Shia Islam

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The Shia (Arabic: شيعةShīʿah) represent the second largest denomination of Islam. Adherents of Shia Islam are called Shias or the Shi'a as a collective or Shi'i individually.[1] Shi'a is the short form of the historic phrase Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي) meaning "followers", "faction" or "party" of Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin Ali, whom the Shia believe to be Muhammad's successor in the Caliphate. Twelver Shia (Ithnā'ashariyyah) is the largest branch of Shia Islam and the term Shia Muslim is often taken to refer to Twelvers by default. Shia Muslims constitute 10–20% of the world's Muslim population and 38% of the Middle East's entire population.[2]

Description[edit]

Shi'i Islam is based on the Quran and the message of the Islamic prophet Muhammad attested in hadith recorded by the Shia, and certain books deemed sacred to the Shia (Nahj al-Balagha).[3][4] Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, and as the first Imam. In the centuries after the death of Muhammad, the Shia extended this "Imami" doctrine to Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt ("the People of the House"), and certain individuals among his descendants, known as Imams, who they believe possess special spiritual and political authority over the community, infallibility, and other quasi-divine traits.[5]

Although there are myriad Shi'i subsects, modern Shi'i Islam has been divided into three main groupings: Twelvers, Ismailis and Zaidis.[6][7][8][9]

Etymology[edit]

Main article: Shia etymology

The word Shia (Arabic: شيعةshīʻah /ˈʃiːʕa/) means follower[10] and is the short form of the historic phrase shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي /ˈʃiːʕatu ˈʕaliː/), meaning "followers of Ali", "faction of Ali", or "party of Ali".[11] Shi'a and Shiism are forms used in English, while Shi'ite or Shiite, as well as Shia, refer to its adherents.

Beliefs[edit]

Imamate[edit]

Succession of Ali[edit]

Main article: Shia view of Ali

(MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, AD 1309/8 Ilkhanid manuscript illustration) Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone, only God has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet. They believe God chose Ali to be Muhammad's successor, infallible, the first caliph (khalifa, head of state) of Islam. Muhammad, before his death, designated Ali as his successor.

Ali was Muhammad's first cousin and closest living male relative as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah.[12][13] Ali would eventually become the fourth Muslim (sunni) caliph.[14]

After the last pilgrimage, Muhammad ordered the gathering of Muslims at the pond of Khumm and it was there that Shi'a Muslims believe Muhammad nominated Ali to be his successor. The hadith of the pond of Khumm was narrated on 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah of 10 AH in the Islamic calendar (March 10, 632 AD) at a place called Ghadir Khumm, located near the city of al-Juhfah, Saudi Arabia.[15] Muhammad there stated:

Oh people! Reflect on the Quran and comprehend its verses. Look into its clear verses and do not follow its ambiguous parts, for by Allah, none shall be able to explain to you its warnings and its mysteries, nor shall anyone clarify its interpretation, other than the one that I have grasped his hand, brought up beside myself, [and lifted his arm,] the one about whom I inform you that whomever I am his master (Mawla[a])), then Ali is his master (Mawla); and he is Ali Ibn Abi Talib, my brother, the executor of my will (Wasiyyi), whose appointment as your guardian and leader has been sent down to me from Allah, the mighty and the majestic.

— Muhammad, from The Farewell Sermon[17]

  1. ^ The word mawla has many meanings as discussed in the book "Patronate And Patronage in Early And Classical Islam" By Monique Bernards, John Nawas on page 25:
    "[M]awla may refer to a client, a patron, an agnate (brother, son, father's brother, father' brothers son), an affined kinsman, (brother-in-law, son-in-law), a friend, a supporter, a follower, a drinking companion, a partner, a newly-converted Muslim attached to a Muslim and last but not least an ally. Most of these categories have legal implications. In Islamic times, the term malawa mostly referred to Muslim freedmen and freed non-Arabs who attached themselves to Arabs upon their conversion to Islam. In these senses, Mawla is commonly translated as "a client". The association of malwa with non-arabs and a low status imparted an increasingly pejorative connotation to it.[16]


Shia Muslims believe this to be Muhammad's appointment of Ali as his successor.

Ali's caliphate[edit]

The Investiture of Ali at Ghadir Khumm

When Muhammad died in 632 CE, Ali and Muhammad's closest relatives made the funeral arrangements. While they were preparing his body, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah met with the leaders of Medina and elected Abu Bakr as caliph. Ali and his family accepted the appointment for the sake of unity in the early Muslim community.[12] It was not until the murder of the third caliph, Uthman, in 657 CE that the Muslims in Medina in desperation invited Ali to become the fourth caliph as the last source,[12] and he established his capital in Kufah in present-day Iraq.[11]

Ali's rule over the early Muslim community was often contested, and wars were waged against him. As a result, he had to struggle to maintain his power against the groups who betrayed him after giving allegiance to his succession, or those who wished to take his position. This dispute eventually led to the First Fitna, which was the first major civil war within the Islamic Caliphate. The Fitna began as a series of revolts fought against the first imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib, caused by the assassination of his political predecessor, Uthman ibn Affan. While the rebels who accused Uthman of nepotism[clarification needed] affirmed Ali's khilafa (caliph-hood), they later turned against him and fought him.[12] Ali ruled from 656 CE to 661 CE,[12] when he was assassinated[13] while prostrating in prayer (sujud). Ali's main rival Muawiyah then claimed the caliphate.[18]

Hasan[edit]

Main article: Hasan ibn Ali

Upon the death of Ali, his elder son Hasan became leader of the Muslims of Kufa, and after a series of skirmishes between the Kufa Muslims and the army of Muawiyah, Hasan agreed to cede the caliphate to Muawiyah and maintain peace among Muslims upon certain conditions:[19][20]

  1. The enforced public cursing of Ali, e.g. during prayers, should be abandoned
  2. Muawiyah should not use tax money for his own private needs
  3. There should be peace, and followers of Hasan should be given security and their rights
  4. Muawiyah will never adopt the title of Amir ul momineen
  5. Muawiyah will not nominate any successor

Hasan then retired to Medina, where in 50 AH he was poisoned by his wife Ja'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, after being secretly contacted by Muawiyah who wished to pass the caliphate to his own son Yazid and saw Hasan as an obstacle.

Hussain[edit]

Main article: Hussain ibn Ali
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Karbala, Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims.

