Adelson at a Hong Kong press conference in June 2010
|Born||Sheldon Gary Adelson
August 4, 1933
Boston, Massachusetts, United States
|Alma mater||City College of New York (Dropped out)|
|Occupation||Chairman and CEO of the Las Vegas Sands|
|Known for||Casino and hotel magnate|
|Net worth||$26.5 billion (2013)|
|Spouse(s)||Sandra (?-1988; divorced)
Miriam Ochsorn (1991-)
Sheldon Gary Adelson (pronounced //; born August 4, 1933) is an American business magnate. He is the chairman and chief executive officer of the Las Vegas Sands Corporation, the parent company of Venetian Macao Limited which operates The Venetian Resort Hotel Casino and the Sands Expo and Convention Center. He also owns the Israeli daily newspaper Israel HaYom. As of October 2012, Adelson is listed as the 24th richest person in the world with an estimated net worth of 21.8 billion. Previously, he was listed in the Forbes 400 as the 12th wealthiest American.
Early life and education 
Adelson was born and grew up in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Sarah (née Tonkin) and Arthur Adelson. His family was Jewish. His father drove a taxi, and his mother ran a knitting shop. His business career began at the age of 12. He began to sell newspapers at the age of 12 and started a candy-vending-machine business at the age of 16. He attended trade school to become a court reporter but later joined the army.
He worked as a mortgage broker, investment adviser and financial consultant. He started a business selling toiletry kits after being discharged from the army then started another business named De-Ice-It, which sold a chemical spray to help clear frozen windshields. In the 1960s, he started a charter tours business. Adelson attended City College of New York, but dropped out.
Business career 
The original source of Adelson's wealth and current investments was the computer trade show COMDEX, which he and his partners developed for the computer industry; the first show was in 1979. It was the premier computer trade show through much of the 1980s and 1990s.
Sands Casino 
Las Vegas, Nevada 
In 1988, Adelson and his partners purchased the Sands Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas, the former hangout of Frank Sinatra and the Rat Pack, in order to bring Las Vegas to a new source of business from the exhibition industry. The following year, Adelson and his partners constructed the Sands Expo and Convention Center, then the only privately owned and operated convention center in the US.
In 1991, while honeymooning in Venice with his second wife, Miriam, Adelson found the inspiration for a mega-resort hotel. He razed the Sands and spent $1.5 billion to construct The Venetian, a Venice-themed resort hotel and casino. In 2003, The Venetian added the 1,013-suite Venezia tower – giving the hotel 4,049 suites; 18 restaurants and a shopping mall with canals, gondolas and singing gondoliers.
In August 2007, Adelson opened the $2.4-billion Venetian Macao Resort Hotel on Cotai and announced that he planned to create a massive, concentrated resort area he called the Cotai Strip, after its Las Vegas counterpart. Adelson said that he planned to open more hotels under brands such as Four Seasons, Sheraton and St. Regis. His Las Vegas Sands planned to invest $12 billion and build 20,000 hotel rooms on the Cotai Strip by 2010.
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 
In the late 2000s, Adelson and the company decided to build a casino resort in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. It is one of five stand-alone casinos that were awarded a slots license by the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board in 2006. The casino opened May 22, 2009. Table games began operation on July 18, 2010. The hotel opened May 27, 2011.
Adelson said "If we have the opportunity to build an integrated resort, we're going to do it. We think it will attract the customers and the tax revenue to the state of Pennsylvania and the Lehigh Valley and the cities that are in it."
Macau, China 
Adelson spearheaded a major project to bring the Sands name to Macau, the Chinese gambling city that had been a Portuguese colony until December 1999. The one-million-square-foot Sands Macao became the People's Republic of China's first Las Vegas-style casino when it opened in May 2004. Adelson recovered his initial $265-million investment in one year and, because he owns 69% of the stock, he increased his wealth when he took the stock public in December 2004. Since the opening of the Sands Macao, Adelson's personal wealth has multiplied more than fourteen times. Adelson's company is reportedly under federal investigation over alleged violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act relating to payments made to a Macao lawyer.
