Shin'etsu Main Line
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|Shinetsu Main Line|
|Locale||Gunma, Nagano, Niigata prefectures|
|Termini||Takasaki - Yokokawa
Shinonoi - Niigata
|Track gauge||1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)|
|Electrification||1,500 V DC overhead catenary|
The Shinetsu Main Line (信越本線 Shin'etsu-honsen?) is a pair of lines operated by the East Japan Railway Company (JR East) in Japan. Originally one continuous line, the longer section connects Shinonoi Station in Nagano Prefecture to Niigata Station in Niigata Prefecture, with several connections to other lines including Hokuriku Main Line at Naoetsu Station in Niigata Prefecture. The other section of the Shinetsu Main Line connects Takasaki Station in Gunma Prefecture to Yokokawa Station in Gunma Prefecture. Additionally, there are three freight branches; from Echigo-Ishiyama Station to Niigata Kamotsu Terminal, from Kami-Nuttari Junction to Nuttari Station, and from Kami-Nuttari Junction to Higashi-Niigata-kō Station. The name of the line refers to the old names for Nagano and Niigata Prefectures, Shinano (信濃) and Echigo (越後), which the main section still connects.
The separation of the original line into two sections was a result of the abandonment of the section between Yokokawa and Karuizawa and the reassignment of operations over the section between Karuizawa and Shinonoi to the third-sector Shinano Railway, both occurring on October 1, 1997 in conjunction with the opening of the Nagano Shinkansen between Takasaki and Nagano stations. The abandoned section through the Usui Pass was famous for its steep 66.7‰ gradient.
When the Hokuriku Shinkansen extension to Kanazawa opens in March 2015, the portion of the Shinetsu Main Line between Nagano and Naoetsu will also be spun off to two third-sector railway operators, the Shinano Railway in Nagano Prefecture, and the Echigo Tokimeki Railway Company in Niigata Prefecture.
|Takasaki||0.0||Jōetsu Shinkansen, Nagano Shinkansen, Takasaki Line, Hachikō Line, Jōetsu Line, Ryōmō Line
Joshin Dentetsu Joshin Line
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The Japanese Government Railways opened the Takasaki - Yokokawa section in 1885, the Naoetsu - Sekiyama section the following year, and the Sekiyama - Nagano - Karuizawa section in 1888. In order to surmount the 552 metre altitude difference between Yokokawa and Karuizawa (which are 10 km apart), it then constructed an Abt rack section through the Usui Pass, which opened in 1893, and was double-tracked for 1 km from Karuizawa to the top of the rack section. A horse-drawn tramway operated between Yokokawa and Karuizawa until the rack section opened.
The Hokuetsu Railway Co. opened the Naoetsu - Nagaoka secion in 1897, extending the line to Niigata in 1904. Both companies were nationalised in 1907. In 1912, the rack section was electrified using third rail at 600 V DC, this being the first use of this method in Japan.
The Karuizawa - Nagano section was double-tracked between 1917 and 1920, with the Nagaoka - Miyauchi section double-tracked in 1931, and the Niitsu - Kamo section in 1944. Double-tracking of the remainder of the Niigata - Naoetsu line was undertaken in sections between 1958 and 1973.
Double-tracking of the remainder of the Takasaki - Kaminagano line was undertaken in sections between 1963 and 1973, commencing with the replacement of the rack section with an adhesion only electrified (1,500 V DC catenary) new line on a 1 in 15 (6.7%) grade. The rack section was initially kept as a contingency, and closed two months after the new section opened and had proved its reliability.
The Kurohime - Myoko Kogan section was double-tracked in conjunction with a realignment in 1980. The Mure - Kurohime section was also realigned and prepared for double-tracking (including new double-track size tunnels), but the second track was not laid.
The Miyauchi - Nagaoka section was electrified in 1947 at 1,500 V DC in conjunction with the electrification of the Joetsu Line, with the Nagaoka - Niigata section electrified in 1962, the same year the Takasaki - Yokokawa section was commissioned to facilitate the extension to Nagano the following year via the new adhesion line through the Usui Pass mentioned above. The Nagano - Naoetsu section was electrified in 1966, and extended to Miyauchi in 1969.
Former connecting lines
- Karuizawa Station: The Kusatsu Light Railway Co. opened a 56 km 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge line, including two switch backs, to Kusatsu Onsen between 1915 and 1926. The line was electrified at 600 V DC in 1924. In 1950, a typhoon resulted in a bridge being swept away, and the same thing occurred in 1959, resulting in the 38 km section from Karuizawa to Joshu Mihara closing in 1960. The balance of the line closed in 1962.
- Nagano Station: The Zenkoji Hakuba Railway Co. opened a 7 km line to Susohana Guchi in 1936. A proposal for the line to be extended to Hakuba on the Oito Line did not eventuate, and the line closed in 1944.
- Kuroi Station: The Kubiki Railway Co. opened a 15 km 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge line to Uragawara between 1914 and 1916, with the line closing in 1971.
- Raikoji Station: The Nagaoka Railway Co. opened a 39 km line to Teradomari (on the Echigo Line) between 1915 and 1921. This company introduced Japan's first diesel railcar in 1928, and in 1951 electrified 31 km of the line at 750 V DC in 70 days, completing the balance the following year. Significant typhoon damage occurred in 1966, and in 1972, passenger services ceased between Raikoji and Nishinagaoka, with the entire line becoming freight-only three years later. The line closed in 1995.
The 13 km 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge Uonuma Railway to Nishiojiya was opened in 1911, and nationalised in 1922. It was converted to 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) gauge in 1954, freight services ceased in 1960, and the line closed in 1984.
- Nagaoka Station: The Yukyuzan Railway Co. opened a 27 km 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge line to Tochio between 1915 and 1924. The line was electrified at 600 V DC in 1948, with this being raised to 750 V DC in 1956. CTC signalling was commissioned in 1961, freight services ceased in 1967, and the line closed between 1973 and 1975.
- Higashi Sanjo Station: The Echigo Railway Co. opened the 8 km line to Echigo Nagasawa in 1927, and was nationalised two months later. Freight services ceased in 1960, and the line closed in 1985.
- Kamo Station: The Kanbara Railway Co. operated a line to Gosen on the Ban'etsu West Line from 1923 until 2002.
The Shinetsu Main Line runs roughly parallel to the route of the Hokuriku Shinkansen extension from Nagano to Kanazawa scheduled to open in March 2015. With the opening of the Hokuriku Shinkansen, control of local passenger services on the sections of the Shinetsu Main Line running through Nagano and Niigata prefectures will be transferred to the following two third-sector operating companies owned by the respective prefectures.
- Shinano Railway Line (37.3 km, Nagano to Myōkō-Kōgen)
- Echigo Tokimeki Railway Company Myōkō Haneuma Line (Myōkō-Kōgen to Naoetsu)
This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia
- Harada, Katsumasa (1981). "Technological independence and progress of standardization in the Japanese railways". JETRO. Retrieved January 2, 2009. "it was eventually decided to build the track at a steep grade of 66.7/1,000"
- "しなの鉄道（株）、えちごトキめき鉄道（株）、あいの風とやま鉄道（株）及びＩＲいしかわ鉄道（株）申請の第一種鉄道事業許可について" [Details of railway business approval for Shinano Railway, Echigo Tokimeki Railway Company, Ainokaze Toyama Railway, and IR Ishikawa Railway]. News release (in Japanese). Japan: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014.