Hussain, Ali's younger son and brother to Hasan, initially resisted calls to lead the Muslims against Muawiyah and reclaim the caliphate. In 680 CE, Muawiyah died and passed the caliphate to his son Yazid. Yazid asked Hussain to swear allegiance (bay'ah) to him. Ali's faction, having expected the caliphate to return to Ali's line upon Muawiyah's death, saw this as a betrayal of the peace treaty and so Hussain rejected this request for allegiance. There was a groundswell of support in Kufa for Hussain to return there and take his position as caliph and imam, so Hussain collected his family and followers in Medina and set off for Kufa. En route to Kufa, he was blocked by an army of Yazid's men near Karbala (modern Iraq), and Hussain and approximately 72 of his family and followers were killed in the Battle of Karbala.

The Shias regard Hussain as martyr (shahid), and count him as an Imam from the Ahl al-Bayt. They view Hussain as the defender of Islam from annihilation at the hands of Yazid I. Hussain is the last imam following Ali whom all Shiah sub-branches mutually recognise.[21] The Battle of Karbala is often cited as the definitive break between the Shiah and Sunni sects of Islam, and is commemorated each year by Shiah Muslims on the Day of Ashura.

Imamate of the Ahl al-Bayt[edit]

Zulfiqar with and without the shield. The Fatimid depiction of Ali's sword as carved on the Gates of Old Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr. Two swords were captured from the temple of the pagan polytheist god Manāt during the Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali. Muhammad gave them to Ali, saying that one of them was Zulfiqar, which became the famous sword of Ali and a later symbol of Shi'ism.[22]

Most of the early Shia differed only marginally from mainstream Sunnis in their views on political leadership, but it is possible in this sect to see a refinement of Shia doctrine. Early Sunnis traditionally held that the political leader must come from the tribe of Muhammad—namely, the Quraysh tribe. The Zaydis narrowed the political claims of the Ali's supporters, claiming that not just any descendant of Ali would be eligible to lead the Muslim community (ummah) but only those males directly descended from Muhammad through the union of Ali and Fatimah. But during the Abbasid revolts, other Shia, who came to be known as Imamiyyah (followers of the imams), followed the theological school of Ja'far al-Sadiq, himself the great grandson of the Prophet Muhammad's closest companion, Abu Bakr. They asserted a more exalted religious role for imams and insisted that, at any given time, whether in power or not, a single male descendant of Ali and Fatimah was the divinely appointed imam and the sole authority, in his time, on all matters of faith and law. To those Shia, love of the imams and of their persecuted cause became as important as belief in God's oneness and the mission of Muhammad.[8]

Later most of the Shia, including Twelver and Ismaili, became Imamis. Imami Shia believe that Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad.[8] Imams are human individuals who not only rule over the community with justice, but also are able to keep and interpret the divine law and its esoteric meaning. The words and deeds of Muhammad and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad.[23][24]

According to this view, there is always an Imam of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community. Ali was the first imam of this line, the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by male descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah.[8]

This difference between following either the Ahl al-Bayt (Muhammad's family and descendants) or Caliph Abu Bakr has shaped Shia and non-Shia views on some of the Quranic verses, the hadith (narrations from Muhammad) and other areas of Islam. For instance, the collection of hadith venerated by Shia Muslims is centered on narrations by members of the Ahl al-Bayt and their supporters, while some hadith by narrators not belonging to or supporting the Ahl al-Bayt are not included. Those of Abu Hurairah, for example, Ibn Asakir in his Ta'rikh Kabir and Muttaqi in his Kanzu'l-Umma report that Caliph Umar lashed him, rebuked him, and forbade him to narrate hadith from Muhammad. Umar said: "Because you narrate hadith in large numbers from the Holy Prophet, you are fit only for attributing lies to him. (That is, one expects a wicked man like you to utter only lies about the Holy Prophet.) So you must stop narrating hadith from the Prophet; otherwise, I will send you to the land of Dus." (A clan in Yemen, to which Abu Huraira belonged.) According to Sunnis, Ali was the fourth successor to Abu Bakr, while the Shia maintain that Ali was the first divinely sanctioned "Imam", or successor of Muhammad. The seminal event in Shia history is the martyrdom in 680 CE at the Battle of Karbala of Ali's son Hussein ibn Ali, who led a non-allegiance movement against the defiant caliph (71 of Hussein's followers were killed as well). Hussein came to symbolize resistance to tyranny.

It is believed in Twelver and Ismaili Shia Islam that 'aql, divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the prophets and imams and gave them esoteric knowledge called ḥikmah and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees.[8][25][26] Although the imam was not the recipient of a divine revelation, he had a close relationship with God, through which God guides him, and the imam in turn guides the people. Imamate, or belief in the divine guide, is a fundamental belief in the Twelver and Ismaili Shia branches and is based on the concept that God would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance.[27]

Imam of the time, last imam of the Shia[edit]

The Mahdi is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will rule for seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations) before the Day of Judgment and will rid the world of evil. According to Islamic tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ (Isa), who is to assist the Mahdi against the Masih ad-Dajjal (literally, the "false Messiah" or Antichrist). Jesus, who is considered the Masih (Messiah) in Islam, will descend at the point of a white arcade, east of Damascus, dressed in yellow robes with his head anointed. He will then join the Mahdi in his war against the Dajjal, where Jesus will slay Dajjal and unite mankind.

The Jamkaran, mahdi's mosque, Partially Shaaban celebration.

Theology[edit]

The Shia Islamic faith is vast and inclusive of many different groups.[11] Shia theological beliefs and religious practises, such as prayers, slightly differ from the Sunnis'. While all Muslims pray five times daily, Shias have the option of always combining Dhuhr with Asr and Maghrib with Isha', as there are three distinct times mentioned in the Quran. The Sunnis tend to combine only under certain circumstances.[28][29] Shia Islam embodies a completely independent system of religious interpretation and political authority in the Muslim world.[30][31] The original Shia identity referred to the followers of Imam Ali.[32] and Shia theology was formulated in the 2nd century AH, or after Hijra (8th century CE).[33] The first Shia governments and societies were established by the end of the 3rd century AH/9th century CE. The 4th century AH /10th century CE has been referred to by Louis Massignon as "the Shiite Ismaili century in the history of Islam".[34]

Hadith[edit]

The Shia believe that the status of Ali is supported by numerous hadith, including the Hadith of the pond of Khumm, Hadith of the two weighty things, Hadith of the pen and paper, Hadith of the invitation of the close families, and Hadith of the Twelve Successors. In particular, the Hadith of the Cloak is often quoted to illustrate Muhammad's feeling towards Ali and his family by both Sunni and Shia scholars. Shias prefer hadith attributed to the Ahl al-Bayt and close associates, and have their own separate collection of hadiths.[35][36]

Profession of faith[edit]

Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt with phrase "Ali-un-Waliullah"

The Shia version of the Shahada, the Islamic profession of faith, differs from that of the Sunni. The Sunni Shahada states There is no god except God, Muhammad is the messenger of the God, but to this the Shia append Ali is the Wali (friend or intimate associate) of God, علي ولي الله. This phrase embodies the Shia emphasis on the inheritance of authority through Muhammad's lineage. The three clauses of the Shia Shahada thus address tawhid (the unity of God), nubuwwah (the prophethood of Muhammad), and imamah (imamate, the leadership of the faith).

