Epoch J2000.0 Equinox J2000.0
|Right ascension||18h 50m 04.79525s|
|Declination||+33° 21′ 45.6100″|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||3.52 (3.4–4.3)|
|Spectral type||B6–8II / B|
|U−B color index||−0.56|
|B−V color index||+0.00|
|Variable type||β Lyr|
|Radial velocity (Rv)||−19.2 km/s|
|Proper motion (μ)||RA: 1.90 mas/yr
Dec.: −3.53 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||3.39 ± 0.17 mas|
|Distance||960 ± 50 ly
(290 ± 10 pc)
|Absolute magnitude (MV)||−3.91|
|–6.3 ± 0.2 / –4.7 ± 0.1|
|Companion||Beta Lyrae B|
|Period (P)||12.9414 days|
|Semi-major axis (a)||0.865 ± 0.048"|
|Inclination (i)||92.25 ± 0.82°|
|Longitude of the node (Ω)||254.39 ± 0.83°|
|β Lyr A|
|Mass||13.16 ± 0.3 M☉|
|Radius||6.0 ± 0.2 R☉|
|Surface gravity (log g)||4.0 ± 0.1 cgs|
|Temperature||30,000 ± 2,000 K|
|β Lyr B|
|Mass||2.97 ± 0.2 M☉|
|Radius||15.2 ± 0.2 R☉|
|Surface gravity (log g)||2.5 ± 0.1 cgs|
Beta Lyrae (β Lyr, β Lyrae) is a binary star system approximately 960 light-years (290 parsecs) away in the constellation Lyra. Beta Lyrae has the traditional name Sheliak (occasionally Shelyak), from الشلياق šiliyāq, the Arabic name of the constellation Lyra. The Bayer designation for this star was given by the German astronomer Johann Bayer with the publication of his star atlas Uranometria in 1603. It was given the Flamsteed designation 10 Lyrae by John Flamsteed in 1712 with the first publication of his star catalogue. The variable luminosity of this system was discovered in 1784 by the British amateur astronomer John Goodricke.
Beta Lyrae is a semidetached binary system made up of a stellar class B7II primary star and a secondary that is probably also a B-type star. The fainter, less massive star (B7II) in the system was once the more massive member of the pair, which caused it to evolve away from the main sequence first and become a giant star. Because the pair are in a close orbit, as this star expanded into a giant it filled its Roche lobe and transferred most of its mass over to its companion. The secondary, now more massive star is surrounded by an accretion disk from this mass transfer, with bipolar, jet-like features projecting perpendicular to the disk. This accretion disk blocks our view of the secondary star, lowering its apparent luminosity and making it difficult for astronomers to pinpoint what its stellar type is. The amount of mass being transferred between the two stars is about 2 × 10–5 solar masses per year, or the equivalent of the Sun's mass every 50,000 years, which results in an increase in orbital period of about 19 seconds each year.
The orbital plane of this system is nearly aligned with the line of sight from the Earth, so the two stars periodically eclipse each other. This causes Beta Lyrae to regularly change its apparent magnitude from +3.4 to +4.6 over an orbital period of 12.9414 days. The two components are so close together that they cannot be resolved with optical telescopes, forming a spectroscopic binary. In 2008, the primary star and the accretion disk of the secondary star were resolved and imaged using the CHARA Array interferometer and the Michigan InfraRed Combiner (MIRC) in the near infrared H band (see video below), allowing the orbital elements to be computed for the first time.
Two other stars appear close to the line of sight of Beta Lyrae, but are not part of the binary system. One, at an angular distance of 45.7", is of spectral type B7V, has an apparent magnitude of +7.2, and can easily be seen with binoculars. It is about 80 times as luminous as the Sun and is also a spectroscopic binary with a period of 4.34 days. The other is magnitude 9.9v separation 86" and with a luminosity 7 times that of the Sun.
- van Leeuwen, F. (November 2007), "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction", Astronomy and Astrophysics 474 (2): 653–664, arXiv:0708.1752, Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357.
- Zhao, M. et al. (September 2008), "First Resolved Images of the Eclipsing and Interacting Binary β Lyrae", The Astrophysical Journal 684 (2): L95–L98, arXiv:0808.0932, Bibcode:2008ApJ...684L..95Z, doi:10.1086/592146.
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- Wilson, Ralph Elmer (1953), General catalogue of stellar radial velocities, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Bibcode:1953QB901.W495......
- Mennickent, R. E. et al. (2006), "On the accretion disc and evolutionary stage of β Lyrae", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 432 (1): 799–809, arXiv:1303.5812, Bibcode:2013MNRAS.432..799M, doi:10.1093/mnras/stt515.
- Allen, Richard Hinckley (1899), Star-names and their meanings, G. E. Stechert, p. 287.
- "V* bet Lyr -- Eclipsing binary of beta Lyr type", SIMBAD (Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg), retrieved 2011-12-20.
- The word is apparently of non-Arabic origin, as it has no other meaning in Arabic, and cannot be identified with an Arabic triliteral root. (Edward William Lane, Arabic-English Lexicon)
- Hoskin, M. (1979), "Goodricke, Pigott and the Quest for Variable Stars", Journal for the History of Astronomy 10: 23–41, Bibcode:1979JHA....10...23H.
- ten Brummelaar, Theo et al. (07 2005), "First Results from the CHARA Array. II. A Description of the Instrument", The Astrophysical Journal 628 (453), arXiv:astro-ph/0504082, Bibcode:2005ApJ...628..453T, doi:10.1086/430729.
- Monnier, John D. et al. (2006), "Michigan Infrared Combiner (MIRC): commissioning results at the CHARA Array", Proceedings of the SPIE 6268 (62681P), Bibcode:2006SPIE.6268E..55M, doi:10.1117/12.671982.
- Kaler, James B. (2002), The hundred greatest stars, Copernicus Series, Springer, p. 29, ISBN 0-387-95436-8
- Philippe Stee's homepage: Hot and Active Stars Research
- Kaler, James B., "SHELIAK (Beta Lyrae)", Stars (University of Illinois), retrieved 2011-12-20
- Bruton, Dan; Linenschmidt, Robb; Schmude, Jr., Richard W., Watching Beta Lyrae Evolve, Texas A&M University, retrieved 2011-12-20
- Beck, Sara J. (July 1, 2011), Beta Lyrae, AAVSO, retrieved 2011-12-20