Sherpa people

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Sherpa
Sherpa.jpg
Sherpa family with traditional Sherpa clothes
Total population
152,000 estimated
Regions with significant populations
Nepal, China (Tibet), Bhutan, India
Languages
Sherpa, Nepali
Religion
Predominantly Tibetan Buddhism (93%) and Minority: Hinduism, Bön, Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Tibetans, Jirels

Sherpa (Tibetan: "eastern people", from shar "east" + pa "people") are an ethnic group from the most mountainous region of Nepal, high in the Himalayas.[1]

Most Sherpa people live in Nepal's eastern regions; however, some live farther west in the Rolwaling valley and in the Helambu region north of Kathmandu. Tengboche is the oldest Sherpa village in Nepal. The Sherpa language belongs to the south branch of the Tibeto-Burman languages; however, this language is separate from Lhasa Tibetan and unintelligible to Lhasa speakers.[2]

The number of Sherpas immigrating to the West has significantly increased in recent years, especially to the United States. New York City has the largest Sherpa community in the United States, with a population of approximately 2,500. The 2001 Nepal Census recorded 154,622 Sherpas within its borders, of which 92.83% were Buddhists, 6.26% were Hindus, 0.63% were Christians and 0.20% were Bön.

History[edit]

Selected ethnic groups of Nepal: Sherpa, Thakali, Gurung, Kirati, Rai, Lohorung, Parali, Bahing, Limbu, Newar, Pahari, Tamang

The Sherpa were nomadic people who first settled in the Solukhumbu District (Khumbu), Nepal then gradually moved westward along salt trade routes. According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated out of Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four main Sherpa clans: Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa. These four groups have since split into the more than 20 different clans that exist today. About 1840 Sherpa ancestors migrated from Kham. Mahayana Buddhism religious conflict may have contributed to the migration in the 15th and 16th centuries. Sherpa migrants traveled through Ü and Tsang, before crossing the Himalaya.[3]

By the 1800s, Khumbu Sherpa people attained autonomy within the newly formed Nepali state. In the 1960s, as tension with China increased, Nepali government influence on the Sherpa people grew. In 1976, Khumbu became a national park and tourism became a major economic force.[3]

According to Oppitz (1968), Sherpas migrated from the Kham region in eastern Tibet to Nepal within the last 300–400 years.[4] On the other hand, Gautam (1994) concluded that Sherpa migrated from Tibet approximately 600 years ago, through the Nangpa La pass. It is presumed that the group of people from Kham region, east of Tibet, was called "Shyar Khamba" (People who came from eastern Kham), and the place where they settled was called "Shyar Khumbu". As the time passed the "Shyar Khamba", inhabitants of Shyar Khumbu, were called Sherpa.[5] A recent Nepal Ethnographic Museum (2001) study postulated that Sherpas were not migrants who crossed the border of Tibet to Nepal, since the modern political entity of Nepal was not in existence then. After the unification by P.N. Shah in 1768, the Himalayan region of present day Nepal became an integral part of the kingdom of Nepal. Since ancient times Sherpas, like other indigenous Kirat Nepalese tribes, would move from one place to another place within the Himalayan region as Alpine pastoralists and traders.[6] Genetic evidence shows that the majority of Sherpa have a Tibeto-Burman origin, considerable genetic components from Indian Subcontinent have been observed in Sherpa people living in Tibet. The western Y chromosomal haplogroups R1a1a-M17, J-M304, and F*-M89 comprise almost 17% of Sherpa paternal gene pool. In the maternal side, M5c2, M21d, and U from the west also count up to 8% of Sherpa people.[7]

Mountaineering[edit]

Sherpa mountain guide at Khumbu Ice Fall

Sherpas are highly regarded as elite mountaineers and experts in their local terrain. They were immeasurably valuable to early explorers of the Himalayan region, serving as guides at the extreme altitudes of the peaks and passes in the region, particularly for expeditions to climb Mount Everest. Today, the term is often used by foreigners to refer to almost any guide or porter hired for mountaineering expeditions in the Himalayas, regardless of their ethnicity. Because of this usage, the term has become a slang byword for a guide or mentor in other situations.[8] Sherpas are renowned in the international climbing and mountaineering community for their hardiness, expertise, and experience at very high altitudes. It has been speculated that a part of the Sherpas' climbing ability is the result of a genetic adaptation to living in high altitudes. Some of these adaptations include unique Hemoglobin and doubled nitric oxide production.[9]

Deaths in 2014 Everest avalanche[edit]

On Friday, April 18, 2014, a serac collapsed above the Khumbu Icefall on Mount Everest, causing an avalanche of massive chunks of ice and snow which killed 16 Nepalese guides, mostly Sherpas.[10] The disaster is the single deadliest climbing accident in the mountain's history. In response to that tragedy and others involving deaths and injuries sustained by Sherpas hired by untrained climbers, climbers who burdened Sherpas with unreasonable requests, and the lack of government support for Sherpas injured or killed while providing their services, many Sherpa climbing guides have walked off the job; and some climbing companies are no longer providing guides and porters for Everest expeditions. [11][12]