Infallibility[edit]

Ali is credited as the first male to convert to Islam.
Main article: Ismah

Ismah is the concept of infallibility or "divinely bestowed freedom from error and sin" in Islam.[37] Muslims believe that Muhammad and other prophets in Islam possessed ismah. Twelver and Ismaili Shia Muslims also attribute the quality to Imams as well as to Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad, in contrast to the Zaidi, who do not attribute 'ismah to the Imams.[38] Though initially beginning as a political movement, infallibility and sinlessness of the imams later evolved as a distinct belief of (non-Zaidi) Shi'ism.[5]

According to Shia theologians, infallibility is considered a rational necessary precondition for spiritual and religious guidance. They argue that since God has commanded absolute obedience from these figures they must only order that which is right. The state of infallibility is based on the Shia interpretation of the verse of purification.[39][40] Thus, they are the most pure ones, the only immaculate ones preserved from, and immune to, all uncleanness.[41] It does not mean that supernatural powers prevent them from committing a sin, but due to the fact that they have absolute belief in God, they refrain from doing anything that is a sin.[42]

They also have a complete knowledge of God's will. They are in possession of all knowledge brought by the angels to the prophets (nabi) and the messengers (rasul). Their knowledge encompasses the totality of all times. They thus act without fault in religious matters.[43] Shias regard Ali as the successor of Muhammad not only ruling over the community in justice, but also interpreting Islamic practices and its esoteric meaning. Hence he was regarded as being free from error and sin (infallible), and appointed by God by divine decree (nass) to be the first Imam.[44] Ali is known as "perfect man" (al-insan al-kamil) similar to Muhammad, according to Shia viewpoint.[45]

Occultation[edit]

Main article: The Occultation

The Occultation is a belief in some forms of Shia Islam that a messianic figure, a hidden imam known as the Mahdi, will one day return alongside Jesus[citation needed] and fill the world with justice. According to the Twelver Shia, the main goal of the Mahdi will be to establish an Islamic state and to apply Islamic laws that were revealed to Muhammad.[46]

Some Shia, such as the Zaidi and Nizari Ismaili, do not believe in the idea of the Occultation. The groups which do believe in it differ as to which lineage of the Imamate is valid, and therefore which individual has gone into occultation. They believe there are many signs that will indicate the time of his return.

Twelver Shia Muslims believe that the Mahdi (the twelfth imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi) is already on Earth, is in occultation and will return at the end of time. Fatimid/ Bohra/ Dawoodi Bohra believe the same but for their 21st Tayyib. Whereas Sunnis believe the future Mahdi has not yet arrived on Earth.[47]

History[edit]

Historians dispute the origin of Shia Islam, with many Western scholars positing that Shiism began as a political faction rather than a truly religious movement.[8][48][49] However, other scholars disagree, considering this concept of religious-political separation to be an anachronistic application of a Western concept.[50]

Following the Battle of Karbala, as various Shi'a-affiliated groups diffused in the emerging Islamic world, several nations arose based around a Shi'a leadership or population.

  • Idrisids (788 to 985 CE): a Zaydi dynasty in what is now Morocco
  • Uqaylids (990 to 1096 CE): a Shi'a Arab dynasty with several lines that ruled in various parts of Al-Jazira, northern Syria and Iraq.
  • Buyids (934–1055 CE): at its peak consisted of large portions of modern Iraq and Iran.
  • Ilkhanate (1256–1335): a Mongol khanate established in Persia in the 13th century, considered a part of the Mongol Empire. The Ilkhanate was based, originally, on Genghis Khan's campaigns in the Khwarezmid Empire in 1219–1224, and founded by Genghis's grandson, Hulagu, in territories which today comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, and Pakistan. The Ilkhanate initially embraced many religions, but was particularly sympathetic to Buddhism and Christianity. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, embraced Islam his brother Öljaitü promoted Shia Islam.
  • Bahmanis (1347–1527 CE): a Shia Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms.[51] Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Islamic Kingdom in South India.[52]

Fatimid caliphate[edit]

  • Fatimids (909–1171 CE): Controlled much of North Africa, the Levant, parts of Arabia and Mecca and Medina. The group takes its name from Fatima, Muhammad's daughter, from whom they claim descent.

Safavids[edit]

Shah Ismail I of Safavid dynasty destroyed the tombs of Abū Ḥanīfa and the Sufi Abdul Qadir Gilani in 1508.[53] In 1533, Ottomans restored order, reconquered Iraq and rebuilt Sunni shrines.[54]

A major turning point in Shia history was the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736) in Persia. This caused a number of changes in the Muslim world:

  • The ending of the relative mutual tolerance between Sunnis and Shias that existed from the time of the Mongol conquests onwards and the resurgence of antagonism between the two groups.
  • Initial dependence of Shiite clerics on the state followed by the emergence of an independent body of ulama capable of taking a political stand different from official policies.[55]
  • The growth in importance of Iranian centers of religious learning and change from Twelver Shiaism being a predominantly Arab phenomenon.[56]
  • The growth of the Akhbari School which preached that only the Quran, hadith are to be bases for verdicts, rejecting the use of reasoning.
  • Shah Ismail I also proclaimed himself the Mahdi and a reincarnation of Ali.[57]

With the fall of the Safavids, the state in Persia –including the state system of courts with government-appointed judges (qadis)– became much weaker. This gave the Sharia courts of mujtahids an opportunity to fill in the slack and enabled the ulama to assert their judicial authority. The Usuli School also increased in strength at this time.[58]


Community[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Islam by country              Sunni              Shias      Ibadi
Distribution of Sunni and Shia branches of Islam

One of the lingering problems in estimating the Shia population is that unless the Shia form a significant minority in a Muslim country, the entire population is often listed as Sunni. Shiites are estimated to be 21–35 percent of the Muslim population in South Asia, although the total number is difficult to estimate due to that reason.[59] It is variously estimated that 10–20%[60][61][62][63] of the world's Muslims are Shia. They may number up to 200 million as of 2009.[62] The Shia majority countries are Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Azerbaijan and, according to some estimates, Yemen where they are the largest religious group.[64][65] They also constitute 36.3% of entire local population and 38.6% of the local Muslim population of the Middle East.[2]

Shia Muslims constitute 45% of the population in Lebanon, and as per some estimates 35%[64][66] over 45% of the population in Yemen,[67] 30%-40% of the citizen population in Kuwait (no figures exist for the non-citizen population),[68][69] over 20% in Turkey,[62][70] 10–20% of the population in Pakistan,[62] and 10-19% of Afghanistan's population.[71][72]

Saudi Arabia hosts a number of distinct Shia communities, including the Twelver Baharna in the Eastern Province and Nakhawila of Medina, and the Ismaili Sulaymani and Zaidiyyah of Najran. Estimations put the number of Shiite citizens at 2-4 million, accounting for roughly 15% of the local population.[73]

Significant Shia communities exist in the coastal regions of West Sumatra and Aceh in Indonesia (see Tabuik).[74] The Shia presence is negligible elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where Muslims are predominantly Shafi'i Sunnis.

