Shikoku Pilgrimage

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Pilgrims at Zentsū-ji, Temple 75 and the birthplace of Kūkai
An aruki-henro or walking pilgrim, marked out by his distinctive sedge hat, white shirt, and kongō-zue. The henro-michi route passes through the countryside and a number of cities.

The Shikoku Pilgrimage (四国遍路 Shikoku Henro?) or Shikoku Junrei (四国巡礼?) is a multi-site pilgrimage of 88 temples associated with the Buddhist monk Kūkai (Kōbō Daishi) on the island of Shikoku, Japan. A popular and distinctive feature of the island's cultural landscape, and with a long history, large numbers of pilgrims (known as henro (遍路?)) still undertake the journey for a variety of ascetic, pious, and tourism-related purposes.[1] The pilgrimage is traditionally completed on foot, but modern pilgrims use cars, taxis, buses, bicycles, or motorcycles. The standard walking course is approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) long and can take anywhere from 30 to 60 days to complete.

In addition to the 88 "official" temples of the pilgrimage, there are over 200 bangai — temples not considered part of the official 88. To complete the pilgrimage, it is not necessary to visit the temples in order; in some cases it is even considered lucky[citation needed] to travel in reverse order. "Henro" (遍路?) is the Japanese word for pilgrim, and the inhabitants of Shikoku call the pilgrims o-henro-san (お遍路さん?), the o (?) being an honorific and the san (さん?) a title similar to "Mr." or "Mrs.". They are often recognizable by their white clothing, sedge hats, and kongō-zue or walking sticks. Alms or osettai are frequently given. Many pilgrims begin and complete the journey by visiting Mount Kōya in Wakayama Prefecture, which was settled by Kūkai and remains the headquarters of Shingon Buddhism. The 21 kilometres (13 mi) walking trail up to Koya-san still exists, but most pilgrims use the train.

Attesting to the popularity of the Shikoku pilgrimage, from the eighteenth century a number of smaller imitative versions have been established.[2] These include a 150 kilometres (93 mi) circuit on Shōdo Island northeast of Takamatsu;[3] a 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) course on the grounds of Ninna-ji in Kyoto;[4] a route on the Chita Peninsula near Nagoya;[5] and circuits in Edo and Chiba Prefecture.[2]

History[edit]

Background[edit]

Pilgrimages have played an important part in Japanese religious practice since at least the Heian period. Typically centred upon holy mountains, particular divinities, or charismatic individuals, they are usually to Buddhist sites although those to the shrines of Kumano and Ise are notable exceptions.[1][2]

Kōbō Daishi[edit]

Kūkai, born at Zentsū-ji (Temple 75) in 774, studied in China, and upon his return was influential in the promotion of esoteric Buddhism. He established the Shingon retreat of Kōya-san, was an active writer, undertook a programme of public works, and during visits to the island of his birth is popularly said to have established or visited many of its temples and to have carved many of their images. He is posthumously known as Kōbō Daishi.[6][7]

Development[edit]

The legends and cult of Kōbō Daishi, such as the episode of Emon Saburō, were maintained and developed by the monks of Kōya-san who travelled to expound Shingon and were active, along with other hijiri, in Shikoku.[8] In the Edo period, the policy of tochi kinbaku (土地緊縛?) restricted and regulated the movement of ordinary people. Pilgrims were required to obtain travel permits, follow the main paths, and pass through localities within a certain time limit, with the book of temple stamps or nōkyō-chō helping to provide proof of passage.[9]

Practice[edit]

Stages[edit]

Shikoku literally means four provinces, those of Awa, Tosa, Iyo, and Sanuki, reorganised during the Meiji period into the Prefectures of Tokushima, Kōchi, Ehime, and Kagawa. The pilgrim's journey through these four provinces is likened to a symbolic path to enlightenment, with temples 1-23 representing the idea of awakening (発心 hosshin?), 24-39 austerity and discipline (修行 shugyō?), 40-65 attaining enlightenment (菩提 bodai?), and 66-88 entering nirvana (涅槃 nehan?).[10]

