Shinnyo-en

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Shinnyo-en (真如苑 Borderless Garden of Truth?) is a New Religion in the tradition of the Daigo branch of the Shingon school of Japanese Bud­dhism. It was founded in 1936 by Ito Shinjo (伊藤真乗, 1906-1989) and his wife Tomoji (友司, 1912-1967) in a suburb of metropolitan Tokyo, the city of Tachikawa, where its headquarters is still located.[1][2]

It is open to lay and monastic practitioners alike. Its principal teachings are based on the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra. They also integrate elements of traditional Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana Buddhism as well as teachings and practices initiated by the founders of Shinnyo-en, Shinjō Itō (born as Fumiaki Itō; March 28, 1906 – July 19, 1989), a grand master of Shingon Buddhism, and his wife Tomoji Itō (born as Tomoji Uchida, May 9, 1912 – August 6, 1967), the first woman in the 1,000-year history of Daigo-ji monastery in Kyoto to receive the rank of Daisōjō (大僧正) as a laywoman.

Today, Shinnyo-en says to have more than one million practitioners worldwide, and temples and training centers in several countries in Asia, Europe and the Americas. The temples are characterised by the statue of the reclining Buddha.

Central to Shinnyo-en is the belief, expressed in the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, that all beings possess Buddha-nature, a natural, unfettered purity that can respond creatively and compassionately to any situation in life.

As of 2014 the head of Shinnyo-en was Shinsō Itō (born 1942, also known as 'Keishu'), who holds the rank of Daisōjō, the highest rank in traditional Shingon Buddhism. She was invited twice by the Daigo-ji monastery to officiate at a ceremony held in Daigo-ji's central hall Kondō, becoming the first woman to preside a Buddhist service there; on September 11, 1997 on the occasion of the dedication of the Shinnyo Samaya Hall, and on October 16, 2009, marking Great Master Shōbō Rigen's 1,100th memorial.[3]

History[edit]

Shinnyo-en was established in 1936 by Shinjō Itō (born as Fumiaki Itō) and his wife Tomoji Itō in the Tokyo suburb of Tachikawa. In December 1935, Shinjō Itō and Tomoji Itō had enshrined an image of Mahavairochana Achala (believed to have been sculpted by the renowned Buddhist sculptor, Unkei) and they began a 30-day period of winter austerities in early 1936. Tomoji cultivated her spiritual faculty (霊能 reinō?) on February 4, inheriting it from her aunt. From that time, Tomoji and Shinjō began a new life together entirely devoted to encouraging people's spiritual growth.

In May 1936, Shinjō Itō was ordained and given the priestly name of 'Tensei' by Daisōjō and Chief Abbot Egen Saeki, at the Sanbō-in temple of the Daigo school of Shingon Buddhism. The Chief Abbot conferred to him the monastic name of 'Shinjō', meaning 'True Vehicle', and the title of 'Kongō-in', which means 'Adamantine', in December 1938. Accordingly he changed his name from Fumiaki Itō to Shinjō Itō in April 1942.[4]

The community was first named 'Risshō-kaku', then known as the 'Tachikawa Fellowship of Achala'(Japanese: Tachikawa Fudoson Kyokai, 1938-1948). Formally registered in 1948 under the Religious Corporations Ordinance (Japanese: Shukyo Hojinrei, enacted in 1945) the name changed to 'Sangha of Truth' (Japanese: Makoto-Kyodan), having Shinchō-ji as its Head Temple.

In 1950, Shinjō was arrested. A young man who had formerly held a position of responsibility in Shinnyo-en was punished during one of the ascetic training sessions and lodged a complaint against the founder, Shinjō. As a result, Shinjō was jailed for forty days and sentenced to seven months imprisonment (with a three-year stay of execution equivalent to a period of probation).[5]

The sangha was permitted to continue, but under a different name. It was reorganized and renamed Shinnyo-en on June 21, 1951 and Tomoji Itō became the administrative head of Shinnyo-en. After the revision of the Japanese Religious Corporation Act in April 1951, Shinnyo-en filed an application in the following year and received approval from the Minister of Education on May 16, 1953.

