Shell (computing)

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In computing, a shell is a user interface for access to an operating system's services. Generally, operating system shells use either a command-line interface (CLI) or graphical user interface (GUI). Mac OS and Windows are widely used operating systems with GUIs.[1][2][3]

The optimum choice of user interface depends on a computer's role and particular operation. CLIs allow some operations to be performed faster, rearranging large blocks of data for example. CLIs may be best for servers which are managed by experts: administrators, while GUIs offer simplicity and ease-of-use and would be more appropriate for image editing, CADD, and desktop publishing. In practice, many systems provide both user interfaces which can be called on a command-by-command basis. Windows is the most obvious example with its "command prompt" and normal "windows" mode. It's no exaggeration to say that both Apple Macintosh OS and Microsoft Windows have revolutionised home computing by helping relatively inexperienced users to interface with a PC using a GUI[citation needed].

Text (CLI) shells[edit]

A command-line interface (CLI) is an operating system shell that uses alphanumeric characters typed on a keyboard to provide instructions and data to the operating system, interactively. For example, a teletypewriter can send codes representing keystrokes to a command interpreter program running on the computer; the command interpreter parses the sequence of keystrokes and responds with an error message if it cannot recognize the sequence of characters, or it may carry out some other program action such as loading an application program, listing files, logging in a user and many others. Operating systems such as UNIX have a large variety of shell programs with different commands, syntax and capabilities. Some operating systems had only a single style of command interface; commodity operating systems such as MS-DOS came with a standard command interface but third-party interfaces were also often available, providing additional features or functions such as menuing or remote program execution.

Application programs may also implement a command-line interface. For example, in Unix-like systems, the telnet program has a number of commands for controlling a link to a remote computer system. Since the commands to the program are made of the same keystrokes as the data being sent to a remote computer, some means of distinguishing the two are required. An escape sequence can be defined, using either a special local keystroke that is never passed on but always interpreted by the local system. The program becomes modal, switching between interpreting commands from the keyboard or passing keystrokes on as data to be processed.

A feature of many command-line shells is the ability to save sequences of commands for re-use. A data file can contain sequences of commands which the CLI can be made to follow as if typed in by a user. Special features in the CLI may apply when it is carrying out these stored instructions. Such batch files (script files) can be used repeatedly to automate routine operations such as initializing a set of programs when a system is restarted. Batch mode use of shells usually involves structures, conditionals, variables, and other elements of programming languages; some have the bare essentials needed for such a purpose, others are very sophisticated programming languages in and of themselves. Conversely, some programming languages can be used interactively from an operating system shell or in a purpose-built program.

The command-line shell may offer features such as command-line completion, where the interpreter expands commands based on a few characters input by the user. A command-line interpreter may offer a history function, so that the user can recall earlier commands issued to the system and repeat them, possibly with some editing. Since all commands to the operating system had to be typed by the user, short command names and compact systems for representing program options were common. Short names were sometimes hard for a user to recall, and early systems lacked the storage resources to provide a detailed on-line user instruction guide.

The first Unix shell, Ken Thompson's sh,[4] was modeled after the Multics shell,[5] itself modeled after the RUNCOM[6] program Louis Pouzin showed to the Multics Team. The "rc" suffix on some Unix configuration files (for example, ".vimrc"), is a remnant of the RUNCOM ancestry of Unix shells.[citation needed]

Graphical shells[edit]

A graphical user interface (GUI) represents programs and data using visual symbols instead of text. Graphical user interfaces became feasible as the cost of interactive computer graphic hardware declined. Most graphical user interfaces develop the metaphor of an "electronic desktop", where data files are represented as if paper documents on a desk, and application programs similarly have graphical representations instead of being invoked by command names.

Microsoft Windows[edit]

Modern versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system use the Windows shell as their shell. Windows Shell provides the familiar desktop environment, start menu, and task bar, as well as a graphical user interface for accessing the file management functions of the operating system. Older versions also include Program Manager, which was the shell for the 3.x series of Microsoft Windows, and which in fact ships with later versions of Windows of both the 95 and NT types at least through Windows XP. The interfaces of Windows versions 1 and 2 were markedly different.

Desktop applications are also considered shells, as long as they use a third-party engine. Likewise, many individuals and developers dissatisfied with the interface of Windows Explorer have developed software that either alters the functioning and appearance of the shell or replaces it entirely. WindowBlinds by StarDock is a good example of the former sort of application. LiteStep, SharpE and Emerge Desktop are good examples of the latter.

Interoperability programmes and purpose-designed software lets Windows users use equivalents of many of the various Unix-based GUIs discussed below, as well as Macintosh. An equivalent of the OS/2 Presentation Manager for version 3.0 can run some OS/2 programmes under some conditions using the OS/2 environmental subsystem in versions of Windows NT. For an example of the first, X Window-type environments can be run using combinations of Windows/Unix interoperability packages, communications suites such as Hummingbird Connectivity, and/or X server programmes for Windows such as WinAxe and others.

Unix-like systems[edit]

Graphical (GUI) shells typically build on top of a windowing system and at least in the case of the X Window System or of Wayland, the shell consist of the X window manager respectively the wayland compositor and one or multiple programs giving the functionality to start programs that are available on the operating system, to manage open windows, to manage virtual desktops and often a widget engine.

Other uses[edit]

"Shell" is also used loosely to describe application software that is "built around" a particular component, such as web browsers and email clients, in analogy to the shells found in nature.

In expert systems, a shell is a piece of software that is an "empty" expert system without the knowledge base for any particular application.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Esposito, Dino. "New Graphical Interface: Enhance Your Programs with New Windows XP Shell Features". MSDN Magazine (November 2001). Retrieved September 11, 2012. 
  2. ^ Esposito, Dino (December 1998). Visual C++ Windows shell programming. Apress. ISBN 978-1861001849. 
  3. ^ Seely, Scott (June 15, 2000). Windows Shell Programming. Prentice Hall PTR. ISBN 978-0130254962. 
  4. ^ "V6 Thompson Shell Port - History". V6shell.org. Retrieved 2012-08-14. 
  5. ^ Tom Van Vleck (1995-02-05). "Unix and Multics". Multicians.org. Retrieved 2012-08-14. 
  6. ^ Louis Pouzin (2000-11-25). "The Origin of the Shell". Multicians.org. Retrieved 2012-08-14. 
  7. ^ "British Computer Society: The BCS glossary of ICT and computing terms". Pearson Education. 2005. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-13-147957-9.