Equipment[edit]

The pilgrim's traditional costume comprises a white shirt (白衣 oizuru?), conical Asian hat (すげ笠 suge-kasa?), and kongō-zue (金剛杖?). This may be supplemented by a wagesa (輪袈裟?). The henro also carries a bag (ずだ袋 zuda-bukuro?) containing name slips (納札 osame-fuda?), prayer beads (数珠 juzu?) (also known as nenju (念珠?)), a nōkyō-chō (納経帳?), incense sticks (線香 senkō?), and coins used as offerings (お賽銭 o-saisen?). The more religiously-minded henro may also carry a book of sutras (経本 kyōbon?) and go-eika (ご詠歌?) set with a bell.[11]

Rites[edit]

Upon arrival at each temple the henro washes before proceeding to the Hondō. After offering coins, incense, and the osame-fuda, the Heart Sutra (般若心経 Hannya Shingyō?) is chanted along with repetition of the Mantra of the main image (本尊 honzon?) and the Mantra of Light (光明真言 Kōmyō Shingon?). After kigan and ekō prayers, the henro proceeds to the Daishidō. Coins and a fuda are similarly offered, and again the Heart Sutra is chanted, along with repetition of the Gohōgō Mantra, namu-Daishi-henjō-kongō.[11]

The 88 Temples[edit]

Collectively, the 88 temples are known as 四国八十八箇所 (Shikoku Hachijūhakkasho?) or simply the 八十八箇所 (Hachijūhakkasho?).