The first image of the reclining Nirvana Buddha, sculpted by Shinjō Itō, is consecrated on November 3, 1957.

The Theravada monastery Wat Paaknam in Thailand presents Shinnyo-en with relics of the Buddha on July 30, 1966.

During June and July 1967 Shinnyo-en's co-founders visit seven European countries and Israel on a religious goodwill mission and presented a nirvana image to the following institutions:

University of Copenhagen (Denmark), University of Uppsala (Sweden), University of Oslo (Norway), The Buddhist Society (U.K.), A Buddhist Society (France), The Holy See (Vatican), Hebrew University (Israel), The World Council of Churches (Switzerland)

The first Shinnyo-en Sanctuary outside Japan is inaugurated on March 2, 1971 in Mililani, Hawaii, followed by the dedication of Sanctuaries in Honolulu (1973), San Francisco (1982), Taiwan (1985), France (1985), Los Angeles (1990), Italy (1990), Belgium (1991), Hong Kong (1992), U.K. (1994), Germany (1994), Singapore (1994), Australia (1999).[6]

On September 11, 1997 the 'Shinnyo Samaya Hall' (Japanese: Shinnyo-sanmayadō)[7]) is dedicated at Shimo-Daigo, the lower part of Daigo-ji monastery in recognition of Shinjō Itō's founding of a new school of Buddhism.

Teachings[edit]

The principal Sutra on which the Shinnyo teachings are based is the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra. According to Shinnyo-en, the Sutra teaches four key points:[8]

  1. Buddhahood is always present
  2. All beings possess a Buddha-nature
  3. There is hope for everyone to attain nirvana
  4. Nirvana is of the present moment and characterized by permanence-bliss-self-purity.

According to the Most Venerable Junna Nakata, the 103 Chief Abbot of Daigo-ji Monastery:

If we view the Buddhist tradition as a vertical line, and the world we live in as a horizontal line, Shinjō Itō placed the teachings of Nirvana to work as a link between the two, and proved the validity of the Nirvana teachings.[9]

The teachings also integrate elements of traditional Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism, cultural influences characteristic to Japanese Buddhism, as well as practices and rituals initiated by Shinjo Ito, the founder of Shinnyo-en.

Eightfold Path[edit]

One teaching Shinnyo-en claims to follow which is common to traditional forms of Buddhism is the Noble Eightfold Path.[10] This is one of the central teachings of Buddhism, being the explanation of the path which the Buddha taught - the path to the cessation of suffering. As such it is the 4th part of the Four Noble Truths, which are regarded as the central doctrine of the Buddhist tradition, and are said to provide a conceptual framework for all of Buddhist thought.[11] Shinnyo-en also includes these Four Noble Truths on their website.[12] However, there are no references which show that Shinnyo-en actually teaches Right Mindfulness, nor Right Concentration, these being the last two steps on the Noble Eightfold Path and those which contain traditional Buddhist meditation practice.[13][14]

According to the Shinnyo-en website they practice water and fire ceremonies, and a face-to-face guidance called 'Sesshin'[15] which consists of a trained medium conveying advice from the spirits of the dead, via the spirits of the two children of the founder Ito Shinjo, who both died young.[16]

Organizational structure[edit]

The leadership in Shinnyo-en follows the Buddhist tradition of Dharma succession from master to disciple.

In Daigo-ji there are two Dharma streams (lineages) - that of lay Buddhism (Ein) and that of monastic Buddhism (Diamond and Womb Worlds). Shinjō Itō succeeded to both from the 96th Dharma-successor and Chief Abbot of Daigo-ji, Egen Saeki. [...] I believe Shinjō Itō had the intention of merging the two Dharma-streams from the beginning. By doing so, he gave rise to a new Dharma-stream. The Shinnyo Dharma-stream unites the Buddhist tradition and society. (The Most Venerable Junna Nakata, the 103rd Chief Abbot of Daigo-ji Monastery)[17]

