Sheikh Fazlollah Noori

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Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri

Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri (Persian: شیخ فضل‌الله نوری; born Dec. 24th, 1843, Mazandaran; died 31 July 1909, Tehran) was a prominent Shia Muslim cleric in Iran during the late 19th and early 20th century and founder of Political Islam in Iran. He was opposed to the separation of religion and state. Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri was the main political character in opposition to repeat of French revolution in Persia, and colonial intervention in the internal Affairs of Persian Empire at the time of Iranian Constitutional Revolution. He was executed in result of a "Geheimdienst" operation of "Kaiserreich Deutschland" (covert spy operation of the German Empire) in the forming stage of the WW1.[citation needed] The late Jalal Al-e-Ahmad writes in his On the Services and Treasons of Intellectuals, “The hanged corpse of that honorable man is for me akin to the flag of domination of occidentosis raised above the country after 200 years of struggle.”[1] The aim of the terror operation was to build a political disability within the relationship of Kingdom of Persia and the Russian Empire. Today, he is considered a martyr (Shahid) by Shias in Iran.[citation needed]


Sheik Fazlullah (Hajj Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri Tabarsi, Sheikh Shahid, Sheikh Nouri) was Son of Abbas Kojouri Pishnamaz (Abbas Nouri Tabrassi) and married Sakineh Nouri Tabrasi (Daughter of Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi). After finishing primary education, he left Iran for Najaf and left for Samara to enjoy Mirza Shirazi's excellence. He returned in 1883 to Tehran and became the first rank clergy of Tehran. He believed in the Sharia. He believed that Muslims need an Islamic parliament based on Koran and Mohammad's experience. He played an important role in the risings which led to the issuing of the firman of constitutionalism. He collaborated with the rest of the constitutionalists including Seyyed Abdollah Behbahani. But his insistence on the compatibility of the constitution with the Islamic principles led to some disputes among the followers of the movement, and finally he was executed in July 31, 1909. He was also a great authority in answering the religious questions. He made great efforts to donate legitimacy to the movement, and staged a sit in to protest against the removal of religiosity in the constitution.

In time of Constitutional movement[edit]

Sheikh Fazlullah Nouri was a clergy who played a prominent role in the victory of Constitutional movement, but upon seeing its deviation he began to oppose Westernized Policy. He was after a religiously legitimate constitution founded on Islamic rules and rejected imitation of Western colonialism. He was among the first Muslim scholars who found out colonial conspiracy to replace Islam with secularism in the disguise of constitutionalism and constitution and so endeavored to prevent nationalism from surpassing Islamism as well as to obstruct domination of western licentiousness nad immorality in the society under the name of democracy and freedom. Subsequent to conquer of Tehran which overthrew despotic rule of Mohammad Ali Shah, the domicile of Sheikh Fazlullah Nouri, who was himself one of the pioneers of movement, was surrounded by constitutionalist whom were propelled by foreign powers[citation needed].[1]

Nouri was one of the most vigorous opponents of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, a movement to remove foreign influence from Iran, limit the power of the Shah and establish a national consultative assembly that would give the people a voice in the affairs of state. The movement was led principally by merchants, intellectuals and some clerics. Nouri initially gave restrained support to the uprising, but he soon became an extreme critic and enemy of the constitutionalists. He authored pamphlets and incited mobs against constitutionalism and constitutionalists preaching that they would bring vice to Iran. He issued a fatwa declaring all members of the new parliament and government "apostates", "atheists," "secret Freemasons" and koffar al-harbi (warlike pagans) whose blood ought to be shed by the faithful.[2][3]

Terror Conspiracy based on Persian and Indo-German-Turkish mission[edit]

Wilhelm Wassmuss (1880 – November 29, 1931) was a German spion, known as "Wassmuss of Persia", later both Nazi and Stasi Hero : "the man who comes right after God". He attempted to foment trouble for the British and Russian in the Persian Gulf in the First World War. Wilhelm Wassmuss , Oskar von Niedermayer , Werner Otto von Hentig , Max Freiherr von Oppenheim and Major Haase were the coordinators on the killing of Sheikh Fazlollah Noori (Book : Der Deutsche Lawrence büchergilde Gutenberg, Wilhelm Wassmuss, Berlin, 1938).

