State Anthem of Ukraine
|English: Ukraine Has Not Yet Died|
|Shche ne vmerla Ukraina|
National anthem of
|Lyrics||Pavlo Chubynsky, 1862|
|Music||Mykhailo Verbytsky, 1863|
|Adopted||15 January 1992 (music)
6 March 2003 (lyrics)
"Shche ne vmerla Ukraina" (Ukrainian: Ще не вмерла Українa, or "Ukraine Has Not Yet Died") is the national anthem of Ukraine ( instrumental performance (help·info)). The anthem's music was officially adopted by Ukraine's Verkhovna Rada on January 15, 1992. The official lyrics were adopted on March 6, 2003 by "the Law on the Anthem of Ukraine" (Ukrainian: Закон про Гімн України) ( instrumental performance (help·info), choral performance (help·info)).
The song was first the national anthem of the Ukrainian Republic, West Ukraine, Carpatho-Ukraine, and once again adopted by independent Ukraine following its secession from the Soviet Union. Before its re-adaptation a competition for a national anthem among three patriotic songs took place with one of the other songs being Za Ukrainu by Mykola Voronyi.
The lyrics constitute a slightly modified original first stanza of the patriotic poem written in 1862 by Pavlo Chubynsky, a prominent ethnographer from the region of Ukraine's capital, Kiev. In 1863, Mykhailo Verbytsky, a western Ukrainian composer and a Greek-Catholic priest composed music to accompany Chubynsky's text. The first choral performance of the piece was at the Ukraine Theatre in Lviv, in 1864.
Creation of Ukrainian national anthem started in the autumn of 1862 during one of Pavlo Chubynskyi's parties. Chubynskyi, a prominent ethnographer, folklorist and poet, noticed Serbian students from the Kyiv University singing a patriotic song, which mentioned tzar Dyshan and which included the line "срце бије и крв лије за своју слободу" as a refrain. He really liked that song and upon hearing it vanished quietly in another room only to reappear half an hour later with a ready-made lyrics for the song "Shche ne vmerla Ukrayina," and then promptly sang it to the music of the Serbian song.
Some researches believe that the Polish song "Jeszcze Polska nie zgineła…", which later became Polish state anthem, also had an influence on Chubynskyi's lyrics. At the time, Dombrovsky March was very popular among nations that were fighting for their independence (for instance, few months after Chubynskyi wrote his lyrics, the January Uprising began. Likewise, influenced by this polish song, Slovak poet Samo Tomášik wrote a song "Hey, Slavs", which later became Yugoslavia's anthem in 1944-2003. Another popular version of this polish song, Bulgaria "Noises of Mariza" was Bulgarian anthem in 1886-1944.
The widespread use of Chybynskyi's lyrics among ukrainophils was very rapid. On October 20 of the same year that lyrics were written the head gendarm knyaz Dolhorykov gave an order to banish Chybynskyi for the "dangerous influence on the minds of commons" and sent him in exile to Arkhangelsk Governorate.
The first time Chybynskyi's poem was officially published was in 1863 when it appeared in the 4th issue of Lviv's journal "Meta". Soon after poem became popular in Western Ukraine, it was noticed by Ukrainian clergy. Inspired by Pavlo Chybynskyi's poem, one of them, father Mykhailo Verbytskyi of Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church, a prominent Ukrainian composer of his times, decided to write music for it. In 1865 Chybynskyi's poem was first published together with Verbytskyi's music sheet. The first choral performance of the piece was in 1864 at the Ukraine Theatre in Lviv.
However, Chybynskyi's poem wasn't used as a state anthem up until 1917. Still, even in 1917-1920 legislatively "Shche ne vmerla Ukrayina" was not adopted as an exclusive state anthem and as a result other anthems were also used at the time. In 1939 "Shche ne vmerla Ukrayina" was adopted as an official state anthem of Carpatho-Ukraine.
When Ukraine was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1920 and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was formed, it was immediately banned by the Soviet regime. At the dawn of the Soviet Union, when it was decided that each separate Soviet republic could have its own anthem, the poem "Sche ne vmerla Ukrayina" was rejected in order to suppress separatism amongst Ukrainians. Soviet rulers wanted the text that would state that Ukraine is a country inside the USSR that it is "equal among equals, free among the free" and it necessarily had to mention the communist party that leads Ukraine towards communism. This task was accomplished by Pavlo Tychyna, whose version of "Zhyvy, Ykrayino, prekrasna i syl'na" was the official anthem of Ukrainian SSR from 1949 to 1991. Composer Anton Lebedynez' wrote the music for it. Nonetheless, this anthem never became popular among Ukrainians and in Soviet times, instead of the anthem of the Ukrainian SSR, the anthem of the USSR was played during nearly all official events in Ukraine.
On January 15, 1992 the music for the State Anthem of Ukraine was adopted by Ukraine's Verkhovna Rada, which was later solidified by the Ukrainian constitution. However, the lyrics for the anthem were not officially adopted up until March 6, 2003 when Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada passed the Law on the State Anthem of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Закон "Про Державний гімн України"), proposed by the then president Leonid Kuchma. The law proposed to pass Mykola Verbytskyi's music and Pavlo Chybynskyi's first verse and refrain of his poem "Shche ne vmerla Ukrayina". However, the first stanza of the anthem was to be changed from "Shche ne vmerla Ukrayina, ni slava ni volia" to "Shche ne vmerla Ukrayiny, i slava i volia".
