Shaucha

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Shaucha (Sanskrit: शौच, also spelled Saucha, Śauca) literally means purity, cleanliness and clearness.[1] It refers to purity of mind, speech and body.[2] Saucha is one of the Niyamas of Yoga.[3] It is discussed in many ancient Indian texts such as the Mahabharata and Patanjali's Yoga Sutra. It is a virtue in Hinduism and Jainism.[4][5]

Definition[edit]

Saucha is a concept that refers to purity in deeds, words and thoughts;[6] it includes outer purity of body as well as inner purity of mind.[7][8] The concept of Saucha is synonymous with Shudhi (शुद्धि).[9] LePage states that Saucha in yoga is on many levels, and deepens as an understanding and evolution of self increases.[10]

Shaucha, or holistic purity of the body, is considered essential for health, happiness and general well-being. External purity is achieved through daily ablutions, while internal purity is cultivated through physical exercises, including asana (postures) and pranayama (breathing techniques). Along with daily ablutions to cleanse one's body, the concept of Shaucha suggests clean surrounding, along with fresh and clean food to purify the body.[11][12] Lack of Saucha, such as letting toxins build in body are a source of impurity.[13]

Shaucha goes beyond purity of body, and includes purity of speech and mind. Anger, hate, prejudice, greed, pride, fear, negative thoughts are a source of impurity of mind.[13][14] The impurities of the intellect are cleansed through the process of self-examination, or knowledge of self (Adhyatma-Vidya).[15] The mind is purified through mindfulness and meditation on one's intent, feelings, actions and its causes.[16]

Literature[edit]

Saucha is included as one of five Niyamas in Yoga, that is activity that is recommended for spiritual development of an individual. Verse II.32 of Yogasutra lists the five niyamas.[17] In verse II.40, Patanjali describes outer purity, while verse II.41 discusses inner purity,[3] as follows:

सत्त्वशुद्धिसौमनस्यैकाग्र्येन्द्रियजयात्मदर्शन योग्यत्वानि च[18]

Through cleanliness and purity of body and mind (Saucha, Shudhi) comes a purification of the essence (sattva), a goodness and gladness of feeling, a sense of focus with intentness, the mastery and union of the senses, and a fitness, preparation and capability for self-realization.
—Patanjali, Yogasutras II.41

Saucha is one of the ten Yamas listed by Śāṇḍilya Upanishad,[19] as well as by Svātmārāma.[20][21][22] It is one of the virtuous restraints (yamas) taught in ancient Indian texts. The other nine yamas are Ahiṃsā (अहिंसा): Nonviolence, Satya (सत्य): truthfulness, Asteya (अस्तेय): not stealing, Brahmacharya (ब्रह्मचर्य): celibacy chastity and fidelity,[23] Kṣamā (क्षमा): forgiveness,[24] Dhṛti (धृति): fortitude, Dayā (दया): compassion,[24] Ārjava (आर्जव): sincerity and non-hypocrisy,[25] and Mitahara (मितहार): moderate diet.

The Epic Mahabharata mentions the virtue of purity (Saucha) in numerous books. For example, in Book 14 Chapter 38, it lists Saucha as a high quality found in the liberated, happy and dharmic person,

निर्ममॊ निरहंकारॊ निराशीः सर्वतः समः | अकाम हत इत्य एष सतां धर्मः सनातनः ||
विश्रम्भॊ हरीस तितिक्षा च तयागः शौचम अतन्द्रिता | आनृशंस्यम असंमॊहॊ दया भूतेष्व अपैशुनम ||
हर्षस तुष्टिर विस्मयश च विनयः साधुवृत्तता | शान्ति कर्म विशुद्धिश च शुभा बुद्धिर विमॊचनम ||
उपेक्षा बरह्मचर्यं च परित्यागश च सर्वशः | निर्ममत्वम अनाशीस्त्वम अपरिक्रीत धर्मता ||

(He is) free from possessiveness, free from egoism, free from pessimism, looks on all with an equal eye, free from craving. (In him) is seen confidence, endurance, renunciation, purity, absence of laziness, absence of cruelty, absence of delusion, compassion for all creatures, absence of the disposition to slander others or to exult at gains; (he is) satisfied, humble, emancipated, indifferent, peaceful, unaffected by ups and downs, pursuer of Brahma, and exhibits purity in all acts aiming for tranquillity, understanding and the right.
Ashvamedhika ParvaThe Mahabharata, 14.38.5-8[26]

