual progress.
On March 6, 2013, Pramukh Swami Maharaj appointed Sadhu Keshavjivandas, also known as Mahant Swami, to answer questions and provide guidance to the follower-devotees of the faith, citing health issues and old age as preventing him from meeting devotees in person.
- Sadhu Paramananddas, translated by Sadhu Tilakratnadas (1995?). Searching Questions and Fulfilling Answers: Pramukh Swami Maharaj in Interview. pp. ix-xi.
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p. 2
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p. 11
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p. 9
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p. 10
- Brahmaviharidas, Sadhu (1996). Vicharan: Moments and Memories. Ahmedabad: Swaminarayan Aksharpith. p. 13.
- Shelat, Kirit (2005). Yug Purush Pujya Pramukh Swami Maharaj: A Life Dedicated to Others. Ahmedabad: Shri Bhagwati Trust Publications. p. 7.
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p.2
- Sadhu Aksharvatsaldas, translated by Sadhu Vivekjivandas (2007). Portrait of Inspiration: Pramukh Swami Maharaj. p. xi. ISBN 81-7526-217-6.
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p.10
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p.7
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p.11
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p.15
- (2007). 100 Years of BAPS. p. 170. ISBN 81-7526-377-6.
- Brahmaviharidas, Sadhu (1996). Vicharan: Moments and Memories. Ahmedabad: Swaminarayan Aksharpith. p. 14.
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p.17
- Sadhu Aksharvatsaldas, translated by Sadhu Vivekjivandas (2007). Portrait of Inspiration: Pramukh Swami Maharaj. p. xvii. ISBN 81-7526-217-6.
- Raymond Brady Williams (2001). An Introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. p. 61. ISBN 0 521 654.22.
- Sadhu Paramananddas, translated by Sadhu Tilakratnadas (1995?). Searching Questions and Fulfilling Answers: Pramukh Swami Maharaj in Interview. pp. ix-xi. See also http://baps.org/pramukhswami/life/2.htm.
- Shelat, Kirit (2005). Yug Purush Pujya Pramukh Swami Maharaj: A Life Dedicated to Others. Ahmedabad: Shri Bhagwati Trust Publications. p. 8.
- Vivekjivandas, Sadhu (June 2000). "Pramukh Varni Din". Swaminarayan Bliss.
- Sadhu Amrutvijaydas (2007). 100 Years of BAPS. p. 11. ISBN 81-7526-377-6.
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p.14
- Brian Hutchinson (1985). The Guru in the Akshar Purushottam Branch of the Swaminarayan Hindu Sect. p. 65.
- Sadhu Aksharvatsaldas (2008). Eternal Virtues: Spiritual Attributes of Pramukh Swami Maharaj. p.251-259. ISBN 81-7526-395-4.
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p. 35.
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p. 291
- Sadhu Amrutvijaydas (2007). 100 Years of BAPS. p. 74. ISBN 81-7526-377-6.
- Sadhu Amrutvijaydas (2007). 100 Years of BAPS. p. 190. ISBN 81-7526-377-6.
- Sadhu Amrutvijaydas (2007). 100 Years of BAPS. p. 70. ISBN 81-7526-377-6.
- Hanna Kim (2010). Public Engagement and Personal Desires: BAPS Swaminarayan Temples and their Contribution to the Discourses on Religion. International Journal of Hindu Studies. p. 2.
- John Zavos (2010). Negotiating Minority/Majority Religious Identity: Exploring the Social Location of a Transnational Religious Organisation in Britain and India. Rindas, The Center for the Study of Contemporary India, Ryukoku University. International Symposium Series 1. p. 104.
- Associated Press, Hindu Temple in Atlanta Suburbs Will Be Largest in U.S., Aug 22, 2007. Available athttp://blog.beliefnet.com/news/2007/08/hindu-temple-in-atlanta-suburb.php
- "Akshardham temple enters Guinness Book of World Records - Economic Times". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. 2007-12-26. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- Guinness World Records Honors HDH Pramukh Swami Maharaj for Two World Records, http://www.swaminarayan.org/news/2000/07/guinnessbook/index.htm; Mandir Concepts, http://www.mandir.org/mandir/concepts.htm
- Brian Hutchinson (1985). The Guru in the Akshar Purushottam Branch of the Swaminarayan Hindu Sect. pp. 65-66.
- "HDH Pramukh Swami Maharaj Addresses World Peace Summit, UN". Swaminarayan.org. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- Hindu Press International, Religious Leaders Appeal for Peace in Gujarat, Sept. 26, 2002, available at http://hinduismtoday.com/blogs-news/hindu-press-international/religious-leaders-appeal-for-peace-in-gujarat/2242.html; Pramukh Swami Maharaj’s Appeal & Prayer for Peace, http://www.baps.org/News/2002/Pramukh-Swami-Maharajs-Appeal--Prayer-for-Peace-1865.aspx
- Ajay Umat, Akshardham Ideal Terror Response, The Times of India, Sept. 28, 2011
- Sadhu Amrutvijaydas (2007). 100 Years of BAPS. p. 110. ISBN 81-7526-377-6.