Marina Bay, Singapore 
In May 2006, Adelson's Las Vegas Sands was awarded a hotly contested license to construct a casino resort in Singapore's Marina Bay. The new casino, Marina Bay Sands, opened in 2010 at a rumored cost of $5.5 billion. It includes a shopping mall, convention center, and 2,500 luxury hotel rooms.
Israeli press 
In 2007, Adelson made an unsuccessful bid to purchase the Israeli newspaper Maariv. When this failed, he proceeded with parallel plans to publish a free daily newspaper to compete with Israeli, a newspaper he had co-founded in 2006 but had left. The first edition of the new newspaper, Israel HaYom, was published on July 30, 2007.
According to a Target Group Index (TGI) survey published in July 2011, Israel HaYom, which unlike all other Israeli newspapers is distributed for free, became the number-one daily newspaper (on weekdays) four years after its inception. This survey found that Israel HaYom had a 39.3% weekday readership exposure, Yedioth Ahronoth 37%, Maariv 12.1%, and Haaretz 5.8%. The Yedioth Ahronoth weekend edition was still leading with a 44.3% readership exposure, compared to 31% for the Israel HaYom weekend edition, 14.9% for Maariv, and 6.8% for Haaretz. This trend was already observed by a TGI survey in July 2010.
In 2011, the Israeli press said that Adelson was unhappy with coverage of him on Israeli Channel 10, which alleged that Adelson had acquired a casino license in Las Vegas inappropriately through political connections. The channel apologized after Adelson threatened a lawsuit. This in turn led to the resignation of the news chief, Reudor Benziman; the news editor, Ruti Yuval; and the news anchor, Guy Zohar, who objected to the apology. After two months of deliberations, the Israeli Second Authority for Television and Radio ruled that although there were some flaws in the manner in which the apology had been conducted, the decision to apologize had been correct and appropriate.
Originally a Democrat, Adelson became a Republican as his wealth increased. "Why is it fair that I should be paying a higher percentage of taxes than anyone else?" he reportedly argued to an associate. He began making major contributions to the Republican National Committee following clashes with labor unions at his Las Vegas properties.
Adelson has heavily criticized the Obama administration saying "What scares me is the continuation of the socialist-style economy we've been experiencing for almost four years. That scares me because the redistribution of wealth is the path to more socialism, and to more of the government controlling people's lives. What scares me is the lack of accountability that people would prefer to experience, just let the government take care of everything."
The New Yorker article also quoted Shelley Berkley, a Nevada Democratic Party congresswoman, with whom Adelson has had a long and notable feud, who formerly worked for him in the nineties as vice-president of legal and governmental affairs, who said Adelson told her that "old Democrats were with the union and he wanted to break the back of the union, consequently he had to break the back of the Democrats". The Boston Globe also noted that Adelson has "waged some bitter anti-union battles in Las Vegas." Congresswoman Berkley also claimed in The New Yorker article that Adelson "seeks to dominate politics and public policy through the raw power of money".
DeLay controversy 
During the Suen trial, Bill Weidner, the president of Adelson's Las Vegas Sands company, testified about a telephone conversation between Adelson and his friend then-House Majority Leader Tom DeLay (R) about a bill proposed by Representative Tom Lantos (D) that would have prevented the U.S. Olympic Committee from voting in favor of the Chinese bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympics. A few hours later, DeLay called back and told Adelson he could tell the mayor of Beijing "this bill will never see the light of day". The resolution did not pass. Adelson testified in court that the demise of the resolution "...resulted from the press of other legislation, (not from) a deliberate move by DeLay to help his benefactor.
Adelson and his wife, Miriam Adelson, were presented with the Woodrow Wilson Award for Corporate Citizenship by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars of the Smithsonian Institution on March 25, 2008.
Additionally, President George W. Bush appointed the Adelsons to serve on the Honorary Delegation to accompany him to Jerusalem for the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the State of Israel in May 2008.