In 1982 Shinsō Itō (born 1942 as Masako Itō), the third daughter of Shinjō and Tomoji, completes her Buddhist training and becomes a successor in the Shinnyo dharma lineage. Shinjō announces her to become his successor in 1983 and gives her the priestly name 'Shinsō'. A ceremony to confirm this dharma succession is held at Daigo-ji monastery on April 24, 1984. After Shinjō's passing on July 19, 1989 Shinsō Itō becomes the head of Shinnyo-en. In 1992, Shinsō Itō was conferred Daisōjo, the highest priestly rank in traditional Shingon Buddhism, by the Daigo-ji Shingon Buddhist monastery. She also received an honorary doctorate from Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University in Thailand in 2002 for her long-standing efforts to foster relations with Theravada Buddhism.[18]

The basic organizational unit of the Shinnyo-en sangha is said to be the “lineage” (Japanese: suji), which consists of a group of members mentored by a “lineage parent” (Japanese: sujioya). Practitioners usually gather at the temple and training centre for prayer, meditation and training, and, if they so wish, also at home meetings.[19] The sangha as a whole encourages and participates in volunteer activities in the spirit of Buddhist practice.

'Spiritual guides' (霊能者 reinōsha?, medium), are practitioners who are mediums, and have been specially trained in order to perform the so-called Sesshin, face-to-face guidance from the spirit world.[20] This kind of guidance is given only at a Shinnyo-en temple and should help members to understand themselves in light of Buddhist concepts.

In Shinnyo-en's Dharma School (Japanese: Chiryu-Gakuin) members study buddhist doctrine and learn ritualistic aspects. After graduating as a Dharma Teacher they can further qualify for undergoing Buddhist ordination (Japanese: Tokudo-Jukai) and receiving traditional monastic ranks.

Social action[edit]

Shinnyo-en believes an individual's action can contribute to creating a harmonious society. Working towards this goal, the organization engages in interfaith dialogue, environmental activities, and disaster relief.

Shinnyo-en also supports organizations such as Médecins sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), the Red Cross Society, and the World Wildlife Fund.

Their cultural projects include the reconstruction of ancient musical instruments, support for the Kiyosato Museum of Photographic Arts, the excavation of ruins at Angkor Wat in Cambodia, and collecting Cambodian oral folk tales for a children’s book project.[21]

Shinnyoen, in 2001 planned to build nonreligious facilities — including parks and sports and cultural centers — on part of the 1-million-sq.-meter plot between Musashimurayama and Tachikawa in western Tokyo that it planned to purchase from Nissan. “We are hoping to make space accessible and spiritually appealing to the public,” said Minoru Shitara, a Shinnyo-en spokesman.[22]

During 2005-2007, Shinnyo-en supported and cooperated with the Jewish-Palestinian Living Room Dialogue to enact the Palestinian-Jewish Family Peacemakers Camp—Oseh Shalom - Sanea al-Salam,[23] at Camp Tawonga that brought hundreds of Muslim, Christian, and Jewish youth and adults into relationship.[citation needed]

People who are interested in traditional Buddhist training are always welcome, but volunteer activities provide an additional avenue for Shinnyo-en to contribute to the wider secular community. (Shinso Ito)[24]

Shinnyo practice[edit]

Shinnyo-en followers must accept sesshin and undertake the Three Activities (三つの歩み mittsu no ayumi?): joyful giving (歓喜 kangu?, financial contribution to the organization), recruitment of new members (お救け otasuke?), and service (ご奉仕 gohōshi?).[25][26]

Sesshin[edit]

The sesshin (the word is composed of the two Chinese characters, “touch” and “heart”[27]) is the central element of religious practice for the follower of Shinnyoen.[28] This is not to be confused with the sesshin in Zen Buddhism. Whereas in Zen Buddhism, sesshin refers to a period of intensive meditation, with many hours of meditation each day, sesshin in Shinnyo-en has an entirely different meaning.

