The Shire is governed and administered by the Central Goldfields Shire Council; its seat of local government and administrative centre is located at the council headquarters in Maryborough, it also has a service centre located in Talbot. The Shire is named after the region having historically been a major goldfields region in central Victoria.
The council is composed of four wards and seven councillors, with four councillors elected to represent the Maryborough Ward and one councillor per remaining ward elected to represent each of the other wards.
The council meets in the council chambers at the council headquarters in the Maryborough Municipal Offices, which is also the location of the council's administrative activities. It also provides customer services at both its administrative centre in Maryborough, and its service centre in Talbot.