In February 2012, Adelson told Forbes magazine that he is "against very wealthy people attempting to or influencing elections. But as long as it's doable I'm going to do it. Because I know that guys like Soros have been doing it for years, if not decades. And they stay below the radar by creating a network of corporations to funnel their money. I have my own philosophy and I'm not ashamed of it. I gave the money because there is no other legal way to do it. I don't want to go through ten different corporations to hide my name. I'm proud of what I do and I'm not looking to escape recognition."
Adelson was the principal financial backer of Freedom's Watch, a now-defunct political advocacy group founded to counter the influence of George Soros and Democratic-leaning lobby groups such as MoveOn.org. "Almost all" of the $30 million Freedom's Watch spent on the 2008 elections came from Adelson.
In 2010, Adelson donated $1 million to American Solutions for Winning the Future, a political action committee (PAC) supporting Republican former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich. In December 2011, during Gingrich's bid for the U.S. presidency, Adelson spoke favorably of controversial remarks Gingrich had made about Palestinians, saying "read the history of those who call themselves Palestinians, and you will hear why Gingrich said recently that the Palestinians are an invented people."
U.S. Senate candidates he donated to:
- Carly Fiorina (R-CA), former chief executive officer of Hewlett-Packard;
- Sharron Angle (R-NV), Assemblywoman;
- Sue Lowden (R-NV), former State Senator;
- Scott Brown (R-MA), U.S. Senator and former State Senator;
- Roy Blunt (R-MO), U.S. Congressman;
- Mark Kirk (R-IL), U.S. Congressman;
- Pat Toomey (R-PA), former U.S. Congressman;
- Charlie Crist (R-FL), Governor.
For the 2012 United States presidential election, Adelson has said he will "fully support" the Republican nominee. On January 7, 2012, Adelson bolstered Gingrich's then-faltering campaign with a $5-million donation to the pro-Gingrich super PAC Winning Our Future. By the next day, the super PAC had reserved more than $3.4 million in advertising time in the South Carolina primary, which included production and distribution of a half-hour movie that portrayed Gingrich's political rival Mitt Romney as a "predatory corporate raider". On January 23, Adelson's wife, Miriam, contributed an additional $5 million to the same organization with instructions to use it to advance a "pro-Newt message". Adelson told Forbes that he was willing to donate as much as $100 million to Gingrich.
In the 2012 election cycle, he has also donated $5 million to the right-leaning super PAC Congressional Leadership Fund. He also donated over $60,000 to the Republican National Committee. Politicians he has donated to since January 2011 include U.S. Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY); U.S. House Speaker John Boehner (R-OH); U.S. Senator Dean Heller (R-NV); U.S. Congressman Mark Amodei (R-NV); U.S. Congressman Joe Heck (R-NV) and former Florida House Speaker Adam Hasner.
On June 12, 2012, Adelson donated $10 million to the pro-Romney PAC Restore Our Future.
In July, Adelson attended a Romney fundraiser held in Jerusalem where he said he was going to donate millions to the Romney campaign. Adelson joined Woody Johnson, John Rakolta, Paul Singer, and several dozen other contributors on the trip. According to Bloomberg Businessweek, as of July Adelson had given Republicans more than $30 million for the 2012 election cycle.
Romney believes that China should be called a "currency manipulator" because of its presumptively low fixed exchange rate policy, and supports pressuring China to drop the currency peg; according to Bloomberg, Adelson would benefit financially in US dollar terms through his interest in Chinese casinos if the Chinese yuan were to appreciate.
Adelson donated over $25 million to the The Adelson Educational Campus in Las Vegas to build a high school. In 2006 Adelson contributed $25 million to the Yad Vashem Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority.
Adelson also has funded the Boston-based Dr. Miriam and Sheldon G. Adelson Medical Research Foundation. AMRF is a private foundation. This foundation initiated the Adelson Program in Neural Repair and Rehabilitation (APNRR) with $7.5 million donated to collaborating researchers at 10 universities.
