Shetland Sheepdog

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Shetland Sheepdog
Shetland Sheepdog 600.jpg
Sable/White Shetland Sheepdog
Other names Miniature Collie
Shetland Collie (obsolete)
Dwarf Scotch Shepherd (obsolete)
Toonie dog (obsolete)
Nicknames Sheltie
Country of origin Scotland
Traits
Weight Male 7.3–9.1 kg (16–20 lb)
Female 7.3–9.1 kg (16–20 lb)
Height Male 33–41 cm (13–16 in)
Female 33–41 cm (13–16 in)
Coat long double coat
Color sable, mahogany sable,
shaded sable, tri-colored,
bi-black, bi-blue, blue merle,
bi-blue merle, sable merle,
color headed white, double merle
Litter size 4-6 puppies
Life span 12-13 years (average)[1]
Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)

The Shetland Sheepdog, often known as the Sheltie, is a breed of herding dog. They are small to medium dogs, and come in a variety of colors, such as sable, tri-color, and blue merle. They are vocal, excitable, energetic dogs who are always willing to please and work hard. They are partly derived from dogs used in the Shetland Isles for herding and protecting sheep. The breed was formally recognized by The Kennel Club in 1909.[2]

The Shetland Sheepdog's early history is not well known. Although of obscure origin, the sheltie is probably a descendant of small specimens of the Scottish collie and the King Charles spaniel. It was developed to tend the diminutive sheep of the Shetland Islands, whose rugged, stormy shores have produced other small-statured animals such as the Shetland pony. Today it is raised as a farm dog and family pet.[3] They were originally a small mixed-breed dog, often 10–13 inches (250–330 mm) in height and it is thought that the original Shetland herding dogs were of Spitz type, and were crossed with collie-type sheepdogs from mainland Britain.[4] In the early 20th century, James Loggie added a small Rough Collie to the breeding stock, and helped establish what would become the modern Shetland sheepdog.[5] The original name of the breed was "Shetland Collie", but this caused controversy among Rough Collie breeders at the time, so the breed's name was formally changed to Shetland Sheepdog.[4]

History[edit]

Photograph of a Shetland sheepdog from 1915.

Unlike many miniature breeds that resemble their larger counterparts, this breed was not developed simply by selectively breeding the Rough Collie for smaller and smaller size. The original sheepdog of Shetland was a Spitz-type dog, probably similar to the modern Icelandic sheepdog. This dog was crossed with mainland working collies brought to the islands,[6] and then after being brought to England, it was further extensively crossed with the Rough Collie, and other breeds including some or all of the extinct Greenland Yakki, the King Charles Spaniel (not the Cavalier), the Pomeranian,[4] and possibly the Border Collie. The original Spitz-type working sheepdog of Shetland is now extinct, having been replaced for herding there by the Border Collie. The Shetland Sheepdog in its modern form has never been used as a working dog on Shetland, and ironically it is uncommon there.[citation needed]

When the breed was originally introduced breeders called them Shetland Collies, which upset Rough Collie breeders, so the name was changed to Shetland Sheepdog.[4][7] During the early 20th century (up until the 1940s), additional crosses were made to Rough Collies to help retain the desired Rough Collie type – in fact, the first AKC Sheltie champion's dam was a purebred rough Collie.[citation needed]

The year 1909, marked the initial recognition of the Sheltie by the English Kennel Club, with the first registered Sheltie being a female called Badenock Rose. The first Sheltie to be registered by the American Kennel Club was "Lord Scott" in 1911.[8]

Description[edit]

A sable Shetland Sheepdog

The general appearance of the Sheltie is that of a miniature Rough Collie. They are a small, double coated, working dog, agile and sturdy. Blue merle Shelties may have blue eyes or one brown and one blue eye, but all others have dark coloured eyes. Their expression should be that of alertness with a gentle and sometimes reserved nature. They carry their tail down low, only lifted when alert and never carried over the back. They are an intensely loyal breed, sometimes reserved with strangers but should not be shy or showing timidness as per the AKC breed standard.

Coat and colors[edit]

Blue merle Shetland Sheepdog

Shelties have a double coat, which means that they have two layers of fur that make up their coat. The long, rough guard hairs lie on top of a thick, soft undercoat. The guard hairs are water-repellent, while the undercoat provides relief from both high and low temperatures.

The English Kennel Club describes three different colors: "tri-colour, blue merle, and sable (ranging from golden through mahogany), marked with varying amounts of white and/or tan."[9] Essentially, however, a blue merle dog is a genetically black dog, either black, white, and tan (tricolor). In the show ring, blue merles may have blue eyes; all other colors must have brown eyes.

