Coat of Arms of the Shirvanshahs
|Titles||Shah of Shirvan
Shah of Layzan
Emir of Derbent
|Founder||Yazid b. Mazyad al-Shaybani|
|Final ruler||Abu Bakr Mirza|
House of Black Monk
Shirvanshah (Persian: شروانشاهان, Azerbaijani: Şirvanşah) also spelled as Shīrwān Shāh or Sharwān Shāh, was the title of the Muslim rulers of Shirvan, located in modern Azerbaijan, from the mid-9th century to the early 16th century. The title remained in a single family, the Yazidids, an originally Arab but gradually Persianized dynasty, although the later Shirvanshahs are also known as the Kasranids or Kaqanids. The Shirvanshah established a native state in Shirvan (located in modern Azerbaijan).
Origin and history
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|History of Azerbaijan|
The title Shirvanshah dates back to pre-Islamic times. Ibn Khordadbeh mentions the Shirvanshah as one of the local rulers who received their title from the first Sassanid emperor, Ardashir I. Al-Baladhuri also mentions that a Shirvanshah, together with the neighbouring Layzanshah, were encountered by the Arabs during their conquest of Persia, and submitted to the Arab commander Salman ibn Rab'ia al-Bahili.
From the late 8th century, Shirvan was under the rule of the members of the Arab family of Yazid ibn Mazyad al-Shaybani (d. 801), who was named governor of the region by the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid. His descendants, the Yazidids, would rule Shirvan as independent princes until the 14th century. By origin, the Yazidids were Arabs of the Shayban tribe and belonged to high ranking generals and governors of the Abbasid army. In the chaos that engulfed the Abbasid Caliphate after the death of the Caliph al-Mutawakkil in 861, the great-grandson of Yazid b. Mazyad Shaybani, Haytham ibn Khalid, declared himself independent and assume the ancient title of Shirvanshah. The dynasty continuously ruled the area of Shirvan either as an independent state or a vassal state until the Safavid times.
One of the important books in the early history of this dynasty is the anonymous Taʾrikh Bab al-Abwab ("History of Derbent"), preserved by the Ottoman historian Munejjim-Bashi (Chief Astronomer), the last date of which concerning the dynasty is 468/1075. A translation of this important work into English language was published by the orientalist Vladimir Minorsky in 1958. We know from this book that the history of the Shirvan Shahs was closely tied with that of the Arab Hashimid family in Darband (Bab al-Abwab) and intermarriage between the two Arab families was common with Yazidis often ruling for various periods in the latter town.
By the time of the anonymous work Hodud al-Alam (c. 982 AD), the Shirvan Shahs, from their capital of Yazīdiyya (very probably the later Shamakha), had absorbed neighbouring kingdoms north of the Kur river and thus acquired the additional titles of Layzan Shah and Khursan Shah. We can also discern the progressive Persianisation of this originally Arab family. According to Encyclopedia of Islam: After the Shah Yazid b. Ahmad (381-418/991-1028), Arab names give way to Persian ones like Manūčihr, Ḳubādh, Farīdūn, etc., very likely as a reflection of marriage links with local families, and possibly with that of the ancient rulers in Shābarān, the former capital, and the Yazidids now began to claim a nasab (lineage) going back to Sassanid kings Bahrām Gūr or to Khusraw Anushirwan. According to Vladimir Minorsky, the most likely explanation of the Iranicisation of this Arab family could be marriage link with the family of the ancient rulers of Shabaran. He further states: The attraction of a Sassanian pedigree proved stronger than the recollection of Shaybani lineage. The coat of arms with two lions could be a reminder of the story of Bahrām Gur in Shahnama where Bahrām had to claim the crown from between two lions to be recognized as the king.
Shirvanshahs built many defensive castles across all of Shirvan to resist many foreign invasions. From the walled city of Baku with its Maiden Tower (XII) and many medieval castles in Absheron to impregnable strongholds all over mountains of Shirvan and Shaki, there are many great examples of medieval military architecture. However, Shirvan was greatly devastated by Mongol invasion in 1235, from which it was not able to fully recover for the next century.
The Shirvanshahs dynasty, existing as independent or a vassal state, from 861 until 1538; longer than any other dynasty in Islamic world, are known for their support of culture. There were two periods of an independent and strong Shirvan state: first in the 12th century, under kings Manuchehr and his son, Axsitan who built the stronghold of Baku, and second in the 15th century under Derbendid dynasty. In the 13th and 14th centuries Shirvan was a vassal of stronger Mongol and Timurid empires.
Shirvanshahs Khalilullah I and Farrukh Yassar resided over most successful period in a history of Shirvan. Architectural complex of "Shirvanshah palace" in Baku that was also a burial site of the dynasty and Halwatiyya Sufi khaneqa, was built during the reign of those two rulers in mid 15th centuries. The Shirvanshah rulers were more or less Sunni. In 1462 Sheykh Junayd, the leader of Safavids, was killed in a battle against Shirvanishans near the town of Khachmaz – an event that Safavids never forgot. By 1500, significantly weakened Shirvan suffered the onslaught of avenging Safavids.
Shah Ismail I sacked Baku in 1501, and, avenging his grandfather, exhumed bodies of Shirvanshahs, buried in the mausoleum and burned them. Most of Baku population was forcibly converted to Shi'ism thereafter.