Personal life 
From the 1970s, Adelson lived in Massachusetts with his wife, Sandra, and their three adopted children, Mitchell, Gary and Shelley. They divorced in 1988. Mitchell died of a drug overdose in 2005.
Adelson met his current wife Miriam Ochsorn (nee Farbstein) on a blind date the following year and married in 1991. Miriam is an Israeli physician specializing in drug abuse treatment. She was previously married to a Tel Aviv physician, Dr. Ariel Ochshorn, with whom she had two daughters.
A June 2008 profile in The New Yorker detailed several controversies involving Adelson. In 2008 Richard Suen, a Hong Kong businessman who had helped Adelson make connections with top Chinese officials in order to obtain the Macao license, took Adelson to court in Las Vegas alleging he had reneged on his agreement to allow Suen to profit from the venture. Suen won a $43.8 million judgement; in November 2010, the Nevada Supreme Court overturned the judgment and returned the case to the lower court for further consideration. Adelson faces another trial over claims by three alleged "middlemen" in the deal who are suing for at least $450 million. In February, 2013, the Las Vegas Sands, in a regulatory filing, acknowledged that it had likely violated federal law prohibiting foreign officials. Allegedly, Chinese officials were bribed to allow Adelson to build his Macau casino.
Adelson successfully sued the Daily Mail of London for libel in 2008. The newspaper had accused him of pursuing "despicable business practices" and having "habitually and corruptly bought political favour". Adelson won the libel case, which was described as "a grave slur on Mr Adelson's personal integrity and business reputation", and he won a judgment of approximately £4 million. Adelson said he would donate the damages to the Royal Marsden cancer hospital in London.
In August 2012, the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, after being threatened with a libel suit, apologized and withdrew two blog posts that claimed Adelson had donated "Chinese prostitution money" to Republicans.
At one point, Adelson's estimated wealth was $26.5 billion, making him the third-richest person in the United States according to Forbes for 2007. and $26 billion for 2008. In 2008, the share prices of the Las Vegas Sands Corp. plunged. And in November 2008, Las Vegas Sands Corp. announced that it might default on bonds that it had outstanding, signaling the potential bankruptcy of the concern. Adelson lost $4 billion in 2008, more than any other American billionaire. His net worth declined from approximately $30 billion to $2 billion, or 93%. He told ABC News "So I lost $25 billion. I started out with zero...(there is) no such thing as fear, not to an entrepreneur. Concern, yes. Fear, no."
In the Forbes 2009 world billionaires list, Adelson's ranking dropped to #178 with a net worth of $3.4 billion, but in 2011 he was ranked as the world's 16th-richest man with a net worth of $23.3 billion.
See also 
- "Profile of Sheldon Gary Adelson". Forbes. September 2012. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
- "Bloomberg Billionares Index". Bloomberg LP.
- Rivlin, Gary (January 17, 2008). "When 3rd Place on the Rich List Just Isn't Enough". The New York Times.
- "Archive Search - ReviewJournal.com". Nl.newsbank.com. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- Gloria R. Adelson Field, of Sudbury; founded search firm, active in business.(OBITUARIES2)
- "Computer Entrepreneur - Robert Levering, Michael Katz, Milton Moskowitz - Google Books". Books.google.ca. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- "Sheldon Adelson". Askmen. Retrieved February 07, 2013.
- Connie Bruck (June 30, 2008). "The World of Business: The Brass Ring : The New Yorker:". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 07, 2013.
- Connie Bruck (June 30, 2008). "The World of Business: The Brass Ring : The New Yorker:". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 07, 2013.
- "China opens world's largest casino". CNN. August 28, 2007.
- Petty, Precious (June 10, 2009). "Sands Casino Resort Bethlehem Opens With Pledge from Sheldon Adelson, Protest from Church Group". The Express-Times. Retrieved August 18, 2012.