Basic coat colors[edit]

  • Sable – Sable is dominant over other colors. May be pure for sable (two sable genes) or may be tri-factored or bi-factored (carrying one sable gene and one tricolor or bicolor gene). "Tri-factored" sable and "shaded" sable are NOT interchangeable terms. A shaded dog (one with a lot of black overlay on a sable coat) may or may not be tri-factored or bi-factored.[10]
  • Tricolor – black, white, and tan. Tricolor is dominant over bi-black. May be pure for tricolor (2 tri genes) or may be bi-factored (carrying one tricolor gene and one bicolor gene).
  • Bi-black – black and white. Bi-black is recessive. A bi-black Sheltie carries 2 bi-black genes; thus, any dog of any other color with a bi-black parent is also bi-factored.

"Modified" coat colors[edit]

A bi-blue Shetland Sheepdog with the merling gene. May have blue eyes.

Any of the above colors may also have a color modification gene. The color modification genes are merling and white factoring. Merling dilutes the base color (sable, tricolor, or bi-black) causing a black dog's coat to show a mix of black, white, and gray hairs, often with black patches.

  • Blue merle—blue, white, and tan. A tricolor with the merling gene. May have blue eyes.
  • Bi-blue—blue and white. A bi-black with the merling gene. May have blue eyes.
  • Sable merle—faded or mottled sable and white. Often born with a mottled coat of darker brown over lighter brown, they usually present as a faded or lighter sable or can appear as a washed out blue-merle. Sable merles are shown in the breed ring as sables; therefore, blue eyes are a major fault in AKC. Blue eyes are not faulted in sable merles in UKC.

White factoring affects the amount of white on the dog. It is hard to tell, without actually breeding, whether a dog is white-factored or not, though dogs with white going up the stifle (the front of the hind leg) are usually assumed to be white-factored. Breeding two white-factored dogs can result in color-headed whites--Shelties with colored heads (sable, tricolor, bi-black, or blue or sable merle) and white bodies. Since dogs with more than 50% white are heavily penalized, they are not shown in the breed ring, but are perfectly normal in every other way.

Double merles, a product of breeding two merle Shelties together, have a very high incidence of deafness and/or blindness.[11] There have been reports of a brindle Sheltie[12] but many Sheltie enthusiasts agree that a cross sometime in the ancestry of that specific Sheltie could have produced a brindle. Unacceptable colors in the show ring are a rustiness in a blue or black coat. Colors may not be faded, no conspicuous white spots, and the color cannot be over 50% white.

A tri-colour Shetland Sheepdog

Height and weight[edit]

Shelties normally weigh around 5–11 kilograms (11–24 lb)[citation needed]. In general, males are taller and heavier than females. Accepted height ranges may differ depending on country and standard used. In the USA and Canada, breed standards state that males and females can be between 33–41 centimetres (13–16 in), all other standards (Australia, New Zealand and U.K.) specify Males: 37 cm ± 2½ cm, Females: 35.5 cm ± 2½ cm except F.C.I. which specifies Females: 36 cm ± 2½ cm at the shoulder (withers), however, some shelties can be found outside of these ranges but are not considered truly representative of the breed. Variation can be found within litters, and height (in the 40-50 cm range) is above the breed standard in some lines.

Ears[edit]

Portrait of a sable-coloured Shetland sheepdog

To conform to the breed standards, the Shelties' ears should bend slightly or "tip", this contributes to the "proper Sheltie expression"[citation needed]. The ear is to have the top third to a quarter of the ear tipped. If a dog's ears are not bent (referred to as prick ears) some owners brace them into the correct position for several weeks to several months.[13] Wide-set (too much distance between) ears are also not a desired trait, nor are ears which tip too low down (referred to as 'hound' ears).

Grooming[edit]

Shelties have a double coat. The topcoat consists of long, straight, water-repellent hair, which provides protection from cold and the elements. The undercoat is short, furry, and very dense and helps to keep the dog warm. Mats can be commonly found behind the ears, under the elbow on each front leg, and in the fluffy fur on the hind legs (the "skirts"), as well as around the collar (if worn). The coat is usually shed twice a year, often at spring and autumn.[14] Females will also shed right before or right after giving birth. Male shelties technically shed less than females but fur still comes off constantly.[15] Shaving these dogs is very bad for their skin and some do not regrow any significant amount of hair after being shaved, a condition known as alopecia.[16] Spaying or neutering can alter coat texture, making it softer, more prone to matting and even more profuse.[citation needed] It should be noted that Shelties shed in clumps which can be pulled or brushed out of the main coat, rather than individual hair. This makes them much easier to groom and clean-up after than many smooth-haired dogs, which leave loose fur in their space.