A sesshin involves receiving guidance from a spiritual medium (霊能者 reinōsha?), a person whose spiritual powers (霊能 reinō'?) are recognized by the Shinnyo-en organi­zation.[29] This guidance lasts for about three minutes per person.[30]

Shinnyo-en refers to the spiritual world from which the guiding messages emanate as the shinnyo reikai (具如霊界). This is not merely the dwelling place of the spirits of the dead, it also encompasses and is equated with the Buddha realm (仏界 bukkai?). The mediums' contact with this world is not direct, but only through the intercession of two 'children' (両里ナ ryō-dōji?) in the realm of the guardian gods, whose spirits are viewed as one with both heaven and earth. These two dōji are none other than the first and second sons of Ito Shinjo, posthumously named, respectively, Kyodo-in Kyodo-in (教導院) died aged one year old)[31] and Shindo-in (真導院, died aged fifteen).[32] Messages from the shinnyo reikai are passed to the reinōsha by these children (believed to have been spiritual mediums themselves), and subsequently by the reinōsha to the ordinary believers.[33]

In a booklet of teachings published by Shinnyo-en, sesshin is explained as follows: "The discipline of spiritual guidance, in plain terms, is meant to en­able people to acquire the Buddha-spirit. The spirit thus acquired is actively manifested in daily life as a spirit of service and altru­ istic love. In order to make this spirit known to as many people as possible, Shinnyo-en has nearly two hundred reinōsha or “mediums” who perform roles of great importance. In Shinnyo-en the ability to serve as a medium, acquired through practice of the Buddha’s teachings, is a distinctive form of spiritual leadership, but mediums are by no means unique people. Men and women, old and young, they serve in many ways in ordinary society, occupying all kinds of positions."[34]

Missionary Activities[edit]

Regarding recruitment (Japanese: otasuke), a school for the training of missionaries has been developed, and lectures are given on Shinnyo-en doctrine, history, and missionary meth­ods. Members allowed to enter this school take three years to complete the prescribed course of study. At the end of that time, they are granted some kind of missionary status, depending on their test results, success in mission work, academic career, social standing, and the like. The system of missionary ranks is called sokai or “stages in Buddhist discipleship.”[35]

Fire and Water Ceremonies[edit]

According to the Shinnyo-en website they practice water and fire ceremonies, and a face-to-face guidance called 'Sesshin'[36]

Other Practices[edit]

Through mindfulness and seated meditation, practitioners reflect on themselves and resolve to practice harmony, gratitude, kindness, and acceptance. The school teaches that one realizes his or her true potential by acting with compassion and concern for others. Therefore, practitioners are encouraged to cultivate mindfulness and self-reflection, and to apply in daily life the insights gained in seated meditation.[citation needed]

Shinnyo-en practitioners in pursuing the Path to Nirvana vow to abide by the Five Precepts (Pali: pañca-sīlāni) and follow the Eightfold Path, although no reference can be found of Shinnyo-en teaching Right Mindfulness, nor Right Concentration, these being the last two steps on the Eightfold Path and those which contain traditional Buddhist meditation practice.

By learning to identify with others (or "place oneself in the shoes of another"), practitioners aim to cultivate the virtues of a bodhisattva.[citation needed]

Shinnyo Buddhist ceremonies[edit]

Traditional ceremonies, derived from Shingon Buddhism — many of which can be traced back to ancient Vedic and Hindu ceremonies — are an important aspect of Shinnyo Buddhist practice. Rituals are used as means to purify the mind, awaken compassion, or to express gratitude for the chance to develop oneself and practice the Buddhist teachings.

Prayers for ancestors and departed souls, such as the Lantern Floating ceremony, and O-bon (Sanskrit: Ullambana), are believed to also help cultivate kindness and compassion within practitioners.[37]

Traditional fire ceremonies such as homa are performed to help practitioners overcome obstacles that hinder their spiritual progress and liberation.[38]

Shinnyo-en and the arts[edit]