- Assad, Matt (April 8, 2010). "Sands CEO Sheldon Adelson Admits If He Had to Decide Today He Wouldn't Build a Casino in Bethlehem". The Morning Call (via hotels-online.com). Retrieved August 18, 2012.
- Bruck, Connie (June 30, 2008). "The Brass Ring – A Multibillionaire's Relentless Quest for Global Influence". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- Ross, Brian; Mosk, Matthew; Galli, Cindy; Schwartz, Rhonda (January 27, 2012). "Bribes, Chinese Mob Ties Alleged at Casino of Gingrich Money Man". ABC News. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- Isaacs, Matt; Bergman, Lowell; Engelberg, Stephen (July 16, 2012). "Inside the Investigation of Leading Republican Money Man Sheldon Adelson". ProPublica. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
- Staff (July 12, 2007). "American Billionaire Launching Free Israeli Daily". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved August 24, 20121.
- Staff (undated). "Israel Comes to You". Israel HaYom. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
- [TGI Survey: Israel HaYom Is Getting Stronger by 30%, and Surpasses Yedioth]
|title=(help) (in Hebrew). Walla!. July 28, 2010.
- Cashman, Greer Fay (November 7, 2011). "Second Authority backs Channel 10's Apology to Adelson". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Staff (September 8, 2011). "Israeli News Chief Quits Over Apology to Mogul". Vos Iz Neias?. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Bertoni, Steven (February 21, 2012). "Billionaire Sheldon Adelson Says He Might Give $100M to Newt Gingrich or Other Republican". Forbes. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- Beam, Alex (May 31, 2008). "Adelson Bets Big on Right-Wing Politics". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- "Sheldon G. Adelson and Dr. Miriam Adelson Receive Prestigious Woodrow Wilson Award for Corporate Citizenship" (Press release). Las Vegas Sands Corp. (via PR Newswire). March 26, . Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Staff (undated). "Past Anniversary Dinners". Nevada Policy Research Institute. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Lake, Eli (May 13, 2008). "Bush Visit May Boost Olmert". The New York Sun. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
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- Staff (January 14, 2005). "Some Question Inaugural's Multi-Million Price Tag". Associated Press (via USA Today). Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- (registration required) Luo, Michael (April 12, 2008). "Great Expectations for a Conservative Group Seem All but Dashed". The New York Times. Retrieved April 12, 2008.
- Staff (undated). "Sheldon G. Adelson Contributions to 527 Organizations, 2010 Cycle". OpenSecrets.org. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Blumenfeld, Revital (December 26, 2011). "Sheldon Adelson to Birthright Group: Gingrich Is Right to Call Palestinians 'Invented People'". Haaretz. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- "Sheldon Adelson - $139,200 in Political Contributions for 2010". Campaignmoney.com. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- (registration required) Luce, Edward (February 19, 2012). "Obama Nears His Nuclear Moment". Financial Times. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- (registration required) Shear, Michael D.; Confessore, Nicholas (January 7, 2012). "As Primary Looms in N.H., Donor Gives Lift to Gingrich". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
- (registration required) Gabriel, Trip; Confessore, Nicholas (January 8, 2012). "PAC Ads to Attack Romney as Predatory Capitalist". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2012).
- McFadden, Cynthia; Arons, Melinda (January 24, 2012). "Billionaire Expects 'Nothing' for His Millions to Gingrich Super PAC, Source Says". ABC News Nightline. Retrieved August 18, 2012.
- (registration required) Confessore, Nicholas (January 23, 2012). "'Super PAC' for Gingrich to Get $5 Million Infusion". The New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
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- Staff (undated). "About". Congressional Leadership Fund. Retrieved August 18, 2012.
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- Gold, Matea (June 13, 2012). "Casino Magnate Sheldon Adelson Gives $10 Million to Pro-Romney PAC – The Casino Magnate's Check to the Pro-Romney Restore Our Future Instantly Skyrockets Him to the Top of That Super PAC's List of Megadonors". The Seattle Times. Retrieved August 18, 2012.