A significant Shia minority is present in Nigeria, made up of modern-era converts to a Shia movement centered around Kano and Sokoto states.[62][63][75] Several African countries like Kenya,[76] South Africa,[77] Somalia,[78] etc. hold small minority populations of various Shia denominations, primarily descendants of immigrants from South Asia during the colonial period, such as the Khoja.[79]

According to Shia Muslims, one of the lingering problems in estimating Shia population is that unless Shia form a significant minority in a Muslim country, the entire population is often listed as Sunni. The reverse, however, has not held true, which may contribute to imprecise estimates of the size of each sect. For example, the 1926 rise of the House of Saud in Arabia brought official discrimination against Shia.[80]

List of nations whose Shia population may be estimated[edit]

Figures indicated in the first three columns below are based on the October 2009 demographic study by the Pew Research Center report, Mapping the Global Muslim Population.[62][63]

Nations with over 100,000 Shia[62][63]
Country Shia population[62][63] Percent of Muslim population that is Shia[62][63] Percent of global Shia population[62][63] Minimum estimate/claim Maximum estimate/claim
Iran 66,000,000 – 70,000,000 90–95 37–40
Iraq 19,000,000 – 22,000,000 65–70 11–12
Pakistan 17,000,000 – 26,000,000 10–15 10–15 43,250,000[81] – 57,666,666[82][83]
India 16,000,000 – 24,000,000 10–15 9–14 40,000,000[84] – 50,000,000.[85]
Yemen 8,000,000 – 10,000,000 35–40 5
Turkey 7,000,000 – 11,000,000 10–15 4–6
Azerbaijan 5,000,000 – 7,000,000 65–75 3–4 85% of total population[86]
Afghanistan 3,000,000 – 4,000,000 10–15 <2 15–19% of total population[71]
Syria 3,000,000 – 4,000,000 15–20 <2
Nigeria <4,000,000 <5 <2 5-10 million[87]
Saudi Arabia 3,000,000 – 4,000,000 15–22 <1
Lebanon 1,000,000 – 1,600,000[88] 30-35[89][90][91] <1 Estimated, no official census.[92]
Tanzania <2,000,000 <10 <1
Kuwait 360,000 - 480,000 30-40[68][69] <1 30%-40% of 1.2m Muslims (citizen only)[68][69]
Germany 400,000 – 600,000 10–15 <1
Bahrain 375,000 – 400,000 66–70 <1 375,000 (66%[93] of citizen population) 400,000 (70%[94] of citizen population)
Tajikistan 400,000 7 <1
United Arab Emirates 300,000 – 400,000 10 <1
United States 200,000 – 400,000 10–15 <1
Oman 100,000 – 300,000 5–10 <1 948,750[95]
United Kingdom 100,000 – 300,000 10–15 <1
Qatar 100,000 10 <1
Bosnia and Herzegovina 30,000 3 <1


Amount of Shia Muslim adherents per continents displayed on a pie diagram:
       America 0.56 %
       Europe 4.42 %
       Africa 0.78 %
       Asia 94.23 %

Persecution[edit]

The history of Sunni-Shia relations has often involved violence, dating back to the earliest development of the two competing sects. At various times Shia groups have faced persecution.[96][97][98][99][100][101]

Militarily established and holding control over the Umayyad government, many Sunni rulers perceived the Shia as a threat – both to their political and religious authority.[102] The Sunni rulers under the Umayyads sought to marginalize the Shia minority, and later the Abbasids turned on their Shia allies and imprisoned, persecuted, and killed them. The persecution of the Shia throughout history by Sunni co-religionists has often been characterized by brutal and genocidal acts. Comprising only about 10–15% of the entire Muslim population, the Shia remain a marginalized community to this day in many Sunni Arab dominant countries without the rights to practice their religion and organize.[103]

In 1514 the Ottoman sultan, Selim I, ordered the massacre of 40,000 Anatolian Shia.[104] According to Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, "Sultan Selim I carried things so far that he announced that the killing of one Shiite had as much otherworldly reward as killing 70 Christians."[105]

In 1801 the Al Saud-Wahhabi armies attacked and sacked Karbala, the Shia shrine in eastern Iraq that commemorates the death of Husayn.[106]

Reportedly under Saddam Hussein's regime, 1973 to 2003, in Iraq, Shia Muslims were heavily persecuted.

In March 2011, the Malaysian government declared the Shia a "deviant" sect and banned them from promoting their faith to other Muslims, but left them free to practice it themselves privately.[107][108]

Holidays[edit]

A procession of Shia Muslims in Bhopal in the Mughal Empire.

Shia, celebrate the following annual holidays:

The following days are some of the most important holidays observed by Shia Muslims:

  • Eid al-Ghadeer, which is the anniversary of the Ghadir Khum, the occasion when Muhammad announced Ali's Imamate before a multitude of Muslims.[109] Eid al-Ghadeer is held on the 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah.
  • The Mourning of Muharram and the Day of Ashura for Shia commemorates Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom. Husayn was a grandson of Muhammad who was killed by Yazid ibn Muawiyah. Ashurah is a day of deep mourning which occurs on the 10th of Muharram.
  • Arba'ein commemorates the suffering of the women and children of Husayn ibn Ali's household. After Husayn was killed, they were marched over the desert, from Karbala (central Iraq) to Shaam (Damascus, Syria). Many children (some of whom were direct descendants of Muhammad) died of thirst and exposure along the route. Arbaein occurs on the 20th of Safar, 40 days after Ashurah.
  • Mawlid, Muhammad's birth date. Unlike Sunni Muslims, who celebrate 12th of Rabi' al-awwal as Muhammad's birthday or deathday (because they said that birth & death both is in this week), Shia Muslims celebrate the 17th of the month, which also coincides with the birth date of the sixth imam, Ja'far al-Saadiq.[110] Note that, not all Sunni Muslims celebrate Muhammad's birthday, stating it as a bid'ah.
  • Fatimah's birthday on 20th of Jumada al-Thani. It's also considered as the "Women and Mothers' day".
  • Ali's birthday on 13th of Rajab. It's also considered as the "Men and Fathers' day".
  • Mid-Sha'ban is the birth date of the 12th and final Twelver imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi. It is celebrated by Shia Muslims on the 15th of Sha'aban.
  • Laylat al-Qadr, anniversary of the night of the revelation of the Quran.
  • Eid al-Mubahila celebrates a meeting between the Ahl al-Bayt (household of Muhammad) and a Christian deputation from Najran. Al-Mubahila is held on the 24th of Dhu al-Hijjah.