The vassal Shirvan state managed to hang on until 1538, when, weakened by internal conflict and a Qalandari dervish uprising, it became an easy prey to Shah Ismail's son Tahmasp I. He gave Shirvan to his brother Alqas Mirza to rule as a province.
The Shirvanshah dynasty are known for their patronage of Persian poetry. Amongst famous poets who either appeared at their court or dedicated poetry to them are Khaghani and Nizami. Nizami composed in Persian poetry the Arab origined epic Lili o Majnoon for Abul-Muzaffar Jalal ad-din Shirvanshah Akhsatan. He also sent his son to be educated with the son of Shirvanshah. Khaghani himself in his youth used the poetic title Haqiqi. After dedicating himself to the court of Fakhr ad-din Manuchehr Fereydoon Shirvanshah (also known as the Khaghan Akbar), he chose the pen name Khaghani and also served as a court poet for Akhsatan, the son of Fakhr ad-din Manuchehr Fereydoon. Other poets and writers who appeared during the rule of the Shirvanshahs include Falaki Shirvani, Aziz Shirvani, Jamal Khalil Shirvani, Bakhtiyar Shirvani and multitude of others mentioned in the book Nozhat al-Majales, an anthology compiled by Jamal Khalil Shirvani.
The Palace of the Shirvanshahs (or Shirvanshahs' Palace, Azerbaijani: Şirvanşahlar sarayı) is the biggest monument of the Shirvan-Absheron branch of architecture, situated in the Inner City of Baku. The complex contains the main building of the palace, Divanhane, the burial-vaults, the shah's mosque with a minaret, Seyid Yahya Bakuvi's mausoleum, a portal in the east – Murad's gate, a reservoir and the remnants of the bath-house.
House of Shirvanshah
|Portrait or Coat of arms||Name||From||Until||Relationship with predecessor|
|Haytham I||861||?||appointed by Caliph Al-Mutawakkil as governor of Shirvan|
|Muhammed II||?||?||son of predecessor|
|Haytham II||?||around 913||son of predecessor|
|Ali I||913||?||son of predecessor|
Also Shah of Layzan
|?||917||nephew of Haytham I|
|Abu Tahir Yazid
Also Shah of Layzan
|917||948||son of predecessor|
Coin of Muhammed IV
Also Shah of Layzan and Shah of Tabasaran in 917–948
|948||956||son of predecessor|
Also Shah of Layzan in 948–956
|956||981||son of predecessor|
Also Shah of Layzan in 956–981
|986||991||son of predecessor|
|Yazid III||991||1027||brother of predecessor|
|Manuchehr I||1027||1034||son of predecessor|
|Ali II||1034||1043||brother of predecessor|
|Kubad||1043||1049||brother of predecessor|
|Ali III Bukhtnassar||1049||1050||nephew of predecessor|
|Salar||1050||1063||uncle of predecessor|
|Fariburz I||1063||1096||son of predecessor|
|Manuchehr II||1096||1106||son of predecessor|
|Afridun I the Martyr||1106||1120||brother of predecessor|
|Manuchehr III||1120||1160||son of predecessor|
|Afridun II||1160||1160||son of predecessor|
|Akhsitan I||1160||1197||brother of predecessor|
|Shahanshah||1197||1200||brother of predecessor|
|Fariburz II||1200||1204||nephew of predecessor|
|Farrukhzad||1204||1204||uncle of predecessor|
|Gushtasb I||1204||1225||son of predecessor|
|Fariburz III||1225||1243||son of predecessor|
|Akhsitan II||1243||1260||son of predecessor|
|Farrukhzad II||1260||1282||son of predecessor|
|Akhsitan III||1282||1294||son of predecessor|
|Keykavus I||1294||1317||son of predecessor|
|Keykubad I||1317||1348||uncle of predecessor|
|Kavus I||1348||1372||son of predecessor|
|Hushang I||1372||1382||son of predecessor|
|Ibrahim I||1382||1417||cousin of predecessor|
|Khalilullah I||1417||1465||son of predecessor|
|Farrukh Yassar I||1465||1500||son of predecessor|
|Bahram||1501||1501||son of predecessor|
|Gazi Beg||1501||1501||brother of predecessor|
|Sultan Mahmud||1501||1502||son of predecessor|
|Ibrahim II Sheykhshah||1502||1524||brother of predecessor|
|Khalilullah II||1524||1535||son of predecessor|
|Farrukh Yassar II||1535||1535||brother of predecessor|
|Shahrukh of Shirvan||1535||1539||son of predecessor|
- State historical architecture museum "The Shirvanshahs’ Palace" – "Two lions and the head of the bull between them was the symbol of the Shirvanshahs. Lions symbolized the power and strength of the Shirvanshahs, the head of the bull symbolized abundance."
- Barthold, W., C.E. Bosworth "Shirwan Shah, Sharwan Shah. "Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2nd edition
- Bosworth, C.E. (11 February 2011). "ŠERVĀNŠAHS". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- Tadeusz Swietochowski. Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition, Columbia University, 1995, p. 2, ISBN 0231070683: "In the fifteenth century a native Azeri state of Shirvanshahs flourished north of the Araxes."
- V. Minorsky, A History of Sharvan and Darband in the 10th–11th Centuries, Cambridge, 1958.
- Encyclopedia Iranica, "Minorsky, Vladimir Fedorovich", C. E. BOSWORTH
- S. Ashurbeyli "History of Shirvanshahs", Baku, Elm, 1983 405 p