Temperament[edit]

Shelties are significantly smaller than Rough Collies

The Shetland sheepdog is lively, intelligent, playful, trainable, and willing to please and obey. They are loving, loyal, and affectionate with their family, but are naturally aloof with strangers; for this reason Shelties must be socialized. Shelties do well with children if they are reared with them from an early age; however, their small size makes it easy for a child to accidentally injure them, so supervision is necessary.

Shelties are vocal dogs, and are very alert to outside stimuli. The average Sheltie is an excellent watch dog.

The herding instinct is strong in many Shelties. They love to chase and herd things, including squirrels, ducks, children, and if an owner is not watchful, cars. Shelties love to run in wide-open areas. Some Shelties get so excited or anxious that they perform a fast series of tight spins without chasing their tails, a behavior seen in a number of small dog breeds.

Neglecting a Sheltie's need for exercise and intellectual stimulation can result in undesirable behaviors, including excessive barking, phobias, and nervousness. Fortunately, the reverse is also true; annoying behaviors can be lessened greatly by an hour of exercise that engages the dog with its owner. They do well with a sensitive, attentive owner.

Shelties have a high level of intelligence. According to Dr. Stanley Coren, an expert on animal intelligence, the Shetland sheepdog is one of the brightest dogs, ranking 6th out of 132 breeds tested. His research found that an average Sheltie could understand a new command in less than 5 repetitions and would obey a command the first time it was given 95% of the time or better.[17]

Health[edit]

Shetland sheepdogs are lively and intelligent

For the most part, Shelties are athletic and healthy. Like the Rough Collie, there is a tendency toward inherited malformation and disease of the eyes. Each individual puppy should have his eyes examined by a qualified veterinary ophthalmologist. Some lines may be susceptible to hypothyroidism, epilepsy, hip dysplasia, or skin allergies.

Shelties are also highly susceptible to Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC). TCC is a cancer of the bladder, and can be diagnosed early by regular urinalysis from a normal veterinarian. Causes are debated between breed susceptibility and female gender and exposure to insecticides.[18]

Dermatomyositis may occur at the age of 4 to 6 months, and is frequently misdiagnosed by general practice veterinarians as sarcoptic or demodectic mange. The disease manifests itself as alopecia on the top of the head, supra- and suborbital area and forearms as well as the tip of the tail. If the disease progresses to its more damaging form, it could affect the autonomic nervous system and the dog may have to be euthanised. This disease is generation-skipping and genetically transmitted, with breeders having no clear methodology for screening except clear bloodline records. Deep tissue biopsies are required to definitively diagnose dermatomyositis.[19]

Von Willebrand disease is an inherited bleeding disorder. In Shelties, affected dogs as a general rule are not viable and do not live long. The Sheltie carries type III of von Willebrands, which is the most severe of the three levels. There are DNA tests that were developed to find von Willebrands in Shelties. It can be done at any age, and it will give three results: affected, carrier and non-affected.[20][21] Shelties may also suffer from hypothyroidism, which is the under-functioning thyroid gland. It is an Autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland. Clinical symptoms include hair loss or lack of coat, over or under-weight, and listlessness.[22]

Although small breed dogs are not usually plagued by hip dysplasia, it has been identified in Shelties. Hip dysplasia occurs when the head of the femur and the acetabulum do not fit together correctly, frequently causing pain and/or lameness.[23] Hip dysplasia is thought to be genetic.[24] Many breeders will have their dogs' hips x-rayed and certified by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals.

Eyes[edit]

Shelties are athletic and healthy.

The two basic forms of inherited eye diseases/defects in Shelties are Collie eye anomaly (CEA) and progressive retinal atrophy (PRA).

Collie eye anomaly: An autosomal recessive inherited trait which results in incomplete closure of the embryonic fissure; seen almost exclusively in Collies, Border collies and Shetland sheepdogs.[25] CEA can be detected in young puppies by a veterinary ophthalmologist.[26] The disease involves the retina. It is always bilateral although the severity may be disparate (unequal) between eyes. Other accompanying defects (ophthalmic anomalies) may wrongly indicate a more severe manifestation of CEA. CEA is present at birth and although it cannot be cured, it doesn't progress. Signs of CEA in shelties are small, or deepset eyes. That is, the severity of the disease at birth will not change throughout the dog's life. CEA is scored similar to the way hips are.