Holy sites[edit]

The holiest sites common to all Muslims are Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem. For Shias, the Imam Husayn Shrine, Al Abbas Mosque in Karbala, and Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf are also highly revered.

Other venerated sites include Wadi-us-Salaam cemetery in Najaf, Al-Baqi' cemetery in Medina, Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad, Kadhimiya Mosque in Kadhimiya, Al-Askari Mosque in Samarra, Sahla Mosque and Great Mosque of Kufa in Kufa and several other sites in the cities of Qom, Susa and Damascus.

Most of the Shi'a holy places in Saudi Arabia have been destroyed by the warriors of the Ikhwan, the most notable being the tombs of the Imams in the Al-Baqi' cemetery in 1925.[111] In 2006 a bomb destroyed the shrine of Al-Askari Mosque.[112]

Branches[edit]

The Shia belief throughout its history split over the issue of the Imamate. The largest branch are the Twelvers, followed by the Zaidi and Ismaili. All three groups follow a different line of Imamate.

Twelver[edit]

Main article: Twelver

Twelver Shia or the Ithnā'ashariyyah' is the largest branch of Shia Islam, and the term Shia Muslim often refers to the Twelvers by default. The term Twelver is derived from the doctrine of believing in twelve divinely ordained leaders, known as The Twelve Imams. Twelver Shia are also known as Imami or Ja'fari, originated from the name of the 6th Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who elaborated the twelver jurisprudence.[113]

Twelvers constitute the majority of the population in Iran (90%),[114] Azerbaijan (85%),[11][86] Bahrain (70%), Iraq (65%), Lebanon (65% of Muslims).[115][116][117]

List of Imams[edit]

Number Name
(Full/Kunya)
Title
(Arabic/Turkish)[118]
Birth–Death
(CE/AH)[119]
Importance Birthplace (present day country) Place of death and burial
1 Ali ibn Abu Talib
علي بن أبي طالب
Abu al-Hassan
أبو الحسن
Amir al-Mu'minin
(Commander of the Faithful)[120]
Birinci Ali[121]
600–661[120]
23–40[122]
The first Imam and successor of Muhammad in Shia Islam; however, the Sunnis acknowledge him as the fourth Caliph as well. He holds a high position in almost all Sufi Muslim orders (Turuq); the members of these orders trace their lineage to Muhammad through him.[120] Mecca[120] Assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Kharijite in Kufa, who slashed him with a poisoned sword while in the morning prayer.[120][123] Buried at the Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf.
2 Hasan ibn Ali
الحسن بن علي
Abu Muhammad
أبو محمد
al-Mujtaba
İkinci Ali[121]
624–680[124]
3–50[125]
He was the eldest surviving grandson of Muhammad through Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah. Hasan succeeded his father as the caliph in Kufa, and on the basis of peace treaty with Muawiyah I, he relinquished control of Iraq following a reign of seven months.[126] Medina[124] According to Shia sources, He was poisoned by his wife in Medina on the orders of the Caliph Muawiyah.[127] Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.
3 Husayn ibn Ali
الحسین بن علي
Abu Abdillah
أبو عبدالله
Sayed al-Shuhada
Üçüncü Ali[121]
626–680[128]
4–61[129]
He was a grandson of Muhammad. Husayn opposed the validity of Caliph Yazid I. As a result, he and his family were later martyred in the Battle of Karbala by Yazid's forces. After this incident, the commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali has become a central ritual in Shia identity.[128][130] Medina[128] Martyred and then beheaded at the Battle of Karbala.[128] Buried at the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala.
4 Ali ibn al-Hussein
(Zayn al-Abidin)
علي بن الحسین
Abu Muhammad
أبو محمد
al-Sajjad, Zain al-Abedin[131]
Dördüncü Ali[121]
658-9[131] – 712[132]
38[131]–95[132]
Author of prayers in Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, which is known as "The Psalm of the Household of the Prophet" and Risalah al-Huquq which is a charter of rights.[132][133] Medina[131] According to most Shia scholars, he was poisoned on the order of Caliph al-Walid I in Medina.[132] Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.
5 Muhammad ibn Ali
(Muhammad al-Baqir)
محمد بن علي
Abu Ja'far
أبو جعفر
al-Baqir al-Ulum

(splitting open knowledge)[134]


Beşinci Ali[121]
677–732[134]
57–114[134]
Sunni and Shia sources both describe him as one of the early and most eminent legal scholars, teaching many students during his tenure.[134][135] Medina[134] According to some Shia scholars, he was poisoned by Ibrahim ibn Walid ibn 'Abdallah in Medina on the order of Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.[132] Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.
6 Ja'far ibn Muhammad
(Ja'far al-Sadiq)
جعفر بن محمد
Abu Abdillah
أبو عبدالله
al-Sadiq[136]


(the Trustworthy)