Shinnyo-en believes art is a way to communicate universal, spiritual truth. Shinnyo-en sponsors many international cultural events to share their aesthetic philosophy.[39] In addition, Shinnyo-en has staged several concerts showcasing the drumming of the Shinnyo-en Taiko Drumming Ensemble.[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mikiko, Nagai (1995). Magic and Self-Cultivation in a New Religion: The Case of Shinnyoen, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 22, No. 3/4, p.  303
  2. ^ Shiramizu, Hiroko (1979). Organizational Mediums: A Case Study of Shinnyo-en, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 6, No. 3, p. 415.
  3. ^ History of Daigo-ji
  4. ^ The Path of Oneness, p.392
  5. ^ Organizational mediums: A case study of Shinnyo-en. Author: Shiramizu Hiroko 1979 Vol:6:3 Journal: Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. p 423
  6. ^ A Walk through the Garden Vol.II p.65-72
  7. ^ Daigo-ji official website
  8. ^ Starting Out p.57
  9. ^ A Walk through the Garden Vol.II p.29
  10. ^ http://www.shinnyoen.org/about-buddhism/index.html
  11. ^ Four Noble Truths
  12. ^ http://www.shinnyoen.org/about-buddhism/index.html
  13. ^ http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/
  14. ^ Magga-vibhanga Sutta: An Analysis of the Path http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn45/sn45.008.than.html
  15. ^ http://www.shinnyoen.org/beliefs-practices/index.html
  16. ^ Mikiko, Nagai (1995). Magic and Self-Cultivation in a New Religion: The Case of Shinnyoen, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 22, No. 3/4, pp. 301–320.
  17. ^ A Walk through the Garden Vol.II p.29
  18. ^ RNS April 25, 2013[full citation needed]
  19. ^ Usui, p.234–235.
  20. ^ Shiramizu, Hiroko (1979). Organizational Mediums: A Case Study of Shinnyo-en, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 6, No. 3, pp. 421.
  21. ^ Shinnyo-en official Japanese website
  22. ^ Hiroshi Matsubara, Japan Times News-2001/10/25
  23. ^ Peacemaker Camp 2007
  24. ^ Tricycle Magazine, Interview with Shinso Ito
  25. ^ Nagai, Mikiko. 1995. Magic and self-cultivation in a new religion: The case of Shinnyoen. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 22: p. 301–20.
  26. ^ Organizational mediums: A case study of Shinnyo-en. Author: Shiramizu Hiroko 1979 Vol:6:3 Journal: Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. p 434.
  27. ^ The Path of Oneness, p.193
  28. ^ Ishii Kenji 石井研士 1986 Sezoku shakai ni okeru Bukkyo no kanosei 世俗社会における 仏教の可能性. Riso 633: p. 173.
  29. ^ Nagai, Mikiko. 1995. Magic and self-cultivation in a new religion: The case of Shinnyoen. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 22: p. 305.
  30. ^ Shiramizu, Hiroko (1979). Organizational Mediums: A Case Study of Shinnyo-en, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 6, No. 3, pp.  428.
  31. ^ Shiramizu, Hiroko (1979). Organizational Mediums: A Case Study of Shinnyo-en, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 6, No. 3, pp. 421.
  32. ^ Shiramizu, Hiroko (1979). Organizational Mediums: A Case Study of Shinnyo-en, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 6, No. 3, pp. 424.
  33. ^ Mikiko, Nagai (1995). Magic and Self-Cultivation in a New Religion: The Case of Shinnyoen, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 22, No. 3/4, pp. 305-306.
  34. ^ Shinnyo-en Kyogakubu 1974, p . 1
  35. ^ Organizational mediums: A case study of Shinnyo-en. Author: Shiramizu Hiroko 1979 Vol:6:3 Journal: Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. p 434.
  36. ^ http://www.shinnyoen.org/beliefs-practices/index.html
  37. ^ Kealii, "Ninth Annual Lantern Floating Ceremony," May 2007
  38. ^ "Address by Her Holiness Keishu Shinso, Saisho Homa, Taiwan, October 27th, 2007." 'In Step', Number 7, November 2007.
  39. ^ "Buddha Ripples," p. 7
  40. ^ Melville, 'More than a Drop in the Ocean,' "Buddha Ripples," p. 162–167.

Sources[edit]

  • A Walk through the Garden Vol.II | Foundations of Shinnyo-en, Shinnyo-en, Japan, 1999
  • Starting Out | An introduction to Shinnyo Practice, Shinnyo-en, 2010
  • The Path of Oneness, Shinnyo-en, English Revised Edition, 2009
  • Melville, Sinclair. 'More than a Drop in the Ocean,' "Buddha Ripples," IAD publishing, 2009
  • Usui, Atsuko. "Women's 'Experience' in New Religious Movements: The Case of Shinnyo-en." Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 30/3–4: 217–241. Nagoya, Japan: Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture, 2003

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]