No. Temple Honzon (main image) Location Coordinates Image
1 Ryōzen-ji (霊山寺) Shaka Nyorai Naruto, Tokushima 34°09′35″N 134°30′09″E / 34.159803°N 134.502592°E / 34.159803; 134.502592 (Ryōzen-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #1)) Jikuwasan Ryozenji 01.JPG
2 Gokuraku-ji (極楽寺) Amida Nyorai Naruto, Tokushima 34°09′20″N 134°29′25″E / 34.155556°N 134.490278°E / 34.155556; 134.490278 (Gokuraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #2)) Nishozan-gokurakuji-main.JPG
3 Konsen-ji (金泉寺) Shaka Nyorai Itano, Tokushima 34°08′51″N 134°28′07″E / 34.147436°N 134.468544°E / 34.147436; 134.468544 (Konsen-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #3)) Konsenji 01.JPG
4 Dainichi-ji (大日寺) Dainichi Nyorai Itano, Tokushima 34°09′05″N 134°25′51″E / 34.151306°N 134.430889°E / 34.151306; 134.430889 (Dainichi-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #4)) P4022426ー4番大日寺夫婦遍路.jpg
5 Jizō-ji (地蔵寺) Enmei Jizō Bosatsu Itano, Tokushima 34°08′14″N 134°25′55″E / 34.137222°N 134.431944°E / 34.137222; 134.431944 (Jizō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #5)) Mujinzan Jizoji 01.JPG
6 Anraku-ji (安楽寺) Yakushi Nyorai Kamiita, Tokushima 34°07′05″N 134°23′18″E / 34.118056°N 134.388389°E / 34.118056; 134.388389 (Anraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #6)) Onsenzan-anrakuji-tahouto.JPG
7 Jūraku-ji (十楽寺) Amida Nyorai Awa, Tokushima 34°07′15″N 134°22′41″E / 34.12075°N 134.377925°E / 34.12075; 134.377925 (Jūraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #7)) P4022616ー7番十楽寺本堂.jpg
8 Kumadani-ji (熊谷寺) Senjū Kannon Awa, Tokushima 34°07′22″N 134°20′24″E / 34.122778°N 134.34°E / 34.122778; 134.34 (Kumadani-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #8)) P4022665-8番 熊谷寺山門から本堂への石段.jpg
9 Hōrin-ji (法輪寺) Shaka Nyorai Awa, Tokushima 34°06′16″N 134°20′02″E / 34.104378°N 134.333814°E / 34.104378; 134.333814 (Hōrin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #9)) Shokakuzan Horinji 01.JPG
10 Kirihata-ji (切幡寺) Senjū Kannon Awa, Tokushima 34°06′28″N 134°18′15″E / 34.10775°N 134.304278°E / 34.10775; 134.304278 (Kirihata-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #10)) Kirihataji 03.JPG
11 Fujii-dera (藤井寺) Yakushi Nyorai Yoshinogawa, Tokushima 34°03′06″N 134°20′55″E / 34.051667°N 134.3485°E / 34.051667; 134.3485 (Fujii-dera (Shikoku Pilgrimage #11)) Fujiizenji 02.JPG
12 Shōsan-ji (焼山寺) Kokūzō Bosatsu Kamiyama, Tokushima 33°59′06″N 134°18′37″E / 33.985028°N 134.31025°E / 33.985028; 134.31025 (Shōsan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #12)) Shozanji 02.JPG
13 Dainichi-ji (大日寺) Jūichimen Kannon Tokushima, Tokushima 34°02′17″N 134°27′46″E / 34.038117°N 134.462683°E / 34.038117; 134.462683 (Dainichi-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #13)) Ogurizan Dainichiji 03.JPG
14 Jōraku-ji (常楽寺) Miroku Bosatsu Tokushima, Tokushima 34°03′01″N 134°28′32″E / 34.050333°N 134.475639°E / 34.050333; 134.475639 (Jōraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #14)) Seijuzan Jorakuji 06.JPG
15 Awa Kokubun-ji (阿波国分寺) Yakushi Nyorai Tokushima, Tokushima 34°03′20″N 134°28′25″E / 34.055611°N 134.473611°E / 34.055611; 134.473611 (Awa Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #15)) Awa Kokubunji 12.JPG
16 Kannon-ji (観音寺) Senjū Kannon Tokushima, Tokushima 34°04′06″N 134°28′28″E / 34.068472°N 134.474344°E / 34.068472; 134.474344 (Kannon-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #16)) Kanonji, Tokushima 02.JPG
17 Ido-ji (井戸寺) Yakushi Nyorai Tokushima, Tokushima 34°05′07″N 134°29′08″E / 34.085167°N 134.485444°E / 34.085167; 134.485444 (Ido-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #17)) Idoji Hondo.jpg