Altıncı Ali[121]
702–765[136]
83–148[136]
Established the Ja'fari jurisprudence and developed the Theology of Shia. He instructed many scholars in different fields, including Abū Ḥanīfa and Malik ibn Anas in fiqh, Wasil ibn Ata and Hisham ibn Hakam in Islamic theology, and Geber in science and alchemy.[136][137] Medina[136] According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Medina on the order of Caliph Al-Mansur.[136] Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.
7 Musa ibn Ja'far
(Musa al-Kadhim)
موسی بن جعفر
Abu al-Hassan I
أبو الحسن الاول[138]
al-Kazim[139]
Yedinci Ali[121]
744–799[139]
128–183[139]
Leader of the Shia community during the schism of Ismaili and other branches after the death of the former Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq.[140] He established the network of agents who collected khums in the Shia community of the Middle East and the Greater Khorasan.[141] Medina[139] Imprisoned and poisoned in Baghdad on the order of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. Buried in the Al-Kadhimiya mosque in Kadhimiya, Baghdad.[139]
8 Ali ibn Musa
(Ali ar-Ridha)
علي بن موسی
Abu al-Hassan II
أبو الحسن الثانی[138]
al-Rida, Reza[142]
Sekizinci Ali[121]
765–817[142]
148–203[142]
Made crown-prince by Caliph Al-Ma'mun, and famous for his discussions with both Muslim and non-Muslim religious scholars.[142] Medina[142] According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Mashhad, Iran on the order of Caliph Al-Ma'mun. Buried in the Imam Reza shrine in Mashad.[142]
9 Muhammad ibn Ali
(Muhammad al-Taqi)
محمد بن علي
Abu Ja'far
أبو جعفر
al-Taqi, al-Jawad[143]
Dokuzuncu Ali[121]
810–835[143]
195–220[143]
Famous for his generosity and piety in the face of persecution by the Abbasid caliphate. Medina[143] Poisoned by his wife, Al-Ma'mun's daughter, in Baghdad on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tasim. Buried in the Al-Kadhimiya Mosque in Kadhimiya, Baghdad.[143]
10 Ali ibn Muhammad
(Ali Naqi)
علي بن محمد
Abu al-Hassan III
أبو الحسن الثالث[144]
al-Hadi, al-Naqi[144]
Onuncu Ali[121]
827–868[144]
212–254[144]
Strengthened the network of deputies in the Shia community. He sent them instructions, and received in turn financial contributions of the faithful from the khums and religious vows.[144] Surayya, a village near Medina[144] According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Samarra on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tazz.[145] Buried in the Al-Askari Mosque in Samarra.
11 Hassan ibn Ali
(Hasan al-Askari)
الحسن بن علي
Abu Muhammad
أبو محمد
al-Askari[146]
Onbirinci Ali[121]
846–874[146]
232–260[146]
For most of his life, the Abbasid Caliph, Al-Mu'tamid, placed restrictions on him after the death of his father. Repression of the Shiite population was particularly high at the time due to their large size and growing power.[147] Medina[146] According to Shia, he was poisoned on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tamid in Samarra. Buried in Al-Askari Mosque in Samarra.[147]
12 Muhammad ibn al-Hassan
(Muhammad al-Mahdi)
محمد بن الحسن
Abu al-Qasim
أبو القاسم
al-Mahdi, al-Qa'im, Hidden Imam, al-Hujjah[148]
Onikinci Ali[121]
868–unknown[149]
255–unknown[149]
According to Twelver doctrine, he is the current Imam and the promised Mahdi, a messianic figure who will return with Christ. He will reestablish the rightful governance of Islam and replete the earth with justice and peace.[150] Samarra[149] According to Shia doctrine, he has been living in The Occultation since 872, and will continue as long as God wills it.[149]
Names of all 12 Imameen (decedents of Imam Ali) written in the form of Arabic name على 'Ali'

Doctrine[edit]

Twelver doctrine is based on five principles.[151] These five principles known as Usul ad-Din are as follow:[152][153]

  1. Monotheism, God is one and unique.
  2. Justice, the concept of moral rightness based on ethics, fairness, and equity, along with the punishment of the breach of said ethics.
  3. Prophethood, the institution by which God sends emissaries, or prophets, to guide mankind.
  4. Leadership, a divine institution which succeeded the institution of Prophethood. Its appointees (imams) are divinely appointed.
  5. Last Judgment, God's final assessment of humanity.

More specifically, these principles are known as Usul al-Madhhab (principles of the Shia sect) according to Twelver Shias which differ from Daruriyat al-Din (Necessities of Religion) which are principles in order for one to be a Muslim. The Necessities of Religion do not include Leadership (Imamah) as it is not a requirement in order for one to be recognized as a Muslim. However, this category, according to Twelver scholars like Ayatollah al-Khoei, does include belief in God, Prophethood, the Day of Resurrection and other "necessities" (like belief in angels). In this regard, Twelver Shias draw a distinction in terms of believing in the main principles of Islam on the one hand, and specifically Shia doctrines like Imamah on the other.

Books[edit]

Besides the Qurʾan which is common to all Muslims, the Shiʿah derive guidance from books of traditions ("ḥadīth") attributed to Muḥammad and the twelve imams. Below is a list of some of the most prominent of these books:

The Twelve Imams[edit]

The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad for the Twelvers.[8] According to the theology of Twelvers, the successor of Muhammad is an infallible human individual who not only rules over the community with justice but also is able to keep and interpret the divine law and its esoteric meaning. The words and deeds of Muhammad and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and Imams must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad.[23][24] Each imam was the son of the previous imam, with the exception of Hussein ibn Ali, who was the brother of Hasan ibn Ali.[8] The twelfth and final imam is Muhammad al-Mahdi, who is believed by the Twelvers to be currently alive and in occultation.[155]

Jurisprudence[edit]

Main article: Ja'fari jurisprudence
See also: Shi'a clergy

The Twelver jurisprudence is called Ja'fari jurisprudence. In this jurisprudence Sunnah is considered to be the oral traditions of Muhammad and their implementation and interpretation by the twelve Imams. There are three schools of Ja'fari jurisprudence: Usuli, Akhbari, and Shaykhi. The Usuli school is by far the largest of the three. Twelver groups that do not follow Ja'fari jurisprudence include Alevi, Bektashi, and Qizilbash.

In Ja'fari jurisprudence, there are ten ancillary pillars, known as Furu' ad-Din, which are as follows:[156]

  1. Prayer
  2. Fasting
  3. Pilgrimage
  4. Alms giving
  5. Struggle
  6. One Fifth (One Fifth) (20% tax on yearly earnings after deduction of household and commercial expenses.)
  7. Directing others towards good
  8. Directing others away from evil
  9. Love those who are in God's path
  10. Disassociation with those who oppose God

According to Twelvers, defining and interpretation of Islamic jurisprudence is the responsibility of Muhammad and the twelve Imams. As the 12th imam is in occultation, it is the duty of clerics to refer to the Islamic literature such as the Quran and hadith and identify legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law to provide means to deal with current issues from an Islamic perspective. In other words, Twelver clerics provide Guardianship of the Islamic Jurisprudence, which was defined by Muhammad and his twelve successors. This process is known as Ijtihad and the clerics are known as Marja', meaning reference. The labels Allamah and Ayatollah are in use for Twelver clerics.

