Shaybanids

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For the Arab ruling house of Shirvan, see Mazyadid dynasty.
The trellis-walled yurt of Muhammad Shaybani Khan.

The Shaybanids (Persian: سلسله شیبانیان‎) were a Persianized[1] dynasty of Mongolian and Turkic origin in central Asia. They were the patrilineal descendants of Shiban, the fifth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. Until the mid-14th century, they acknowledged the authority of the descendants of Batu Khan and Orda Khan, such as Uzbeg Khan. The Shaybanid horde was converted to Islam in 1282 and gradually assumed the name of Uzbeks. At its height, the khanate included parts of modern day Persia, Afghanistan and parts of central Asia.

As the lineages of Batu and Orda died out in the course of the great civil wars of the 14th century, the Shaybanids under Abu'l-Khayr Khan declared themselves the only legitimate successors to Jochi and put forward claims to the whole of his enormous ulus, which included parts of Siberia and Kazakhstan. Their rivals were the Timurids, who claimed descent from Jochi's thirteenth son by a concubine. Several decades of strife left the Timurids in control of the Great Horde and its successor states in Europe, namely, the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Crimea.

Shaybanid dynasty[edit]

The battle between Shah Ismail I and Muhammad Shaybani.

Under Abu'l-Khayr Khan (who led the Shaybanids from 1428 to 1468), the dynasty began consolidating disparate Uzbek tribes, first in the area around Tyumen and the Tura River and then down into the Syr Darya region. His grandson Muhammad Shaybani (ruled 1500-10), who gave his name to the Shaybanid dynasty, wrested Samarkand, Herat (for a time) and Bukhara from Babur's control and established the short-lived Shaybanid Empire. After his death at the hands of Shah Ismail I, he was followed successively by an uncle, a cousin, and a brother, whose Shaybanid descendants would rule the Khanate of Bukhara from 1505 until 1598 and the Khanate of Khwarezm (Khiva) from 1511 until 1695.

In 1506 Sheibani Khan captured Balkh. On 28 May 1507 Sheibani Khan took Herat and the power of Tamerlane was overthrown. He managed to capture most of the Mawarannahr and Khorasan and to create a unified state. In Herat artist Behzad painted his portrait, which has been preserved to this day. Now it is stored in the Metropolitan Museum in New York. In 1508 Sheibani Khan subjugated other cities of Khorasan: Damghan, Astrabad, Mashhad, etc. By 1508, the Sheibani Khan became the supreme ruler of a vast area stretching from the shores of the Syr Darya in the north to Kandahar in the south and the Caspian Sea in the west to the borders of China to the east.

Another state ruled by the Shaybanids was the Khanate of Sibir, seizing the throne in 1563. Its last khan, Kuchum, was deposed by the Russians in 1598. He escaped to Bukhara, but his sons and grandsons were taken by the Tsar to Moscow, where they eventually assumed the surname of Sibirsky. Apart from this famous branch, several other noble families from Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan (e.g., Princes Valikhanov) petitioned the Russian imperial authorities to recognise their Shaybanid roots, but mostly in vain.

Khans of Shaybanid dynasty of Khanate of Bukhara[edit]

Titular Name Personal Name Reign
They were descendants of Shiban youngest son of Jochi ruling in Western Siberia. Later a major faction split and made a dash for Transoxiana and adopted the name Uzbek (Ozbeg) after their famous Khan, Uzbeg Khan. The faction that remained behind in Siberia created the Khanate of Sibir and lasted till the 16th century.
Khan
خان
Abul-Khayr Khan ibn Dawlat Shaykh ibn Ibrahim Khan
ابو الخیر خان ابن دولت شیخ ابن ابراہیم خان
1428 - 1468 C.E.
Khan
خان
Shaykh Hayder
-
Shah Budagh Khan ibn Abul-Khayr Khan
شاہ بداغ خان ابن ابو الخیر خان
1468 C.E.
Khan
خان
Abul-Fath
ابو الفتح
Muhammad Shayabak Khan ibn Shah Budagh Khan ibn Abul-Khayr Khan
محمد شایبک خان ابن شاہ بداغ خان ابن ابو الخیر خان
1500 – 1510 C.E.
Khan
خان
Kochkunju Muhammad bin Abul-Khayr Khan
کچھکنجو محمد بن ابو الخیر خان
1512 – 1531 C.E.
Khan
خان
Muzaffar-al-Din
مظفر الدین
Abu Sa'id bin Kochkunju
ابو سعید بن کچھکنجو
1531 – 1534 C.E.
Khan
خان
Abul Ghazi
ابو الغازی
Ubaydullah bin Mahmud bin Shah Budagh
عبید اللہ بن محمود بن شاہ بداغ
1534 – 1539 C.E.
Khan
خان
Abdullah bin Kochkunju
عبد اللہ بن کچھکنجو
1539 – 1540 C.E.
Khan
خان
Abdal-Latif bin Kochkunju
عبد اللطیف بن کچھکنجو
1540 – 1552 C.E.
Khan
خان
Nawruz Ahmed bin Sunjuq bin Abul-Khayr Khan
نوروز احمد بن سنجق بن ابو الخیر خان
1552 – 1556 C.E.
Khan
خان
Pir Muhammad Khan bin Jani Beg
پیر محمد خان بن جانی بیگ
1556 – 1561 C.E.
Khan
خان
Iskander bin Jani Beg
اسکندر بن جانی بیگ
1561 – 1583 C.E.
Khan
خان
Buzurg Khan
بزرگ خان
Abdullah Khan Uzbek
عبد اللہ خان ازبک
Abdullah Khan bin Iskander
عبد اللہ خان بن اسکندر
1583 – 1598 C.E.
Khan
خان
Abdul-Mo'min bin Abdullah Khan
عبد المومن بن عبد اللہ خان
1598 C.E.
Khan
خان
Pir Muhammad Khan bin Sulayman Khan bin Jani Beg
پیر محمد خان بن سلیمان خان بن جانی بیگ
1598 – 1599 C.E.
Khanate of Bukhara taken over by a new dynasty called the Janids also known as Toqay-Temurids (descendants of Khans of Astrakhan).
    • Blue Row Signifies progenitor chief.
      • Khans of significance highlighted in Bold.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ira Marvin Lapidus - 2002, A history of Islamic societies, p.374
  • Bartold, Vasily (1964) The Shaybanids. Collected Works, vol. 2, part 2. Moscow, 1964.
  • Grousset, René (1970) The Empire of the Steppes: a history of central Asia Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ, (translated by Naomi Walford from the French edition, published by Payot in 1970), pp. 478–490 et passim, ISBN 0-8135-0627-1
  • Bosworth, C.E. (1996) The new Islamic dynasties: a chronological and genealogical manual Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 288–9, ISBN 0-231-10714-5
  • Soucek, Svatopluk (2000) A History of Inner Asia Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 149–157, ISBN 0-521-65169-7
  • Erkinov A. “The Poetry of the Nomads and Shaybani Rulers of Transition to a Settled Society”. In: Central Asia on Display: Proceedings of the VII. Conference of the European Society for Central Asian Studies (27–30 September 2000). G.Rasuly-Paleczek, J. Katsching (eds). Vienna, 2005. P.145-150.