Shikken

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The Shikken (執権?) was the regent for the shogun in the Kamakura shogunate in Japan. The post was monopolized by the Hōjō clan.

Hōjō Tokimasa, who was the father-in-law of the first shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo, became the first shikken in 1203. The shikken was the chief of the mandokoro at that time. Replacing the second shogun Minamoto no Yoriie with Sanetomo, he became the de facto ruler of the shogunate (Japan).

Tokimasa's son Yoshitoki strengthened the post of shikken by integrating it with the post of chief of Samurai-dokoro, after annihilating the powerful Wada clan, who had dominated the latter position. The shikken became the highest post, controlling puppet shoguns in practice. In 1224 Yoshitoki's son Hōjō Yasutoki set up the position of rensho (cosigner), or assistant regent.

At first the post of shikken was occupied by the tokusō, the head of the Hōjō clan, but Hōjō Tokiyori separated the two posts. He installed Hōjō Nagatoki as shikken while designating his son Tokimune to succeed as tokusō. Effective power was moved from shikken to tokusō.

List of shikken[edit]

  1. Hōjō Tokimasa (r. 1199–1205)
  2. Hōjō Yoshitoki (r. 1205–1224)
  3. Hōjō Yasutoki (r. 1224–1242)
  4. Hōjō Tsunetoki (r. 1242–1246)
  5. Hōjō Tokiyori (r. 1246–1256)
  6. Hōjō Nagatoki (r. 1256–1264)
  7. Hōjō Masamura (r. 1264–1268)
  8. Hōjō Tokimune (r. 1268–1284)
  9. Hōjō Sadatoki (r. 1284–1301)
  10. Hōjō Morotoki (r. 1301–1311)
  11. Hōjō Munenobu (r. 1311–1312)
  12. Hōjō Hirotoki (r. 1312–1315)
  13. Hōjō Mototoki (r. 1315–1316)
  14. Hōjō Takatoki (r. 1316–1326)
  15. Hōjō Sadaaki (r. 1326)
  16. Hōjō Moritoki (r. 1326–1333)

See also[edit]