Shkodër

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Shkoder)
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Shkodër (disambiguation).
Shkodër
City
Shkodër and Prokletije seen from Rozafa Castle
Shkodër and Prokletije seen from Rozafa Castle
Official seal of Shkodër
Seal
Shkodër is located in Albania
Shkodër
Shkodër
Coordinates: 42°04′N 19°30′E / 42.067°N 19.500°E / 42.067; 19.500Coordinates: 42°04′N 19°30′E / 42.067°N 19.500°E / 42.067; 19.500
Country  Albania
County Shkodër County
District Shkodër District
Founded 4th century BC
Government
 • Mayor Lorenc Luka (PD)
Area
 • City 16.46 km2 (6.36 sq mi)
Elevation 13 m (43 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • City 95,907
 • Density 5,800/km2 (15,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 217,375
Time zone Central European Time (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 4001-4007
Area code(s) (+355) 22
Car Plates SH, AA
Website www.shkodra.gov.al

Shkodër (definite Albanian form: Shkodra) is a city in northwestern Albania in the District of Shkodër, of which it is the capital. It is one of the oldest and most historic places in Albania, as well as an important cultural and economic centre.

During many different epochs it has retained its status as a major city in the Western Balkans, due to its geostrategic positioning close to the Adriatic and the Italian ports, but also with land-routes to other important cities and towns in neighbouring regions.

Its importance is heightened by the Lake of Shkodër to the west of the city—the largest in the Western Balkans—that straddles Albania and neighbouring Montenegro. The population of Shkodër is 95,907, while Shkodër County has a population of 217,375.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The name of Shkodra is first attested in antiquity in the form Skodra (Latin: Scodra, Ancient Greek: Σκόδρα),[2][3][4] and in the Greek genitive Σκοδρινῶν ('of the Skodrians') found on coins from the 2nd century BC.[5] Its ultimate origins, from Illyrian, are unknown.[2] The further development of the name has been the object of some discussion among linguists in the context of the debate over the linguistic provenance of Albanians and the Albanian language. While Cabej[6] and Demiraj[7] treat the development from Skodra to modern Shkodra as evidence of regular development within Albanian, Matzinger[2] argues that it fails to display certain known phonological changes that would have to have happened if the name had been continually in use in (proto-)Albanian since pre-Roman times.

The name was adapted to Italian as Scutari; in this form it was also in wide use in English until the 20th century.[8] In Serbian, Shkodër was known as Skadar.

History[edit]

Antiquity[edit]

Rozafa, an Illyrian fortress.

The town was known as Scodra [9] (Latin: Scodra)[10] during antiquity, and was the capital of the first kingdom of the Illyrian tribe of the Ardiaei, since the middle of the 3rd century BC.[11] The town, was first mentioned during classical times as the site of the Illyrian Labeates, as well as the capital of the kingdom of King Gentius[12]- in which he minted coins - and that of Queen Teuta. In the year 168 BC, the city was captured by the Romans and it became an important trade and military route. The Romans colonized[13] the town. Scodra remained in the province of Illyricum, and later Dalmatia. By it 395 AD, it was part of the Diocese of Dacia, within Praevalitana.

Middle Ages[edit]

Shkodra coat of arms in the 14th and 15th centuries

The dawn of the Middle Ages saw waves of Slavs arriving. De Administrando Imperio describes how Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (r. 610-641) gave the Serbs a territory in the Western Balkans during the first half of the 7th century. The southernmost, maritime polity of the Serbian Principality, at Duklja, included the Shkodër region. After the death of Prince Časlav (r. 927-960), the state disintegrated, with Duklja retaining most of it.[14] Khan Samuel had by 997 conquered all of Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, and most of modern Albania.[14] In the early 11th century, Jovan Vladimir ruled Duklja amidst the war between Basil II and Samuel. Vladimir allegedly retreated into Koplik when Samuel I invaded Duklja, and was subsequently forced to accept Bulgarian vassalage. Vladimir was later slewn by the Bulgars, and received a cult; Shingjon (the feast of St. Jovan Vladimir), which is celebrated by the Albanian Orthodox Christians.[15]