The law was passed with an overwhelming majority of 334 votes out of the total 450, with only 46 MPs voting against it. Only the members of Socialist Party of Ukraine and Communist Party of Ukraine refrained from the voting. The passing of this law finalized Article 20 of the Constitution of Ukraine. The national anthem that up until that moment had only officially consisted of Mykolo Verbytskyi's music, had henceforce also included the modified lyrics of Pavlo Chybynskyi and was legislatively adopted by the Ukrainian law.
The popularity of Ukrainian anthem has become particularly high in the wake of the mass protests of 2004 (Orange Revolution) and 2013 (Euromaidan). Ukrainian composer Valentyn Syl'vestrov, who participated in Ukrainian protests in Kyiv, characterised Ukrainian anthem in the following way:
|(Ukrainian) гімн України — дивовижний. Спочатку він начебто не справляє враження, але це лише на перший погляд. Насправді його створив Михайло Вербицький — церковний композитор середини ХІХ ст. Він жив в Австрійській монархії, мабуть, дуже любив Шуберта, у нього був мелодійний дар — це помітно з його літургій. Він був церковним композитором. І ось цю патріотичну пісню він теж створив як церковний композитор. Це ж алілуя, розспів (наспівує). У гімнах ніде такого немає! Це унікальний твір: це — гімн України, але в ньому є ознаки літургійного початку. У цьому гімні затонула якась пам’ять про літургію, про всеношну. У цьому простому наспіві немов дме вітер, немов гілки дерев співають.
« The Ukrainian anthem is amazing. At first it doesn't impress you at all, but that's only at first glance. In reality this anthem was created by Mykhailo Verbytskyi - clerical composer of the mid-19th century. He lived in the Austrian monastery and, probably, just like Shubert, had an euphonic gift - it's clear from his liturgies. He was a church composer. This chant, that's halleluiah (singing). No other anthem has this! It's a unique piece: the anthem of Ukraine, which at the same time has all characteristic features of a liturgy's beginning. Some memory of a liturgy, of an all-night-vigil, has drowned in this anthem. It seems as if wind blows in this simple chant, as if tree's branches are singing. »
Shche ne vmerla Ukraina was sung as the de facto national anthem at the inauguration of the first President Leonid Kravchuk on December 5, 1991, but it was not until March 6, 2003 that Chybynskyi's poem officially became a part of Ukrainian national anthem.
On March 6, 2003, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted anthem's official lyrics, opting to use only the first verse and chorus from Chybynskyi's poem, while slightly modifying its first stanza. Instead of stating "Ukraine has not yet died, neither her glory, nor her freedom" (Ukrainian: Ще не вмерла Україна, ні слава, ні воля), the concept of Ukraine perishing as a nation has been removed: the opening line now states "Ukraine's glory has not yet died, nor her glory, nor her freedom" (Ukrainian: Ще не вмерла України, і слава, і воля).
Article 20 of the Constitution of Ukraine (June 28, 1996) designates Verbytsky's music as the theme of the national anthem:
The State Anthem of Ukraine is the national anthem set to the music of M. Verbytskyi, with words that are confirmed by the law adopted by no less than two-thirds of the constitutional composition of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.
Chybynskyi's original lyrics
Ще не вмерла Україна,
Ой Богдане, Богдане
Наші браття Славяне
Oi Bohdane, Bohdane
Nashi brattia Slaviane
Ukraine has not yet died,
Ще не вмерла Україна, ні слава, ні воля,
Станем браття, в бій кривавий, від Сяну до Дону
А завзяття, праця щира свого ще докаже,
Shche ne vmerla Ukrayina, ni slava, ni volya,
Stanem brattia, v biy kryvavyi, vid Sianu do Donu
A zavziattia pratsia shchyra svoho shche dokazhe,
Ukraine has not yet died, nor her glory, nor her freedom,
We'll stand, brothers, in bloody battle, from the Syan to the Don,
Our persistence and our sincere toils will be rewarded,
Ще не вмерла України і слава, і воля,
Shche ne vmerla Ukrayiny i slava, i volya,
Ukraine's glory has not yet died, nor her freedom,
- Magocsi, Paul Robert (2010). A History of Ukraine: A Land and Its Peoples. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 401.
- "Ukraine - Shche ne Vmerla Ukraina". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
- Cerkwa.net - Father Mykhailo Verbytsky
- or "срб се бије и крв лије за своју слободу ..."
- Светозар Милетић. Србска песма
- Іван Ющук. Іван Франко і національно-визвольна боротьба сербів у 70-их роках XIX ст.
- Павло Чубинський писав вірші "під Шевченка"
- Russian: за вредное влияние на умы простолюдинов
- Марія Семенченко. Валентин СИЛЬВЕСТРОВ: "Читайте Шевченка, доки не пізно ..." // "День", 29 грудня 2013
- Used prior to 2003
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to National anthem of Ukraine.|
- Information an resources on Shche ne Vmerla Ukraina
- Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy in MP3.
- National Symbols from President of Ukraine
- Constitution of Ukraine, Chapter 1, General Principles - Article 20 of this chapter deals with national symbols. This website, part of the Official website of the Verkhovna Rada, includes a vocal version of the anthem using pre-2003 lyrics
- An English translation of Anthem of Ukraine on WikiTranslate.org
- Performance to the 10th Anniversary since adaptation of lyrics on YouTube. TSN. "1+1". 2013-3-6