Wilhelm Wassmuss. Wilhelm Wassmuss the Lawrence of Persia and the coordinators on the killing of the Sheikh Fazlollah Noori

The "Political disorder" and "Social chaos" in result of interference and military adventure of "Wassmuss of Persia" in natural process of "Persian Peaceful Constitutiona Revolution" and against "Iranian-Britain-Russian neutral Axis" in the time period of 1909 to 1919 costs life of up to 8 to 9 million Iranian (25% to 50% of Iranian Population), known as "The Great Famine & Genocide in Iran" or first "Iranian Holocaust" and life of 1.5 million Armanian Known as Armenian Genocide (Armenian Holocaust). The forced to resign of Otto von Bismarck 1890, changing the foreign policy of "German Empire" to instigate Muslims for a Holy War against Britain-Russian was the start point of German Holocaustic interference in Persia and Irak internal political affairs. The Assassination of Mirza Mohammed Hassan Husseini Shirazi and Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi in Najaf were the first Assassination Series of German-Osmania new mission.

Hanging of Fazlollah Nuri - Photo from "Major Haase"

Killing of Nouri[edit]

Nouri allied himself with the new Shah, Mohammad Ali Shah, who, with the assistance of Russian troops staged a coup against the Majlis (parliament) in 1907. In 1909, however, constitutionalists marched onto Tehran (the capital of Iran). Nouri was arrested, tried and found guilty of "sowing corruption and sedition on earth,"[3] and in July 1909, Nouri was hanged as a traitor. Before his arrest an employee of Russian embassy entered his house and proposed his taking of refuge in the embassy, but it was faced with harsh negative response of Sheikh Fazlullah. Sheikh Fazlullah even rejected the employee’s proposal on raising the flag of Russia above the door of the house saying, “Islam never goes under the banner of evasion”, and adding, “Is it allowable that I go under the banner of evasion after 70 years of struggle for the sake of Islam?” Then, he demanded his companions to empty the house in order to be immune from any harm. Finally, Sheikh Fazlullah was arrested and after short trial he was sentenced to death by a verdict from a clergy. At the threshold of being hanged, he received a message that he would be rescued if he confirmed such kind of constitution. He responded, “I dreamed Prophet Muhammad last night who invited me to his feast for tonight. I never sign and confirm such a thing.” [1] “... The study of constitutionality is not possible without the study of intellectual and political attitudes of Hajj Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri. He has been influential in various phases of the process and if constitutionality is the first real ground for the serious confrontation between religion and modernism, in those days, Sheikh sided for the defense of religion and paid a great expense for it…” [4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c The martyrdom of Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri, the leader of Iran’s constitutional
  2. ^ Taheri, Amir, The Spirit of Allah by Amir Adler and Adler (1985), p.45-6
  3. ^ a b Abrahamian, Ervand, Tortured Confessions by Ervand Abrahamian, University of California Press, 1999 p.24
  4. ^ Sheikh Fazlolah Nouri and the Chronological School of Constitutionalism - Shahid Ali AbolHassani (Monzer)

Further reading[edit]

  • Ahmad Kasravi, Tārikh-e Mashruteh-ye Iran (تاریخ مشروطهٔ ایران) (History of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution), in Persian, 951 p. (Negāh Publications, Tehran, 2003), ISBN 964-351-138-3. Note: This book is also available in two volumes, published by Amir Kabir Publications in 1984. Amir Kabir's 1961 edition is in one volume, 934 pages.
  • Ahmad Kasravi, History of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution: Tārikh-e Mashrute-ye Iran, Volume I, translated into English by Evan Siegel, 347 p. (Mazda Publications, Costa Mesa, California, 2006). ISBN 1-56859-197-7