Religion[edit]

Thame Gompa is one of numerous Sherpa monasteries

According to oral Buddhist traditions, the initial Tibetan migration was a search for beyul (Shangri-La). Sherpas belong to the Nyingmapa, the "Red Hat Sect" of Tibetan Buddhism. Allegedly the oldest Buddhist sect in Tibet, founded by Padmasambhava (commonly known as Guru Rinpoche) during the 8th century, it emphasizes mysticism and the incorporation of local deities shared by the pre-Buddhist Bon religion, which has shamanic elements. Sherpa particularly believe in hidden treasures and valleys. Traditionally, Nyingmapa practice was passed down orally through a loose network of lay practitioners. Monasteries with celibate monks and nuns, along with the belief in reincarnated spiritual leaders are later adaptations.[3]

In addition to Buddha and the great Buddhist divinities, the Sherpa also believe in numerous deities and demons who inhabit every mountain, cave, and forest. These have to be respected or appeased through ancient practices woven into the fabric of Buddhist ritual life. Many of the great Himalayan mountains are considered sacred. The Sherpas call Mount Everest Chomolungma and respect it as the "Mother of the World." Mount Makalu is respected as the deity Shankar (Shiva). Each clan reveres certain mountain peaks and their protective deities.

Today, the day-to-day Sherpas religious affairs are presided over by lamas (Buddhist spiritual leaders) and other religious practitioners living in the villages. The village lama who presides over ceremonies and rituals can be a celibate monk or a married householder. In addition, shamans (lhawa) and soothsayers (mindung) deal with the supernatural and the spirit world. Lamas identify witches (pem), act as the mouthpiece of deities and spirits, and diagnose spiritual illnesses.

An important aspect of Sherpa religion is the monastery or gompa. There are some two dozen gompas scattered throughout the Solukhumbu region. They are communities of lamas or monks (sometimes of nuns) who take a vow of celibacy and lead a life of isolation searching for truth and religious enlightenment. They are respected by and supported by the community at large. Their contact with the outside world is focused on monastery practices and annual festivals to which the public is invited, as well as the reading of sacred texts at funerals.

Minority religions for Sherpas include Hinduism and Roman Catholicism.

Traditional clothing[edit]

Men wear long-sleeved robes called kitycow, which fall to slightly below the knee. Chhuba is tied at the waist with a cloth sash called kara, creating a pouch-like space called tolung which can be used for storing and carrying small items. Traditionally, chhuba were made from thick home-spun wool, or a variant called lokpa made from sheepskin. Chhuba are worn over raatuk, a blouse (traditionally made out of bure, white raw silk), trousers called kanam, and an outer jacket called tetung.

Women traditionally wear long-sleeved floor-length dresses of thick wool called tongkok. A sleeveless variation called engi is worn over a raatuk (blouse) in warmer weather. These are worn with colourful striped aprons; metil aprons are worn in front, and gewe in back, and are held together by an embossed silver buckle called kyetig.[13]

Sherpa clothing resembles Tibetan clothing. Increasingly, home-spun wool and silk is being replaced by factory-made material. Many Sherpa people also now wear ready-made western clothing.

Traditional housing[edit]

Traditional Sherpa architecture, but with a steel roof.

When a son marries and has children, the community may help to construct a new house, as the extended family becomes too large for a single home. The neighbors often contribute food, drinks and labor to help the family. Houses are typically spaced to allow fields in between. A spiritual ceremony may be conducted at every building stage as the house must have space for deities, humans and animals. Once constructed, the house is often handed down within a family and not sold. The house style depends on the lay of the land: old river terraces, former lake beds or mountain slopes. There are stone single story, one and a half story (on a slope), and the two story houses, with ample room for animals. Many well-to-do families will have an annex shrine room for sacred statues, scriptures and ritual objects. The roof is sloping and is made from local natural materials, or imported metal. There's space in the roof to allow for fire smoke to escape. There may be an internal or external outhouse for making compost.[14]

Famous Sherpas[edit]

One of the most well known Sherpas is Tenzing Norgay. In 1953 he and Sir Edmund Hillary became the first people known to have reached the summit of Mount Everest.[15][16][17][18] Norgay's son Jamling Tenzing Norgay also climbed Everest in honor of his father with the famous mountaineers Ed Viesturs and Araceli Segarra during the disastrous year of 1996.