18 Onzan-ji (恩山寺) Yakushi Nyorai Komatsushima, Tokushima 33°59′10″N 134°34′42″E / 33.986°N 134.57825°E / 33.986; 134.57825 (Onzan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #18)) Onzanji 06.JPG
19 Tatsue-ji (立江寺) Jizō Bosatsu Komatsushima, Tokushima 33°58′04″N 134°36′21″E / 33.967861°N 134.605806°E / 33.967861; 134.605806 (Tatsue-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #19)) Tatueji 03.JPG
20 Kakurin-ji (鶴林寺) Jizō Bosatsu Katsuura, Tokushima 33°54′50″N 134°30′20″E / 33.913861°N 134.505611°E / 33.913861; 134.505611 (Kakurin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #20)) Ryojuzan Kakurinji 05.JPG
21 Tairyūji (太竜寺) Kokūzō Bosatsu Anan, Tokushima 33°52′57″N 134°31′19″E / 33.882528°N 134.521889°E / 33.882528; 134.521889 (Tairyūji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #21)) Tairyuji 05.JPG
22 Byōdō-ji (平等寺) Yakushi Nyorai Anan, Tokushima 33°51′07″N 134°34′58″E / 33.851833°N 134.582778°E / 33.851833; 134.582778 (Byōdō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #22)) Byodoji 03.JPG
23 Yakuō-ji (薬王寺) Yakushi Nyorai Minami, Tokushima 33°43′56″N 134°31′39″E / 33.732306°N 134.527583°E / 33.732306; 134.527583 (Yakuō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #23)) Yakuoji 02.JPG
24 Hotsumisaki-ji (最御崎寺) Kokūzō Bosatsu Muroto, Kochi 33°14′56″N 134°10′33″E / 33.249008°N 134.175739°E / 33.249008; 134.175739 (Hotsumisaki-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #24)) Hotsumisakiji 02.JPG
25 Shinshō-ji (津照寺) Jizō Bosatsu Muroto, Kōchi 33°17′16″N 134°08′54″E / 33.287806°N 134.14825°E / 33.287806; 134.14825 (Shinshō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #25)) Shinshoji 04.JPG
26 Kongōchō-ji (金剛頂寺) Yakushi Nyorai Muroto, Kōchi 33°18′26″N 134°07′22″E / 33.307222°N 134.122861°E / 33.307222; 134.122861 (Kongōchō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #26)) Kongochoji,龍頭山金剛頂寺 大師堂(室戸市)、26番札所 高知県室戸市元崎山 DSCF7169.JPG
27 Kōnomine-ji (神峰寺) Jūichimen Kannon Yasuda, Kōchi 33°28′03″N 133°58′29″E / 33.467611°N 133.974778°E / 33.467611; 133.974778 (Kōnomine-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #27)) Kounomineji 05.JPG
28 Dainichi-ji (大日寺) Dainichi Nyorai Kōnan, Kōchi 33°34′39″N 133°42′19″E / 33.577583°N 133.705389°E / 33.577583; 133.705389 (Dainichi-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #28)) Houkaisan Dainichiji 05.JPG
29 Tosa Kokubun-ji (土佐国分寺) Senjū Kannon Nankoku, Kōchi 33°35′55″N 133°38′26″E / 33.598694°N 133.640417°E / 33.598694; 133.640417 (Tosa Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #29)) Tosa Kokubunji 04.JPG
30 Zenrakuji (善楽寺) Amida Nyorai Kōchi, Kōchi 33°35′31″N 133°34′39″E / 33.591917°N 133.577556°E / 33.591917; 133.577556 (Zenrakuji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #30)) Zenrakuji01s3872.jpg
31 Chikurin-ji (竹林寺) Monju Bosatsu Kōchi, Kōchi 33°32′48″N 133°34′39″E / 33.546611°N 133.577472°E / 33.546611; 133.577472 (Chikurin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #31)) Chikurinji Kochi31s3872.jpg
32 Zenjibu-ji (禅師峰寺) Jūichimen Kannon Nankoku, Kōchi 33°31′36″N 133°36′41″E / 33.526694°N 133.611389°E / 33.526694; 133.611389 (Zenjibu-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #32)) Zenjibuji 05.JPG
33 Sekkei-ji (雪蹊寺) Yakushi Nyorai Kōchi, Kōchi 33°30′03″N 133°32′35″E / 33.500833°N 133.543083°E / 33.500833; 133.543083 (Sekkei-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #33)) Sekkeiji 02.JPG
34 Tanema-ji (種間寺) Yakushi Nyorai Haruno, Kōchi 33°29′30″N 133°29′15″E / 33.491722°N 133.487583°E / 33.491722; 133.487583 (Tanema-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #34)) Tanemaji 03.JPG
35 Kiyotaki-ji (清滝寺) Yakushi Nyorai Tosa, Kōchi 33°30′45″N 133°24′34″E / 33.5125°N 133.4095°E / 33.5125; 133.4095 (Kiyotaki-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #35)) Iozan Kiyotakiji 05.JPG