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p. 292
- Brian Hutchinson (1996). The Divine-Human Figure in the Transmission of Religious Transition. Published in Raymond Williams’ A Sacred Thread: Modern Transmission of Hindu Traditions in India and Abroad. Columbia University Press. p. 105.
- Sadhu Shantipriyadas, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, p. 294
- Mahurkar, Uday (2 April 2012). "The Monks who abandoned Ferraris". India Today: 66–67.
- "Diksha Ceremony 2012, Sarangpur, India". BAPS Swaminarayan Sanstha. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- Raymond Brady Williams (2001). An Introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 87-95. ISBN 0 521 654.22.
- Raymond Brady Williams (2001). An Introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. p. 94. ISBN 0 521 654.22.
- Brian Hutchinson (1998). The Guru-Devotee Relationship in the Experience of the Members of the Akshar-Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha. p. 151.
- Raymond Brady Williams (1996). The Holy Man as the Abode of God in the Swaminarayan Religion. Published in Joanne P. Waghorne and Norman Cutler’s Gods of Flesh, Gods of Stone: The Embodiment of Divinity in India. Columbia University Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-89012-037-4.
- Hanna Kim (2001). Being Swaminarayan: The Ontology and Significance of Belief in the Construction of a Gujarati Diaspora. Columbia University Press. p.354.
- A.D. Brear, The Authority of Pramukh Swami within the Swaminarayan Hindu Mission (1996). DISKUS Vol.4, No.1., available at http://www.basr.ac.uk/diskus/diskus1-6/BREAR.TXT
- Raymond Brady Williams (1996). The Holy Man as the Abode of God in the Swaminarayan Religion. Published in Joanne P. Waghorne and Norman Cutler’s Gods of Flesh, Gods of Stone: The Embodiment of Divinity in India. Columbia University Press. p. 150. ISBN 0-89012-037-4.
- John Statton Hawley and Vasudha Narayanan (2006). The Life of Hinduism. University of California Press. pp. 4-5. ISBN 978-0-520-24913-4.
- Raymond Brady Williams (1996). The Holy Man as the Abode of God in the Swaminarayan Religion. Published in Joanne P. Waghorne and Norman Cutler’s Gods of Flesh, Gods of Stone: The Embodiment of Divinity in India. Columbia University Press. p. 149. ISBN 0-89012-037-4.
- Brian Hutchinson (1998). The Guru-Devotee Relationship in the Experience of the Members of the Akshar-Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha. p. 149.
- Brian Hutchinson (1998). The Guru-Devotee Relationship in the Experience of the Members of the Akshar-Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha. p. 147.
- Brian Hutchinson (1998). The Guru-Devotee Relationship in the Experience of the Members of the Akshar-Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha. p. 144.
- Raymond Brady Williams (1996). The Holy Man as the Abode of God in the Swaminarayan Religion. Published in Joanne P. Waghorne and Norman Cutler’s Gods of Flesh, Gods of Stone: The Embodiment of Divinity in India. Columbia University Press. p. 154. ISBN 0-89012-037-4.
- Raymond Brady Williams (2004). Williams on South Asian Religions and Immigration: Collected Works. Chapter Seven: Guru as Pastoral Counselor. p. 107. ISBN 9780754638568.
- Raymond Brady Williams (2004). Williams on South Asian Religions and Immigration: Collected Works. Chapter Seven: Guru as Pastoral Counselor. p. 112. ISBN 9780754638568.
- Raymond Brady Williams (2004). Williams on South Asian Religions and Immigration: Collected Works. Chapter Seven: Guru as Pastoral Counselor. p. 109. ISBN 9780754638568.
- Raymond Brady Williams (2004). Williams on South Asian Religions and Immigration: Collected Works. Chapter Seven: Guru as Pastoral Counselor. p. 108. ISBN 9780754638568.
- Raymond Brady Williams (2004). Williams on South Asian Religions and Immigration: Collected Works. Chapter Seven: Guru as Pastoral Counselor. p. 110. ISBN 9780754638568.
- March 6, 2013 Open Letter from Pramukh Swami Maharaj, available at baps.org
- Sadhu Aksharvatsaldas, Eternal Virtues: Spiritual Attributes of Pramukh Swami Maharaj (2011), ISBN 978-8175262171, available at http://www.amazon.com/Eternal-Virtues-Spiritual-Attributes-Pramukh/dp/8175264381/.
- A.D. Brear, The Authority of Pramukh Swami within the Swaminarayan Hindu Mission (1996). DISKUS Vol.4, No.1., pp. 23–33, available at http://www.basr.ac.uk/diskus/diskus1-6/BREAR.TXT.
- Prof. Brian Hutchinson, The Guru-Devotee Relationship in the Experience of Members of the Akshar-Purushottam Sampradaya (1988).
- Prof. Hanna Kim, Being Swaminarayan: The Ontology and Significance of Belief in the Construction of a Gujarati Diaspora, Columbia University Press (2001), available at http://en.scientificcommons.org/48403746.
- Media related to Pramukh Swami Maharaj at Wikimedia Commons