Sheikhupura District

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ضِلع شَيخُوپُور

ضلع شیخاپورا
District
Sheikhupura District
Map of Punjab with Sheikhupura District highlighted
Map of Punjab with Sheikhupura District highlighted
Country Pakistan
Province Punjab
Established 1922
Headquarters Sheikhupura
Government
 • D.C.O Ch Ahsaan Samra
 • D.P.O Afzaal Ahmed Kauser
Population (1998)
 • Total 3,321,029
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Number of Tehsils 5

Sheikhupura District (Urdu: ضِلع شَيخُوپُور‎) (Punjabi: ضلع شیخاپورا), is a district of Punjab province, Pakistan. Sheikhupura is the headquarters of Sheikhupura District. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the district had a population of 3,321,029 of which 25.45% were urban.[1]

History[edit]

Sheikhupura District was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that invaded from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overrunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Sheikhupura was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Sheikhupura District. During the period of British rule, Sheikhupura district increased in population and importance.

The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Sheikhupura District.

Language[edit]

Further information: Punjabi dialects

As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, Punjabi language is spoken by 95%. Punjabi dialects spoken in the district are

  • Majhi or Standard (Majority)
  • Malwi (Migrated people from Indian)

Other Languages include:

  • Urdu being national language is spoken and understood.
  • English is also understood and spoken by the sizable educated people.

Urdu, Punjabi and English

Administration[edit]

The district comprises 5 tehsils:

  1. Sheikhupura
  2. Ferozewala
  3. Muridke
  4. Sharaqpur
  5. Safdarabad

Boundaries[edit]

Sheikhupura is bounded by 6 other districts of Pakistani Punjab namely: Lahore, Nankana Sahib, Narowal, Hafizabad, Faisalabad and Gujranwala.

To the east is the international boundary of Amritsar - Punjab, India.

Geology[edit]

The area is a part of Rachna Doab, and consists of some recent sediment brought by spill channel from Chenab River. There are some old channel levee remnants and old basins filled up with clay materials. It is probably of late Pleistocene age derived from mixed calcareous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the lower Himalayas. The only mineral products of the District are Kankar and Kallar. The small particles of Kankar may be burnt into lime. These are the features of all bare lands and are found on the surface or a little below it. Kallar is found on mounds, which are sites of old ruined habitations, and is used for the manufacture of crude saltpeter.

Climate[edit]

The District has extreme climate; the summer season starts from April and continues till October. During the summer season, temperature ranges from 30 to 45 degrees Celsius. The winter season starts from November and continues till March. December and January are the coldest months with a mean minimum temperature of 5 degrees.

The dust storms occur occasionally during the hot season, during June, July and August. Rainy weather alternates with oppressive weather. The rainfall is 500mm per year. The mean minimum and maximum humidity during winter is 37% and 84%.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 31°43′12″N 73°58′48″E / 31.72000°N 73.98000°E / 31.72000; 73.98000