Zaidi ("Fiver")[edit]

Main article: Zaidiyyah

Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydi is the second largest branch of Shia Islam. It is a Shia school named after Zayd ibn Ali. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or occasionally Fivers). However, there is also a group called Zaidi Wasītīs who are Twelvers (see below). Zaidis constitute roughly 40–45% of the population of Yemen.[157]

Doctrine[edit]

The Zaydis, Twelvers and Ismailis recognize the same first four Imams; however, the Zaidis recognise Zayd ibn Ali as the fifth. After the time of Zayd ibn Ali, the Zaidis recognized that any descendant of Hasan ibn Ali or Hussein ibn Ali could be imam after fulfilling certain conditions.[158] Other well-known Zaidi Imams in history were Yahya ibn Zayd, Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya and Ibrahim ibn Abdullah. In matters of Islamic jurisprudence, the Zaydis follow Zayd ibn Ali's teachings which are documented in his book Majmu'l Fiqh (in Arabic: مجموع الفِقه). Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, founder of the Zaydi state in Yemen, instituted elements of the jurisprudential tradition of the Sunni Muslim jurist Abū Ḥanīfa, and as a result, Zaydi jurisprudence today continues somewhat parallel to that of the Hanafis.[citation needed]

The Zaidi doctrine of Imamah does not presuppose the infallibility of the imam nor that the Imams receive divine guidance. Zaidis also do not believe that the Imamate must pass from father to son but believe it can be held by any Sayyid descended from either Hasan ibn Ali or Hussein ibn Ali (as was the case after the death of Hasan ibn Ali). Historically, Zaidis held that Zayd was the rightful successor of the 4th imam since he led a rebellion against the Umayyads in protest of their tyranny and corruption. Muhammad al-Baqir did not engage in political action, and the followers of Zayd believed that a true imam must fight against corrupt rulers.[citation needed]

Timeline[edit]

The Idrisids (Arabic: الأدارسة‎) were Arab[159] Zaydi Shia[160][161][162][163][164][165] dynasty in the western Maghreb ruling from 788 to 985 C.E., named after its first sultan, Idris I.

A Zaydi state was established in Gilan, Deylaman and Tabaristan (northern Iran) in 864 C.E. by the Alavids;[166] it lasted until the death of its leader at the hand of the Samanids in 928 C.E. Roughly forty years later the state was revived in Gilan and survived under Hasanid leaders until 1126 C.E. Afterwards, from the 12th to 13th centuries, the Zaydis of Deylaman, Gilan and Tabaristan then acknowledged the Zaydi Imams of Yemen or rival Zaydi Imams within Iran.[167]

The Buyids were initially Zaidi[168] as well as the Banu Ukhaidhir rulers of al-Yamama in the 9th and 10th centuries.[169] The leader of the Zaydi community took the title of Caliph. As such, the ruler of Yemen was known as the Caliph, al-Hadi Yahya bin al-Hussain bin al-Qasim ar-Rassi Rassids (a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali the son of Ali) who, at Sa'dah, in 893-7 CE, founded the Zaydi Imamate, and this system continued until the middle of the 20th century, when the revolution of 1962 CE deposed the Zaydi Imam. The founding Zaidism of Yemen was of the Jarudiyya group; however, with increasing interaction with Hanafi and Shafi'i rites of Sunni Islam, there was a shift from the Jarudiyya group to the Sulaimaniyya, Tabiriyya, Butriyya or Salihiyya groups.[170] Zaidis form the second dominant religious group in Yemen. Currently, they constitute about 40–45% of the population in Yemen. Ja'faris and Isma'ilis are 2–5%.[171] In Saudi Arabia, it is estimated that there are over 1 million Zaydis (primarily in the western provinces).[citation needed]

Currently the most prominent Zaydi movement is Houthis movement, known by the name of Shabab Al Mu'mineen (Believing Youth). They have been the subject of an ongoing campaign against them by the Yemeni Government in which the army has lost 743 men, and thousands of innocent civilians have been killed or displaced by government forces causing a grave humanitarian crisis in north Yemen.[172]

Ismaili ("Sevener")[edit]

Main article: Ismailism

Ismailis gain their name from their acceptance of Isma'il ibn Jafar as the divinely appointed spiritual successor (Imam) to Ja'far al-Sadiq, wherein they differ from the Twelvers, who accept Musa al-Kadhim, younger brother of Isma'il, as the true Imam.

After the death or Occultation of Muhammad ibn Ismaill in the 8th century, the teachings of Ismailism further transformed into the belief system as it is known today, with an explicit concentration on the deeper, esoteric meaning (bāṭin) of the faith. With the eventual development of Twelverism into the more literalistic (zahir) oriented Akhbari and later Usuli schools of thought, Shiaism developed in two separate directions: the metaphorical Ismailli group focusing on the mystical path and nature of God and the divine manifestation in the personage of the "Imam of the Time" as the "Face of God", with the more literalistic Twelver group focusing on divine law (sharī'ah) and the deeds and sayings (sunnah) of Muhammad and his successors (the Ahlu l-Bayt), who as A'immah were guides and a light to God.[173]

Though there are several sub-groupings within the Ismailis, the term in today's vernacular generally refers to The Shia Imami Ismaili Muslim (Nizari community), generally known as the Ismailis, who are followers of the Aga Khan and the largest group among the Ismailiyyah. Another community which falls under the Isma'il's are the Dawoodi Bohras, lead by a Da'i al-Mutlaq as representative of a hidden imam. While there are many other branches with extremely differing exterior practices, much of the spiritual theology has remained the same since the days of the faith's early Imams. In recent centuries Ismailis have largely been an Indo-Iranian community,[174] but they are found in India, Pakistan, Syria, Palestine, Saudi Arabia,[175] Yemen, China,[176] Jordan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, East Africa and South Africa, and have in recent years emigrated to Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America.[177]

Ismaili Imams[edit]

Main article: List of Ismaili imams

After the death of Isma'il ibn Jafar, many Ismailis believed that one day the messianic Mahdi, whom they believed to be Muhammad ibn Ismail, would return and establish an age of justice. One group included the violent Qarmatians, who had a stronghold in Bahrain. In contrast, some Ismailis believed the Imamate did continue, and that the Imams were in occultation and still communicated and taught their followers through a network of dawah "Missionaries".

In 909, Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, a claimant to the Ismaili Imamate, established the Fatimid Caliphate. During this period, three lineages of imams formed. The first branch, known today as the Druze, began with Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Born in 386 AH (985), he ascended as ruler at the age of eleven. The typical religiously tolerant Fatimid Empire saw much persecution under his reign. When in 411 AH (1021) his mule returned without him, soaked in blood, a religious group that was forming in his lifetime broke off from mainstream Ismailism and did not acknowledge his successor. Later to be known as the Druze, they believe al-Hakim to be the incarnation of God and the prophesied Mahdi who would one day return and bring justice to the world.[178] The faith further split from Ismailism as it developed very unusual doctrines which often class it separately from both Ismailiyyah and Islam.

