|Alternate name||Valmio Timpo|
|Location||Kutch District, Gujarat, India|
|Area||4.3 ha (11 acres)|
|Height||7.5 m (25 ft)|
|Periods||Harappan 3A to Harappan 3C|
|Cultures||Indus Valley Civilization|
|Excavation dates||1987–89, 2007-08|
|Archaeologists||State Archaeology Department and The Maharaja Sayyajirao University|
The archaeological site is 4.5 kilometres (2.8 mi) south of Shikarpur, at Valmio Timpo. It consists of a Harappan settlement covering 3.4 hectares, where the main activity appears to have been the manufacture of artefacts.
Gujarat State Archaeology Department conducted excavations during 1987-1989. These revealed a deposit over 3 metres (9.8 ft) thick, with its lower layers representing the Early Harappan period and the upper layers representing Mature Harappan. Further extensive excavations were carried in 2007-2008 by The Maharaja Sayyajirao University, Baroda. These discovered some important artefacts and other details.
Among the artefacts found are ornaments of semi-precious stones, steatite and terracotta, bangles made of shell and terracotta, copper chisels and knives, arrowheads, rings, terracotta toy cart frames, and animal figures. A depiction of a human torso made of terracotta was another important finding: this is well-baked, but the arms, head and lower part of the body are broken off. Pottery with various types of drawings and engraved designs were also found. Other findings include conchshell bangles, slice, terracotta toy-car wheels and frame, bangles, triangular cakes,bull figurines,pecker points and trimmer made of bone, micro gold beads, carnelian drill-bits, dish on stand, bowls, miniature pots, etc.
Two terracotta sealings with inscriptions; on one seal is a picture of three headed unicorn; second sealing has three consecutive stampings of Harappan seals and the stamping is done in such a manner that the inscribed upper part of all three seals is clear. The reverse of the sealings bear the mark of thread and knots.
15,483 bones pieces, which were excavated at Shikarpur and studied at Archeology Laboratory, Deccan College Pune, reveal details about subsistence patterns of Harappans. 53.46% of the bones were identified which consisted 47 species including 23 mammals (cattle bones being numerous, wild buffalo, nilgai, blackbuck, deer, wild pig, hare, rhino etc.), three birds, five fish, 13 mollusks etc. which is broadly suggestive of food habits of Harappans. Bones of domesticated animals comprised 85 per cent of faunal assemblace in both early and mature Harappan phase. A small quantity of horse bones were also found here and these occur only in the Mature Harappan Phase.
- Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Delhi: Pearson Education India. p. 158. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- Bhan, Kuldeep K.; Sonawane, V. H.; Ajithprasad, P.; Pratapchandran, S. Excavations at Shikarpur, Gujarat, 2008-2009. Department of Archeology and Ancient History, Maharaja Sayyajirao University, Baroda, via harappa.com. p. 5. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- Indian Archeology 1988-89: A Review. Pub : Archeological Survey of India, New Delhi. Page 10.
- Bhan, Kuldeep K.; Sonawane, V. H.; Ajithprasad, P.; Pratapchandran, S. Excavations at Shikarpur, Gujarat, 2008-2009. Department of Archeology and Ancient History, Maharaja Sayyajirao University, Baroda, via harappa.com. p. 4. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "Gola Dhoro". harappa.com.