CEA is genetic, inheritance is autosomal recessive, this means that even a dog that shows no phenotypic signs of the condition may be a carrier. Breeders should actively try to breed this disease out by only breeding with dogs that have "clear" eyes or very low scoring eyes.[27] A CEA score considered too high to breed with may still be low enough not to affect the dog's life. These dogs live happy and healthy lives as pets but should be not used for breeding. The recent development of a DNA test for CEA makes control of this disease much more likely as more breeders take advantage of the test. http://www.optigen.com/opt9_test_cea_ch.html

PRA can be detected at any time but usually does not show up until the dog is around two years of age. Breeding dogs should be tested for genotype for this condition before breeding and only animals found "clear" should be used for breeding. PRA can occur in most breeds of dog including mix breeds. In Most breeds it is also an autosomal recessive condition, however it has been found in other breeds to be autosomal dominant and sex-linked in others.[28] As the name suggests, it is a progressive disease which will eventually result in total blindness.[29] Like CEA, an affected dog should not be bred with but these dogs can live happily as pets. Currently there is no treatment for either disease, but as both diseases (CEA and PRA) are hereditary it is possible to eliminate them using selective breeding.

This mostly white Sheltie has several conformational faults, such as pricked ears, too much white coloration (due to it being a double merle), microphthalmia, and pigment other than black on the nose. This dog would not be considered breeding stock.

Breeding[edit]

As with any dog, Shelties should be screened for inheritable genetic diseases before breeding. Both male and female should be tested for thyroid problems, Von Willebrands disease and brucellosis, as well as have hip x-rays cleared by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals and eyes cleared by CERF.

Breeding colours is also a problem for many beginner breeders. Certain colour combinations can produce unwanted or potentially harmful results, such as mating blue merle to blue merle. Blue merle to blue merle crosses can produce what is called a "double merle" the result of which can be deaf and/or blind.[30] Mating a sable and white to a blue merle can produce a sable merle, which is undesirable for the show ring. A tri-colour to a pure-for-sable (a sable and white which can produce only other sable and whites), will produce only sable and whites, but they will be tri-factored sable and whites (which means they have the tri-gene.) There are many more examples of breeding for color, so a good breeder will research color genetics prior to breeding. There are many different genes contributing to the different colors of the Sheltie, including the bi gene, the merling gene, the sable gene, and the tricolour gene.[31][32]

MDR1 Gene Mutation[edit]

A sable & white Sheltie.

According to the College of Veterinary Medicine at Washington State University, the Shetland Sheepdog, and many other herding breeds, have a risk of being born with a MDR1 Gene Mutation, frequency for the Shetland Sheepdog is stated at 15%. Cross-breeds are affected too.[33] History of mdr1-1 . Dogs carrying mdr1-1 share a common ancestor that experienced remarkable evolutionary success, having contributed genetically to at least nine distinct breeds of dog.[34] Due to this genetic mutation, affected dogs may exhibit sensitivity or adverse reactions to many drugs including Acepromazine, Butorphanol, Doxorubicin, Erythromycin, Ivermectin, Loperamide, Milbemycin, Moxidectin, Rifampin, Selamectin, Vinblastine & Vincristine.[35][36]

Working life[edit]

As the name suggests, Shelties can and have been used as Sheepdogs and still participate in sheepdog trials to this day. Herding dogs conduct livestock from one place to another by causing fear-flocking and flight behavior.[37] They are ideal for small farm situations, and have proven to be dependable with a variety of stock including chickens, ducks, geese, sheep, goats and cattle.[38]

Activities[edit]

Bi-Black colour Sheltie doing Agility

In their size group, the breed dominates dog agility, obedience, showmanship, flyball, tracking, and herding. Herding instincts and trainability can be measured at noncompetitive herding tests. Shelties exhibiting basic herding instincts can be trained to compete in herding trials.[39] Participating in such a sport will satisfy a Sheltie's needs for mental and physical exercise.

Famous Shetland Sheepdogs[edit]

