Sheikh Fazlollah Noori
Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri (Persian: شیخ فضلالله نوری; born 1843, Mazandaran; died 31 July 1909, Tehran) was a prominent Shiite Muslim cleric in Iran during the late 19th and early 20th century und Founder of Political Islam in Iran. He was opposed of Separation of Religion and state, and Colonial Intervention in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution. He was executed for treason as a result. Today, he is considered a martyr (shahid) in the fight against democracy by Islamic conservatives in Iran.
Sheik Fazlullah was born in 1843. After finishing primary education, he left Iran for Najaf and left for Samara to enjoy Mirza Shirazi's excellence. He went to Iran in 1883 and took resident in Tehran. He believed in the Sharia. He believed that Muslims need an Islamic parliament based on Koran and Mohammad's experience.
Nouri was one of the most vigorous opponents of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, a movement to remove foreign influence from Iran, limit the power of the Shah and establish a national consultative assembly that would give the people a voice in the affairs of state. The movement was led principally by merchants, intellectuals and some clerics. Nouri initially gave restrained support to the uprising, but he soon became an extreme critic and enemy of the constitutionalists. He authored pamphlets and incited mobs against constitutionalism and constitutionalists preaching that they would bring vice to Iran. He issued a fatwa declaring all members of the new parliament and government "apostates", "atheists," "secret Babis," and koffar al-harbi (warlike pagans) whose blood ought to be shed by the faithful.
Nouri allied himself with the new Shah, Mohammad Ali Shah, who with the assistance of Russian troops staged a coup against the Majlis (parliament) in 1907. In 1909, however, constitutionalists marched onto Tehran (the capital of Iran). Nouri was arrested, tried and found guilty of "sowing corruption and sedition on earth," and in July 1909, Nouri was hanged as a traitor.
- Taheri, Amir, The Spirit of Allah by Amir Adler and Adler (1985), p.45-6
- Abrahamian, Ervand, Tortured Confessions by Ervand Abrahamian, University of California Press, 1999 p.24
- Ahmad Kasravi, Tārikh-e Mashruteh-ye Iran (تاریخ مشروطهٔ ایران) (History of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution), in Persian, 951 p. (Negāh Publications, Tehran, 2003), ISBN 964-351-138-3. Note: This book is also available in two volumes, published by Amir Kabir Publications in 1984. Amir Kabir's 1961 edition is in one volume, 934 pages.
- Ahmad Kasravi, History of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution: Tārikh-e Mashrute-ye Iran, Volume I, translated into English by Evan Siegel, 347 p. (Mazda Publications, Costa Mesa, California, 2006). ISBN 1-56859-197-7