36 Shōryū-ji (青竜寺) Fudō Myōō Tosa, Kōchi 33°25′34″N 133°27′03″E / 33.426°N 133.450806°E / 33.426; 133.450806 (Shōryū-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #36)) Shoryuji 03.JPG
37 Iwamoto-ji (岩本寺) Five Buddhas Shimanto, Kōchi 33°12′29″N 133°08′05″E / 33.207972°N 133.134611°E / 33.207972; 133.134611 (Iwamoto-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #37)) Iwamotoji 02.JPG
38 Kongōfuku-ji (金剛福寺) Senjū Kannon Tosashimizu, Kōchi 32°43′34″N 133°01′07″E / 32.726028°N 133.018556°E / 32.726028; 133.018556 (Kongōfuku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #38)) Kongofukuji 05.JPG
39 Enkō-ji (延光寺) Yakushi Nyorai Sukumo, Kōchi 32°57′41″N 132°46′27″E / 32.961306°N 132.774056°E / 32.961306; 132.774056 (Enkō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #39)) Enkouji 01.JPG
40 Kanjizai-ji (観自在寺) Yakushi Nyorai Ainan, Ehime 32°57′53″N 132°33′51″E / 32.964667°N 132.564056°E / 32.964667; 132.564056 (Kanjizai-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #40)) Kanjizaiji 07.JPG
41 Ryūkōji (竜光寺) Jūichimen Kannon Uwajima, Ehime 33°17′43″N 132°35′55″E / 33.295194°N 132.5985°E / 33.295194; 132.5985 (Ryūkō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #41)) Inarizan Ryukoji 04.JPG
42 Butsumoku-ji (佛木寺) Dainichi Nyorai Uwajima, Ehime 33°18′38″N 132°34′53″E / 33.310583°N 132.581472°E / 33.310583; 132.581472 (Butsumoku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #42)) Butsumokuji 03.JPG
43 Meiseki-ji (明石寺) Senjū Kannon Seiyo, Ehime 33°22′09″N 132°31′08″E / 33.369222°N 132.518972°E / 33.369222; 132.518972 (Meiseki-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #43)) Meisekiji 01.JPG
44 Daihō-ji (大宝寺) Jūichimen Kannon Kumakōgen, Ehime 33°39′39″N 132°54′43″E / 33.660889°N 132.912083°E / 33.660889; 132.912083 (Daihō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #44)) Sugozan Daihoji 03.JPG
45 Iwaya-ji (岩屋寺) Fudō Myōō Kumakōgen, Ehime 33°39′31″N 132°58′51″E / 33.658667°N 132.980722°E / 33.658667; 132.980722 (Iwaya-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #45)) Iwayadera temple.jpg
46 Jōruri-ji (浄瑠璃寺) Yakushi Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°45′13″N 132°49′09″E / 33.753556°N 132.819111°E / 33.753556; 132.819111 (Jōruri-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #46)) Iozan Joruriji 03.JPG
47 Yasaka-ji (八坂寺) Amida Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°45′29″N 132°48′46″E / 33.757944°N 132.812861°E / 33.757944; 132.812861 (Yasaka-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #47)) Yasakaji 03.JPG
48 Sairin-ji (西林寺) Jūichimen Kannon Matsuyama, Ehime 33°47′37″N 132°48′50″E / 33.793722°N 132.813944°E / 33.793722; 132.813944 (Sairin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #48)) Seiryuzan Sairinji 01.JPG
49 Jōdo-ji (浄土寺) Shaka Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°49′00″N 132°48′31″E / 33.816667°N 132.808528°E / 33.816667; 132.808528 (Jōdo-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #49)) Jodoji-matsuyama 01.JPG
50 Hanta-ji (繁多寺) Yakushi Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°49′41″N 132°48′16″E / 33.828139°N 132.804556°E / 33.828139; 132.804556 (Hanta-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #50)) 50番繁多寺本堂P1010126.jpg
51 Ishite-ji (石手寺) Yakushi Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°50′52″N 132°47′47″E / 33.847861°N 132.796472°E / 33.847861; 132.796472 (Ishite-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #51)) Ishiteji 05.JPG
52 Taisan-ji (太山寺) Jūichimen Kannon Matsuyama, Ehime 33°53′06″N 132°42′54″E / 33.885083°N 132.714972°E / 33.885083; 132.714972 (Taisan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #52)) Ryuunzan Taisanji 06.JPG