Mickey - a real life Shetland Sheepdog - is the main character of the Canadian children's series Mickey's Farm
12-week-old bi-blue
  • Ch Halstor's Peter Pumpkin ROM[40] - The Shetland sheepdog sire with the most Champions (160).[41]
  • Am/Can/Jpn/Int'l Ch.Golden Hylites the Phantom ROM - One of the most expensive and campaigned Shetland sheepdog sires, sold to a kennel in Japan for a large amount.[42]
  • Badenock Rose - the first Shetland sheepdog registered with the English Kennel Club.[8]
  • Pikku - Shigeru Miyamoto's Shetland sheepdog
  • Reveille II - a past official mascot of Texas A&M University
  • Forrest as Grace O'Keefe's dog Lady in Kill the Irishman
  • Mickey - main character of Canadian children's series Mickey's Farm[43]
  • Sam - The Dog in the Lethal Weapon series, owned by Riggs.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cassidy, Dr. Kelly M. (1 February 2008). "Breed Longevity Data". Dog Longevity. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  2. ^ "Sheltie information". Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  3. ^ "Shetland sheepdog." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 17 September 2012
  4. ^ a b c d Herbert, Beryl & Joan (1961). The Shetland Sheepdog. New York, New York: Arco Publishing Company, inc. ISBN 0-668-03976-0. 
  5. ^ Thornley, Barbara. "Breed History". Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  6. ^ The ancestral relationships of contemporary British herding breeds. Iris Combe & Pat Hutchinson 2004. Chart of relationships between various British herding dog breeds, and outline of their history.
  7. ^ Clem McGowan, Charlotte (1999). The Shetland Sheepdog in America. Best Friends Ltd. 
  8. ^ a b Bowling, Sue Ann. "Shetland Sheepdog Breed History". Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  9. ^ "AKC Breed Standard for Shetland Sheepdogs". Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  10. ^ Dreger, Dayna. "Shetland Sheepdog Coat Color DNA Study". Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  11. ^ "Sheltie Coat Color Genes". Athro, Limited. February 5, 2000. Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  12. ^ Miller, Bob. "Brindle Sheltie". Barlo Shelties. Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Shelty ear tipping". 
  14. ^ "Grooming the Sheltie". 
  15. ^ Foster; Smith. "Why Nursing Dogs Lose Their Hair or Blow Their Coat". Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  16. ^ McDonough, Yona Zeldis (1 September 2010). "Shaving dogs in the summer". webvet.com. Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  17. ^ Coren, Stanley (1995). The Intelligence of Dogs. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-37452-4. 
  18. ^ "Canine Bladder Cancer". Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  19. ^ Clark, L.A.; Credille KM, Murphy KE, Rees CA. (16 December 2005). "Linkage of dermatomyositis in the Shetland Sheepdog to chromosome 35". Veterinary Dermatology 6 (6): 392–394. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3164.2005.00469.x. PMID 16359306. 
  20. ^ Brewer, George J. "Sheltie von Willebrand's Disease". vetGen. Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  21. ^ Julie B. Anderson, DVM; Kenneth S. Latimer, DVM, PhD; Perry J. Bain, DVM, PhD; Heather L. Tarpley, DVM. "Von Willebrand's Disease". Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  22. ^ "Canine Hypothyroidism". Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  23. ^ "Canine Hip Dysplasia". Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  24. ^ Leighton, E.A. (15 May 1997). "Genetics of canine hip dysplasia". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210 (10): 1474–9. PMID 9154200. 
  25. ^ "Collie." Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2007. Credo Reference. Web. 17 September 2012.
  26. ^ "Collie-eye information". Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  27. ^ Stitt, Katriona. "Collie-eye genetics". Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  28. ^ "PRA Canine Health". Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  29. ^ McCalla, Terri. "PRA in Dogs". Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  30. ^ "Shelty Colours". 
  31. ^ Haderlie, Peggy and Jan (1983). Sheltie International presents Color Inheritance Charts For the Shetland Sheepdog. Sheltie International. 
  32. ^ Bowling, Sue Ann (May 11, 2010). "Animal Genetics". Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  33. ^ "MDR1 Gene Mutation FAQ". 
  34. ^ Neff, Mark W, Kathryn R. Robertson, Aaron K. Wong, Noa Safra, Karl W. Broman, Montgomery Slatkin, Katrina L. Mealey, Niels C. Pedersen, and Arno G. Motulsky. "Breed Distribution and History of Canine Mdr1-1δ, a Pharmacogenetic Mutation That Marks the Emergence of Breeds from the Collie Lineage." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101.32 (2004): 11725-11730. Print
  35. ^ "MDR1 Gene Mutation- Flier". 
  36. ^ "Problem Drugs - MDR1 Gene Mutation". 
  37. ^ Serpell, James, ed. The Domestic Dog: its evolution, behaviour and interactions with people. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Print.
  38. ^ "Hearding with the Shetland Sheepdog". 
  39. ^ Hartnagle-Taylor, Jeanne Joy; Taylor, Ty (2010). Stockdog Savvy. Alpine Publications. ISBN 978-157779-106-5. 
  40. ^ Bowling, Sue Ann. "Register of Merit Shetland Sheepdogs". Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  41. ^ Bowling, Sue Ann. "Ch Halstors Peter Pumpkin ROM". Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  42. ^ ""The Phantom" The Legend". Golden Hylite Shelties. Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  43. ^ "Mickey's Farm". The Pet Network. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 

External links[edit]