The second split occurred following the death of Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah in 487 AH (1094). His rule was the longest of any caliph in any Islamic empire. Upon his passing away, his sons, Nizar the older, and Al-Musta'li, the younger, fought for political and spiritual control of the dynasty. Nizar was defeated and jailed, but according to Nizari tradition, his son escaped to Alamut, where the Iranian Ismaili had accepted his claim.[179] From here on, the Nizari Ismaili community has continued with a present, living Imam.

The Mustaali line split again between the Taiyabi (Dawoodi Bohra is its main branch) and the Hafizi. The former claim that At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim (son of Al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah) and the imams following him went into a period of anonymity (Dawr-e-Satr) and appointed a Da'i al-Mutlaq to guide the community, in a similar manner as the Ismaili had lived after the death of Muhammad ibn Ismail. The latter (Hafizi) claimed that the ruling Fatimid Caliph was the Imam, and they died out with the fall of the Fatimid Empire.

Pillars[edit]

Ismailis have categorized their practices which are known as seven pillars:

The Shahada (profession of faith) of the Shia differs from that of Sunnis due to mention of Ali[180]

Contemporary leadership[edit]

The Nizaris place importance on a scholarly institution because of the existence of a present Imam. The Imam of the Age defines the jurisprudence, and his guidance may differ with Imams previous to him because of different times and circumstances. For Nizari Ismailis, the imam is Karim al-Husayni Aga Khan IV. The Nizari line of Imams has continued to this day as an unending line.

Divine leadership has continued in the Bohra branch through the institution of the "Unrestricted Missionary" Dai. According to Bohra tradition, before the last Imam, At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim, went into seclusion, his father, the 20th Al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah, had instructed Al-Hurra Al-Malika the Malika (Queen consort) in Yemen to appoint a vicegerent after the seclusion – the Unrestricted Missionary, who as the Imam's vicegerent has full authority to govern the community in all matters both spiritual and temporal while the lineage of Mustaali-Tayyibi Imams remains in seclusion (Dawr-e-Sitr). The three branches of the Mustaali, the Alavi Bohra, Sulaimani Bohra and Dawoodi Bohra, differ on who the current Unrestricted Missionary is.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Shia" is sometimes alternatively spelled as Shi'a or Shiite
  2. ^ a b written at U.S.A. Atlas of the Middle East (Second ed.). Washington D.C.: National Geographic (published 15 April). 2008. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-1-4262-0221-6. 
  3. ^ "Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam." Oxford University Press, 2002 | ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p. 40
  4. ^ "From the article on Shii Islam in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2011-05-04. 
  5. ^ a b Francis Robinson, Atlas of the Islamic World Since 1500, pg. 46. New York: Facts on File, 1984. ISBN 0871966298
  6. ^ Tabataba'i (1979), p. 76
  7. ^ God's rule: the politics of world religions - Page 146, Jacob Neusner - 2003
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h "Shīʿite". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
  9. ^ "Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam" Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p.40
  10. ^ Duncan S. Ferguson, (2010), Exploring the Spirituality of the World Religions, p.192
  11. ^ a b c d The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Jacob E. Safra, Chairman of the Board, 15th Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1998, ISBN 0-85229-663-0, Vol 10, p. 738
  12. ^ a b c d e Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Wendy Doniger, Consulting Editor, Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, Springfield, MA 1999, ISBN 0-87779-044-2, LoC: BL31.M47 1999, p. 525
  13. ^ a b "Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam" Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p. 46
  14. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Jacob E. Safra, Chairman of the Board, 15th Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1998, ISBN 0-85229-663-0, Vol 22, p. 17.
  15. ^ "Event of Ghadir Khumm". Al-islam.org. Retrieved 2011-05-04. 
  16. ^ Bernards, Monique; Nawas, John (2005). Patronate And Patronage in Early And Classical Islam. BRILL. pp. 25. ISBN 978-90-04-14480-4. 
  17. ^ The Last Sermon of Muhammad by Shia Accounts
  18. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Jacob E. Safra, Chairman of the Board, 15th Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1998, ISBN 0-85229-663-0, Vol 10, p. tid738
  19. ^ ""Solhe Emam Hassan"-Imam Hassan Sets Peace". 
  20. ^ تهذیب التهذیب. p. 271. 
  21. ^ Discovering Islam: making sense of Muslim history and society (2002) Akbar S. Ahmed
  22. ^ Religious trends in pre-Islamic Arabic poetry, By Ghulam Mustafa (Hafiz.), Pg 11, Author writes: Similarly, swords were also placed on the Idols, as it is related that Harith b. Abi Shamir, the Ghassanid king, had presented his two swords, called Mikhdham and Rasub, to the image of the goddess, Manat....to note that the famous sword of Ali, the fourth caliph, called Dhu-al-Fiqar, was one of these two swords
  23. ^ a b Nasr (1979), p.10
  24. ^ a b Momen (1985), p. 174
  25. ^ Corbin 1993, pp. 45-51
  26. ^ Nasr (1979), p. 15
  27. ^ name="Imamat">Gleave, Robert. "Imamate". Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-865604-0. 
  28. ^ "Learn to do Shia Prayer - Islamic Prayer - Shia Salat". Revertmuslims.com. Retrieved 2011-05-04. 
  29. ^ "Joining Prayers and Other related Issues". Al-islam.org. Retrieved 2011-05-04. 
  30. ^ "Druze and Islam". American Druze.com. Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  31. ^ "Ijtihad in Islam". AlQazwini.org. Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  32. ^ "Shi'ite Islam," by Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i, translated by Sayyid Husayn Nasr, State University of New York Press, 1975, p. 24
  33. ^ Dakake (2008), pp. 1 and 2
  34. ^ In his "Mutanabbi devant le siècle ismaëlien de l'Islam", in Mém. de l'Inst Français de Damas, 1935, p.
  35. ^ "The Complete Idiot's Guide to World Religions," Brandon Toropov, Father Luke Buckles, Alpha; 3rd edition, 2004, ISBN 978-1-59257-222-9, p. 135
  36. ^ "Shi'ite Islam" by Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i (1979), pp. 41–44
  37. ^ Dabashi, Theology of Discontent, p.463
  38. ^ Francis Robinson, Atlas of the Muslim World, pg. 47.
  39. ^ Quran 33:33
  40. ^ Momen (1985), p. 155
  41. ^ Corbin (1993), pp. 48 and 49
  42. ^ Dabashi (2006), p. 463
  43. ^ Corbin (1993), p. 48
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