53 Enmyō-ji (圓明寺) Amida Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°53′30″N 132°44′23″E / 33.89175°N 132.739667°E / 33.89175; 132.739667 (Enmyō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #53)) Enmyoji 02.JPG
54 Enmei-ji (延命寺) Fudō Myōō Imabari, Ehime 34°04′01″N 132°57′50″E / 34.066833°N 132.964°E / 34.066833; 132.964 (Enmei-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #54)) Chikamizan Enmeiji 04.JPG
55 Nankōbō (南光坊) Daitsū-chishō Butsu Imabari, Ehime 34°04′08″N 132°59′45″E / 34.06875°N 132.99575°E / 34.06875; 132.99575 (Nankōbō (Shikoku Pilgrimage #55)) Nankobo 01.JPG
56 Taisan-ji (泰山寺) Jizō Bosatsu Imabari, Ehime 34°03′00″N 132°58′28″E / 34.050111°N 132.974583°E / 34.050111; 132.974583 (Taisan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #56)) Taisanji 04.JPG
57 Eifuku-ji (栄福寺) Amida Nyorai Imabari, Ehime 34°01′46″N 132°58′42″E / 34.029472°N 132.978472°E / 34.029472; 132.978472 (Eifuku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #57)) Eifukuji 03.JPG
58 Senyū-ji (仙遊寺) Senjū Kannon Imabari, Ehime 34°00′47″N 132°58′38″E / 34.013194°N 132.977361°E / 34.013194; 132.977361 (Senyū-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #58)) Senyuji 03.JPG
59 Iyo Kokubun-ji (伊予国分寺) Yakushi Nyorai Imabari, Ehime 34°01′34″N 133°01′32″E / 34.026167°N 133.025444°E / 34.026167; 133.025444 (Iyo Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #59)) Iyo Kokubunji 02.JPG
60 Yokomine-ji (横峰寺) Dainichi Nyorai Saijō, Ehime 33°50′16″N 133°06′40″E / 33.837861°N 133.111139°E / 33.837861; 133.111139 (Yokomine-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #60)) Yokomineji 06.jpg
61 Kōon-ji (香園寺) Dainichi Nyorai Saijō, Ehime 33°53′37″N 133°06′12″E / 33.893528°N 133.103306°E / 33.893528; 133.103306 (Kōon-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #61)) Koonji 02.JPG
62 Hōju-ji (宝寿寺) Jūichimen Kannon Saijō, Ehime 33°53′50″N 133°06′54″E / 33.897333°N 133.114944°E / 33.897333; 133.114944 (Hōju-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #62)) Hojuji 01.JPG
63 Kichijō-ji (吉祥寺) Bishamonten Saijō, Ehime 33°53′46″N 133°07′45″E / 33.896056°N 133.129167°E / 33.896056; 133.129167 (Kichijō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #63)) Mikkyozan Kichijoji 02.JPG
64 Maegami-ji (前神寺) Amida Nyorai Saijō, Ehime 33°53′25″N 133°09′38″E / 33.890222°N 133.160667°E / 33.890222; 133.160667 (Maegami-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #64)) Maegamiji 03.JPG
65 Sankaku-ji (三角寺) Jūichimen Kannon Shikokuchūō, Ehime 33°58′04″N 133°35′11″E / 33.967639°N 133.5865°E / 33.967639; 133.5865 (Sankaku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #65)) Sankakuji 01.JPG
66 Unpen-ji (雲辺寺) Senjū Kannon Miyoshi, Tokushima 34°02′07″N 133°43′25″E / 34.035222°N 133.723722°E / 34.035222; 133.723722 (Unpen-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #66)) Unpenji 05.JPG
67 Daikō-ji (大興寺) Yakushi Nyorai Mitoyo, Kagawa 34°06′08″N 133°43′09″E / 34.102194°N 133.719167°E / 34.102194; 133.719167 (Daikō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #67)) Daikoji 07.JPG
68 Jinne-in (神恵院) Amida Nyorai Kan'onji, Kagawa 34°08′02″N 133°38′50″E / 34.133986°N 133.647333°E / 34.133986; 133.647333 (Jinne-in (Shikoku Pilgrimage #68)) Jinnein 03.JPG
69 Kannon-ji (観音寺) Shō Kannon Kan'onji, Kagawa 34°08′04″N 133°38′51″E / 34.1345°N 133.647528°E / 34.1345; 133.647528 (Kannon-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #69)) Shippozan Kanonji 08.JPG
70 Motoyama-ji (本山寺) Batō Kannon Mitoyo, Kagawa 34°08′23″N 133°41′39″E / 34.139667°N 133.694056°E / 34.139667; 133.694056 (Motoyama-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #70)) MotoyamaJi,Kagawa-01.jpg
71 Iyadani-ji (弥谷寺) Senjū Kannon Mitoyo, Kagawa 34°13′47″N 133°43′27″E / 34.229722°N 133.724261°E / 34.229722; 133.724261 (Iyadani-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #71)) Iyadaniji-hondou02.jpg
