Shivi

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For the villages in Iran, see Shuy.
"Sibia" redirects here. For the songbirds, see Heterophasia.

Shivi (Hindi: शिवि) was a republic in ancient India, ruled by a democratic system of government known as ganatantra. Kshudrakas had formed a sangha with Malavas. Shivis formed a sangha with a big federation or sangha known as Jat, which is clear from Pāṇini's shloka in grammar of Aṣṭādhyāyī. The famous Sanskrit scholar Pāṇini of 900 BCE has mentioned in his Sanskrit grammar known as Aṣṭādhyāyī in the form of shloka in Sanskrit language as 'जट झट संघाते' or (IAST:Jat Jhat Sanghate). This means that the terms 'Jat' and 'democratic federation' are synonymous.[1]

At the time of invasion of India by Alexander the great, in 326 BCE, they were found inhabiting an area in the vicinity of the Malava tribes. The Greek writers have mentioned them wearing clothes similar to wild people even during the war. After some time of Alexander's war, they probably moved to Rajasthan along with Malavas. Thus they are found moving from Punjab to Malwa and from there to Rajasthan. There are ruins of an ancient town called 'Tamva-vati nagari' 11 miles north of Chittor. Ancient coins of Shivi people are found near this town bearng 'Majhamikaya Shivajanapadas', which means coins of 'Shiva janapada of Madhyamika'. The 'Tamvavati nagari' was called as 'Madhyamika nagari'. These coins are of the period 2nd to 1st centuries BCE. [1]

The Shokeen or Shivakhande clan[edit]

According to Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria), it may, however, be interesting to note that a Jat tribe, living in about 25 contiguous villages in Jind district of Haryana and about 5 villages in Nangloi block of Delhi, goes by its gotra name as Shivakhande or Sheokhand. of late this gotra has been Arabicised as Shokeen in Delhi villages. Yet the elders of Sheokhand Khap area take pride in the fact that they originally hail from the Dharans, whose kingdom was rather misnomered as "Gupta empire" in Indian history. Be that as it may, one thing is plausible about the Jats of Sheokhande clan. They must be the Sivas who fought against the Bharatas on the Jamuna River in one of the ten Rigvedic wars i.e. Battle of the Ten Kings. They are identified by scholars with the Shivis[2] or the Sibis of the Usinara country in the north of Haridwar near the source of Ganges.[3] The Sivas or Sibis became known as Shivakhande or Sheokhande from and after the Shivaliks, the abode of Lord Shiva, the highest deity of the Jats. Their descent from the Shivalik hills has provided good grounds to the author of Devasamhita to expound this theory. [4]

Shivi Kings[edit]

The Jatakas mention about rulers of this tribe. One of them was a religious and kind king named Sanjaya, who donated every thing and moved himself with his wife Madri, son Jali Kumar and daughter Krishnajina Kumari to 'Bankagiri'. The Buddhist literature 'Avadan Kalplata' writes Sanjay a Vishwamitra. These people were democratic rulers of ganasangha type. All works were done in these ganas with the consent of clan people. [1]

King Shivi (शिवि) was another great King of this tribe, powerful and generous king. Indra and Agni once tested his generosity by becoming birds when the king gave flesh from his body to fulfill his duty.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.
  2. ^ Kathasaritsagar, vol.1 p. 11
  3. ^ ABORI, vol. XXIX, p. 117, fn. 9
  4. ^ Hukum Singh Panwar(Pauria):The Jats - Their Origin, Antiquity & Migrations, Rohtak, 1993. ISBN 81-85235-22-8, p. 38