Shetrunji River

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Shetrunji
River
Country India
State Gujarat
Mouth
 - location Arabian Sea, India
Length 227 km (141 mi)

Shetrunji River (alternate: Satrunji) is a north-flowing river in western India in Gujarat.

Geography[edit]

It rises northeast of the Gir Hills, near Dhari in Amreli district.[1] Its course begins east-northeast along a lineament which runs parallel to the Narmada Fault,[2] passes north of Palitana's hills, Shatrunjaya, then in a southeasterly direction past Talaja Hill, through a peninsula, before reaching the Gulf of Cambay, approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) north of Goapnath Point.[3][4] It has two mouths, one situated approximately 4.5 miles (7.2 km) north of the point, and the other being an additional 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to the north.[5] Situated 4.5 miles (7.2 km) eastward of the river's mouth is Sultanpur Shoal.[3]

Shetrunji's basin has a maximum length of 227 kilometres (141 mi). The total catchment area of the basin is 5,636 square kilometres (2,176 sq mi).[6] Along with the Ghelo, Kalubhar, and the Vagad Rivers, the Shetrunji is a principal river of the district, [7] and the second largest river in the region of Saurashtra. The brackish stream, Gagadio, joins the Shetrunji about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from Krankach.[8] Khodiyar Mata is an approximately 50 feet (15 m) waterfall near Dhari. The topography is a mix of hills and plains.

Features[edit]

The Palitana dam was built in 1959 across the river at Nani-Rajasthali and represents Shetrunji's irrigation scheme.[9] This scheme is meant to provide river water to a cultivation area of 56,000–86,000 acres (23,000–35,000 ha) of land.[10] Shetrunji supplies drinking water to Bhavnagar.[11] A small port is located at Sultanpur[disambiguation needed].[3]

Culture[edit]

An old masjid is situated between the Shetrunji and the Natadia River, while a shrine of Khodiar Mata is situated within the Shetrunji's lower reaches.[12] Middle to Upper Palaeolithic sites have been found along the river.[13] Archaeological exploration along the river has noted 22 settlements which date circa 1st century BCE to 1st century CE. The sites included nine fishing villages, a mixed use fishing-agrarian village, a mixed use agrarian-salt-farming village, as well as a regional centre. Of these, Padri village dates to the Harappan period, while Hathab village was the largest in the lower river valley,[14] Palitana is situated near the river, serving as the base town for the hills of Shatrunjaya upon which are the Palitana temples, an important place of worship for Jains.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bhatt, S. C.; Bhargava, Gopal K. (2006). Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Gujarat. Gyan Publishing House. pp. 381–. ISBN 978-81-7835-364-7. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  2. ^ Bhattacharya, Anil Kumar (1985). Proceedings of Indian Geological IVth Session Congress, Varanasi, 1982: a volume in honour of Prof. D.K. Chakravarti. Today & Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers. p. 187. ISBN 978-81-7019-270-1. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c United States. Hydrographic Office (1920). Publications, Issue 159 (Public domain ed.). pp. 345–. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  4. ^ Chopra, Pran Nath (1992). Encyclopaedia of India. Rima Publishing House. p. 105. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  5. ^ United States. Naval Oceanographic Office (1976). Sailing directions for the west coast of India: Includes Ceylon and Maldive, and Laccadive Islands. p. 132. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  6. ^ "Shetrunji River". guj-nwrws.gujarat.gov.in, Government of Gujarat. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  7. ^ India. Director of Census Operations, Gujarat (2006). Census of India, 2001: District Census Handbook. A & B. Village & town directory; Village panchayat & townwise primary census abstract 1-25 in 28 v.: [1] Ahmadabad (2 pts.). Controller of Publications. p. 10. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  8. ^ Gujarat (India) (1972). Gujarat State Gazetteers: Surat. Directorate of Government Print., Stationery and Publications, Gujarat State. p. 10, 619. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  9. ^ Jain, S. Sharad Kumar; Agarwal, Pushpendra K.; Singh, V. Vijay P. (1 January 2007). Hydrology and Water Resources of India. Springer. pp. 750–. ISBN 978-1-4020-5180-7. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  10. ^ State Transport Review 10. 1959. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  11. ^ Mitra, Sudipta (2005). Gir Forest and the Saga of the Asiatic Lion. Indus Publishing. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-81-7387-183-2. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  12. ^ Sajnani, Manohar (1 September 2003). Encyclopaedia of Tourism: Resources in India. Gyan Publishing House. pp. 126–. ISBN 978-81-7835-018-9. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  13. ^ Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. order of the Governor-General of India. 2007. p. 121. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  14. ^ Ray, Himanshu Prabha (14 August 2003). The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-0-521-01109-9. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  15. ^ Gupta, Vijay Kumar (1 March 1987). Tourism In India. Gyan Publishing House. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-81-212-0124-7. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 

Coordinates: 21°19′N 72°07′E / 21.317°N 72.117°E / 21.317; 72.117