72 Mandara-ji (曼荼羅寺) Dainichi Nyorai Zentsūji, Kagawa 34°13′10″N 133°45′01″E / 34.219389°N 133.750278°E / 34.219389; 133.750278 (Mandara-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #72)) Gahaishizan Mandaraji 03.JPG
73 Shusshakaji (出釈迦寺) Shaka Nyorai Zentsūji, Kagawa 34°13′24″N 133°45′01″E / 34.223306°N 133.750219°E / 34.223306; 133.750219 (Shusshakaji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #73)) Shusshakaji 05.JPG
74 Kōyama-ji (甲山寺) Yakushi Nyorai Zentsūji, Kagawa 34°13′59″N 133°45′57″E / 34.233194°N 133.765764°E / 34.233194; 133.765764 (Kōyama-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #74)) Koyamaji 04.JPG
75 Zentsū-ji (善通寺) Yakushi Nyorai Zentsūji, Kagawa 34°13′30″N 133°46′27″E / 34.225111°N 133.774139°E / 34.225111; 133.774139 (Zentsū-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #75)) Zentsu-ji in Zentsu-ji City Kagawa pref23s5s4500.jpg
76 Konzō-ji (金倉寺) Yakushi Nyorai Zentsūji, Kagawa 34°15′00″N 133°46′52″E / 34.250097°N 133.781014°E / 34.250097; 133.781014 (Konzō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #76)) Konzoji 03.JPG
77 Dōryū-ji (道隆寺) Yakushi Nyorai Tadotsu, Kagawa 34°16′36″N 133°45′46″E / 34.27675°N 133.762694°E / 34.27675; 133.762694 (Dōryū-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #77)) Doryuji 04.JPG
78 Gōshō-ji (郷照寺) Amida Nyorai Utazu, Kagawa 34°18′24″N 133°49′28″E / 34.306694°N 133.824583°E / 34.306694; 133.824583 (Gōshō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #78)) Goshoji 04.JPG
79 Tennō-ji (天皇寺) Jūichimen Kannon Sakaide, Kagawa 34°18′41″N 133°52′58″E / 34.311472°N 133.882861°E / 34.311472; 133.882861 (Tennō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #79)) Tennoji Koshoin 02.JPG
80 Sanuki Kokubun-ji (讃岐国分寺) Jūichimen & Senjū Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°18′11″N 133°56′39″E / 34.303139°N 133.944167°E / 34.303139; 133.944167 (Sanuki Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #80)) Sanuki Kokubunji 05.JPG
81 Shiromine-ji (白峯寺) Senjū Kannon Sakaide, Kagawa 34°20′01″N 133°55′36″E / 34.333528°N 133.926764°E / 34.333528; 133.926764 (Shiromine-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #81)) Shiromineji 09.JPG
82 Negoro-ji (根香寺) Senjū Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°20′40″N 133°57′38″E / 34.3445°N 133.960556°E / 34.3445; 133.960556 (Negoro-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #82)) Aominezan Negoroji 03.JPG
83 Ichinomiya-ji (一宮寺) Shō Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°17′12″N 134°01′36″E / 34.286611°N 134.026583°E / 34.286611; 134.026583 (Ichinomiya-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #83)) Ichinomiyaji 03.JPG
84 Yashima-ji (屋島寺) Jūichimen & Senjū Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°21′29″N 134°06′05″E / 34.357917°N 134.10125°E / 34.357917; 134.10125 (Yashima-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #84)) Yashimaji 06.JPG
85 Yakuri-ji (八栗寺) Shō Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°21′36″N 134°08′22″E / 34.359889°N 134.139528°E / 34.359889; 134.139528 (Yakuri-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #85)) Yakuriji 01.JPG
86 Shido-ji (志度寺) Jūichimen Kannon Sanuki, Kagawa 34°19′28″N 134°10′47″E / 34.324306°N 134.179639°E / 34.324306; 134.179639 (Shido-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #86)) Shidoji 01.JPG
87 Nagao-ji (長尾寺) Shō Kannon Sanuki, Kagawa 34°16′00″N 134°10′18″E / 34.266706°N 134.171719°E / 34.266706; 134.171719 (Nagao-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #87)) Nagaoji 04.JPG
88 Ōkubo-ji (大窪寺) Yakushi Nyorai Sanuki, Kagawa 34°11′29″N 134°12′24″E / 34.191408°N 134.206733°E / 34.191408; 134.206733 (Ōkubo-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #88)) Okuboji 07.JPG