- Peoples, Steve (July 31, 2012). "Another Hiccup? Romney's Foreign Trip Not Smooth". Associated Press (via The Atlanta Journal-Constitution). Retrieved August 18, 2012.
- Lerer, Lisa (July 30, 2012). "Romney Donors on Agenda Along with Policy on Israel Trip". Bloomberg News. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 2012-10-22. "Among the 50 donors gathered around a U-shaped conference table for the event were meatpacking magnate John Miller, a close friend of Romney’s; oil investor L.E. Simmons; New York finance Chairman Woody Johnson, the owner of the New York Jets; hedge fund manager Paul Singer; and Detroit businessman John Rakolta.... When Romney arrived, he took a seat at the head of the table, next to the other unofficial guests of honor: Adelson and his wife, Miriam."
- "Donors Invest Millions in Romney for Billions in Returns". Bloomberg. August 31, 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- Tugend, Tom (December 14, 2006). "Vegas billionaire Sheldon Adelson expected to set new charity donation record". The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- Livingston, Ashley (October 2, 2008). "Jewish school celebrates new home". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- "The 2006 Slate 60: Pledges". Slate. February 15, 2007. Archived from the original on July 12, 2010. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- Benari, Elad (January 12, 2011). "Adelson Foundation Gives Taglit An Extra $5 Million Boost". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- "About AMRF: Philosophy and Vision", Dr. Miriam and Sheldon G. Adelson Medical Research Foundation. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- "Friends: Gifts". UCLA Medicine. Winter 2007.
- Zohar, Amir (March 13, 2008). "The Adelson method". Haaretz.
- "Meet the Woman Behind Sheldon Adelson". Fortune. February 8, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- Ryan, Cy (November 18, 2010). "Court overturns $43.8 million judgment against Las Vegas Sands". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- "Sheldon Adelson Wins Millions in Damages from British Newspaper". Haaretz. Reuters. March 20, 2008.
- Tetreault, Steve (August 2, 2012). "Democrats Apologize to Adelson". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "#6 Sheldon Adelson". The World's Billionaires (Forbes). March 8, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- "#12 Sheldon Adelson". The World's Billionaires (Forbes). March 5, 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- Jinks, Beth (November 6, 2008). "Las Vegas Sands Plunges on Default, Bankruptcy Risk". Bloomberg. Retrieved August 2010.
- "Now Who's the Richest? The Forbes 400 List Is recalculated to Reflect Financial Meltdown". Bloomberg News. October 10, 2008.
- Sheldon Adelson daylife.com
- Frank, Robert (November 12, 2008). "What Is It Like to Lose $100 Million a Day?". The Wall Street Journal.
- Frank, Robert (November 22, 2010). "Vegas Tycoon: 'So I Lost $25 Billion'". The Wall Street Journal.
- "The World's Billionaires 2009". Forbes. March 11, 2009.
- "Sheldon Adelson". Forbes. September 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Works by or about Sheldon Adelson in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Campaign contributions in 2012 to outside spending groups at Open Secrets
- Sheldon Adelson at the Notable Names Database
- Profile at Forbes
- Sheldon Adelson collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Sheldon Adelson collected news and commentary at The Wall Street Journal
- Sheldon Adelson collected news and commentary at Bloomberg News
- Sheldon Adelson collected news and commentary at Ha'aretz
- An Interview With Philanthropist Extraordinaire Sheldon Adelson, Marcia Friedman, The Jewish Press, December 28, 2011
- Who Is Sheldon Adelson, the Gingrich Super PAC's Billionaire Backer?, Molly Ball, The Atlantic, January 25, 2012
- Secrets of the billionaire bankrolling Gingrich's shot at the White House, Paul Harris, The Guardian, January 28, 2011
- Federal campaign contributions from Newsmeat
- Sheldon Adelson Spent Far More On Campaign ($150 Million) Than Previously Known, Peter H. stone, Huffington Post, December 3, 2012
- Tallying the Adelsons' $92 million, Lindsay Young, Sunlight Foundation, December 7, 2012