In 2003 Sherpas, Pemba Dorjie and Lhakpa Gelu, competed to see who could climb Everest from base camp the fastest. On 23 May 2003, Dorjie reached the summit in 12 hours and 46 minutes. Three days later, Gelu beat his record by two hours, reaching the summit in 10 hours 46 minutes. On 21 May 2004, Dorjie again improved the time by more than two hours with a total time of 8 hours and 10 minutes.[19]

On 11 May 2011, Apa Sherpa successfully reached the summit of Everest for the twenty-first time, breaking his own record for the most successful ascents.[20] He first climbed Mount Everest in 1989 at the age of 29.[21] One of the most famous Nepalese female mountaineers was Pasang Lhamu Sherpa, the first Nepali female climber to reach the summit of Everest, but who died during the descent. Another well-known woman Sherpa was the two-time Everest summiter Pemba Doma Sherpa, who died after falling from Lhotse on 22 May 2007.[22]

Lakpa Tsheri Sherpa is one half of a Nepali duo that was voted "People's Choice Adventurers of the Year 2012". In April 2011, Lakpa Tsheri and Sano Babu Sunuwar made the 'Ultimate Descent': a three-month journey in which they climbed Everest, then paraglided down the mountain and proceeded to kayak through Nepal and India until they reached the Indian Ocean.[23]

On 19 May 2012, 16-year-old Nima Chhamzi Sherpa became the youngest woman to climb Everest; the previous record holder was Nimdoma Sherpa, who summited in 2008, also at 16 years old.[24]

Chhurim Sherpa (Nepal) summitted Everest twice in May 2012. 12 May and 19 May. Guinness World Records recognized her for being the first female Sherpa to summit Everest twice in one climbing season.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sherpa, Lhakpa Norbu (2008). Through A Sherpa Window: Illustrated Guide to Traditional Sherpa Culture. Jyatha, Thamel: Vajra Publications. p. 2. ISBN 9789937506205. 
  2. ^ "Journée d'étude : Déserts. Y a-t-il des corrélations entre l'écosystème et le changement linguistique ?". Lacito.vjf.cnrs.fr. Retrieved 8 March 2"012.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. ^ a b c Sherpa, Lhakpa Norbu (2008). Through a Sherpa Window: Illustrated Guide to Sherpa Culture. Kathmandu, Nepal: Vajra Publications. ISBN 978-9937506205. 
  4. ^ Oppitz, Michael (1968). Geschichte furu und Sozialordnung der Sherpa, Teil 1 (in German). Innsbrück and Munich, Germany: Universitäts-Verlag Wagner. ISBN 978-3-7030-1039-2. 
  5. ^ "Tapting Samaj Sewa". Tapting.org. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  6. ^ "Nepal Ethnographic Museum". Asia-planet.net. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  7. ^ Kang, Longli, Chuan-Chao Wang, Feng Chen, Dali Yao, Li Jin, and Hui Li. "Northward genetic penetration across the Himalayas viewed from Sherpa people." Mitochondrial DNA, (2014):1-8.
  8. ^ Educational Media and Technology Yearbook - Volume 36, Michael Orey, Stephanie A. Jones, Robert Maribe Branch, page 94 (2011), isbn=1461413044: "A Sherpa is traditionally a knowledgeable native who guides mountain climbers on their most difficult and risky ascents." Buried in the Sky: The Extraordinary Story of the Sherpa Climbers, by Peter Zuckerman, Amanda Padoan, page 65 (2012), isbn=0393079880: "Lowlanders clutching the Lonely Planet guide are convinced they want to hire “a sherpa,” even if they don't know what a Sherpa is..."
  9. ^ Kamler, K. (2004). Surviving the extremes: What happens to the body and mind at the limits of human endurance, p. 212. New York: Penguin.
  10. ^ Krakauer, Jon (21 April 2014). "Death and Anger on Everest". The New Yorker. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Of the twenty-five men hit by the falling ice, sixteen were killed, all of them Nepalis working for guided climbing teams. 
  11. ^ McCarthy, Julie (April 24, 2014). "Sherpas Walk Off The Job After Deadly Avalanche". NPR. 
  12. ^ The Associated Press (April 21, 2014). "Sherpas Consider Boycott After Everest Disaster". NPR. 
  13. ^ Sherpa, Lhakpa Norbu (2008). Through a Sherpa Window : Illustrated Guide to Sherpa Culture. Nepal: Vajra Publications. pp. 138–141. ISBN 978-9937506205. 
  14. ^ Sherpa, Lhakpa Norbu (2008). Through a Sherpa Window : Illustrated Guide to Sherpa Culture. Nepal: Vajra Publications. pp. 14–16. ISBN 978-9937506205. 
  15. ^ "1953: First Footsteps - Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay". National Geographic. Retrieved 2014-08-01. 
  16. ^ Christchurch City Libraries, Famous New Zealanders. Retrieved 23 January 2007.
  17. ^ Everest not as tall as thought Agençe France-Presse (on abc.net.au), 10 October 2005
  18. ^ PBS, NOVA, First to Summit, Updated November 2000. Retrieved 31 March 2007
  19. ^ "New Everest Speed Record Upheld". EverestNews.com. Retrieved 4 February 2007. 
  20. ^ "Apa Sherpa summits Everest for the 21st time'". Salt Lake Tribune. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  21. ^ "Since The Age of 12". BBC. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  22. ^ "Famous female Nepal climber dead", BBC News, 23 May 2007
  23. ^ "2012 Winners: Sano Babu Sunuwar and Lakpa Tsheri Sherpa". National Geographic. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  24. ^ "Four Confirmed Dead in Two Day on Everest". Retrieved 23 May 2012. 

External links[edit]