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Reader, Ian (1999). "34. Legends, Miracles and Faith in Kōbō Daishi and the Shikoku Pilgrimage". In Tanabe, George J. Religions of Japan in Practice. Princeton University Press. pp. 360–9. ISBN 0-691-05789-3. 
  2. ^ a b c Kitagawa, Joseph M. (1987). On Understanding Japanese Religion. Princeton University Press. pp. 127–136. ISBN 0-691-10229-5. 
  3. ^ "Shodoshima Guide Book". Organization for the Promotion of Tourism in Shikoku. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  4. ^ "Hachijūhakkasho". Ninna-ji. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  5. ^ "Chita Hachijūhakkasho". Chita 88. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  6. ^ Hakeda, Yoshito S. (1972). Kūkai: Major Works. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-05933-7. 
  7. ^ Miyazaki, Tateki (2004). Shikoku henro hitori aruki dōgyō-ninin. Matsuyama. 
  8. ^ Reader, Ian (2005). Making Pilgrimages: Meaning and Practice in Shikoku. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 42ff. ISBN 978-0-8248-2907-0. 
  9. ^ Kouamé, Nathalie (1997). "Shikoku's Local Authorities and Henro during the Golden Age of the Pilgrimage". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies (Nanzan University). 24 (3/4): 413–425. 
  10. ^ Reader, Ian (2005). Making Pilgrimages: Meaning and Practice in Shikoku. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 52f. ISBN 978-0-8248-2907-0. 
  11. ^ a b Miyata, Taisen (2006). The 88 Temples of Shikoku Island, Japan. Koyasan Buddhist Temple, Los Angeles. pp. 15–18. 

Further reading[edit]

Books written in English about the Shikoku Pilgrimage:

  • Oliver Statler, Japanese Pilgrimage (1983)
  • Craig McLachlan, Tales of a Summer Henro (1997)
  • Ian Reader, Making Pilgrimages: Meaning and Practice in Shikoku (2005)
  • Lisa Dempster, Neon Pilgrim (2009)
  • Tony Gibb, By Bike around Shikoku (2012)

External links[edit]