Bhagwad Gita describes purity at three levels in Book 17, verses 14-16, namely body, speech and thoughts.[27] Purity of body comes from cleanliness of body as well as from what one eats and drinks. Purity of speech comes from being truthful and through use of words that are not injurious, hurtful or distressing to others or self. Purity of thoughts comes from reflection, peace of mind, silence, calmness, gentleness and purity of being.[27]

Purity of mind, speech and body has been one of the important virtues in Indian philosophy.[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Saucha Sanskrit English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany
  2. ^ Sharma and Sharma, Indian Political Thought, Atlantic Publishers, ISBN 978-8171566785, page 19
  3. ^ a b Woods, James Haughton (translator) (2003), The yoga-system of Patañjali; or, The ancient Hindu doctrine of concentration of mind, Courier Dover Publications, pp. 181–182, ISBN 978-0-486-43200-7 
  4. ^ Paul S. Reinsch (1911), Energism in the Orient, International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 407-422
  5. ^ John Taber (1991), India and Europe: An Essay in Understanding by Wilhelm Halbfass, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 229-240
  6. ^ Markil, Geithner, & Penhollow (2010), Hatha Yoga: Benefits and principles for a more meaningful practice, ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal, 14(5): 19-24
  7. ^ CP Bhatta (2009), Holistic Personality Development through Education - Ancient Indian Cultural Experiences, Journal of Human Values, 15(1): 49-59
  8. ^ Sridevi Seetharam (2013), Dharma and medical ethics, Indian journal of medical ethics, 10(4): 226-231
  9. ^ Shudhi Sanskrit English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany
  10. ^ J. LePage (1995), Patanjali's Yoga Sutras as a Model for Psycho-Spiritual Evolution, International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 6(1): 23-26
  11. ^ Christina Brown, The Yoga Bible, ISBN 978-1582972428, page 14-17
  12. ^ Beryl Birch (2010), Beyond Power Yoga: 8 Levels of Practice for Body and Soul, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0684855264, pages 78-79
  13. ^ a b K. V. Raghupathi, Yoga for Peace, ISBN 978-8170174837, pages 60-61
  14. ^ Elizabeth Kadetsky (2008), Modeling School, The Antioch Review, Vol. 66, No. 2, pp. 254-268
  15. ^ Hinduism's Restraints and Observances Hinduism Today, K.N. Aiyar (July/August/September 2007)
  16. ^ Judith Lasater, Cultivate your connections Yoga Journal (AUG 28, 2007)
  17. ^ Original Sanskrit: शौच संतोष तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः || Translation: Saucha (purity), Santosha (contentment), Tapah (meditation), Svādhyāya (continuous learning), and Isvarapranidhana (contemplation of one's origins, God, Self) are the niyamas; Michele Desmarais (2008), Changing Minds : Mind, Consciousness And Identity In Patanjali's Yoga-Sutra, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120833364, pages 125-134
  18. ^ Patanjali's Yogasutra Sanskrit Document, Book 2, Verse 41
  19. ^ KN Aiyar (1914), Thirty Minor Upanishads, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 978-1164026419, Chapter 22, pages 173-176
  20. ^ Svātmārāma; Pancham Sinh (1997). The Hatha Yoga Pradipika (5 ed.). Forgotten Books. p. 14. ISBN 9781605066370.
    Quote - अथ यम-नियमाः
    अहिंसा सत्यमस्तेयं बरह्यछर्यम कश्हमा धृतिः
    दयार्जवं मिताहारः शौछम छैव यमा दश
     
  21. ^ Lorenzen, David (1972). The Kāpālikas and Kālāmukhas. University of California Press. pp. 186–190. ISBN 978-0520018426. 
  22. ^ Subramuniya (2003). Merging with Śiva: Hinduism's contemporary metaphysics. Himalayan Academy Publications. p. 155. ISBN 9780945497998. Retrieved 6 April 2009. 
  23. ^ Louise Taylor (2001), The Woman's Book of Yoga: A Journal for Body and Mind, ISBN 978-0804818292, page 3
  24. ^ a b Stuart Sovatsky (1998), Words from the Soul: Time East/West Spirituality and Psychotherapeutic Narrative, State University of New York, ISBN 978-0791439494, page 21
  25. ^ J Sinha, Indian Psychology, p. 142, at Google Books, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidas, OCLC 1211693, page 142
  26. ^ The Mahabharata in Sanskrit Book 14, Chapter 38; For translation: Ashvamedhika Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, Published by P.C. Roy (1893)
  27. ^ a b Gavin Flood (2005), The Ascetic Self: Subjectivity, Memory and Tradition, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521604017, pages 77-93
  28. ^ S. Radhakrishnan (1922), The Hindu Dharma, International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 1-22