In the 1030s, Stefan Vojislav from Travunia expelled the last strategos, and successfully defeated the Byzantines by 1042. Stefan Vojislav set up Shkodër as his capital.[16] Constantine Bodin accepted the crusaders of the Crusade of 1101 in Shkodër. After the dynastic struggles in the 12th century, Shkodër became part of the Nemanyid Zeta province. In 1330 Stephen Dečanski appointed his son Stephen Dušan as the governor of Zeta and its seat Shkodër (Serbian: Скадар).[17] In the same year Dušan and his father entered the conflict which resulted with campaign of Dečanski who destroyed Dušans court on Drimac river near Shkodër in January 1331. In April they made a truce,[18] but in August 1331 Dušan went from Shkodër to Nerodimlje and overthrow his father.[19] During the fall of the Serbian Empire (14th century), Shkodër was taken by the Balšić family who surrendered the city to Venice, in order to form protection zone from the Ottoman Empire. During Venetian rule the city adopted the Statutes of Scutari, a civic law written in Venetian, which also contained Albanian elements such as Besa and Gjakmarrja.[20][21]

In the Ottoman Empire[edit]

the Lead Mosque, built in 1773

With two sieges (1474 and 1478-9) it became secure as an Ottoman territory. It became the centre of the sanjak and by 1485 there were 27 Muslim and 70 Christian hearths, although by the end of the next century there were more than 200 Muslim ones compared to the 27 Christian ones, respectively.[22]

Military manoeuvres in 1478 by the Ottomans meant that the city was again entirely surrounded by Ottoman forces. Mehmed the Conqueror personally laid the siege. About ten heavy cannons were cast on site. Balls heavy as much as 380 kg (838 lb) were fired on the citadel (such balls are still on display on the castle museum). Nevertheless the city resisted. Mehmet left the field and had his commanders continue the siege. By the winter the Ottomans had captured one after the other all adjacent castles: Lezhë, Drisht, and Žabljak Crnojevića. This, together with famine and constant bombardment lowered the morale of defenders. On the other hand the Ottomans were already frustrated by the stubborn resistance. The castle is situated on a naturally protected hill and every attempted assault resulted in considerable casualties for the attackers. A truce became an option for both parties. On January 25 an agreement between the Venetians and the Ottoman Empire ended the siege, permitting the citizens to leave unharmed, and the Ottomans to take over the deserted city.

Shkodër was a major city under Ottoman rule in Southeast Europe. It retained its importance up until the end of the empire's rule in the Balkans in the early 20th century. This is due to its geo-strategic position that connects it directly with the Adriatic and with the Italian ports, but also with land-routes to the other important Ottoman centre, namely Prizren. The city was an important meeting place of diverse cultures from other parts of the Empire, as well as influences coming westwards, by Italian merchants. It was a centre of Islam in the region, producing many ulema, poets and administrators, particularly from the Bushati family.

In the 18th century Shkodër became the center of the (pashaluk) of Shkodër, under the rule of the Bushati family, which ruled from 1757 to 1831. Shkodër's importance as a trade center in the second half of the 19th century was owed to the fact that it was the center of the vilayet of Shkodër, and an important trading center for the entire Balkan peninsula. It had over 3,500 shops, and clothing, leather, tobacco, and gunpowder were some of the major products of Shkodër. A special administration was established to handle trade, a trade court, and a directorate of postage services with other countries. Other countries had opened consulates in Shkodër ever since 1718. Obot and Ulcinj served as ports for Shkodër, and later on Shëngjin (San Giovanni di Medua). The Jesuit seminar and the Franciscan committee were opened in the 19th century. It was also the main spot for transporting 'illegal' things through Montenegro and throughout eastern Europe.[citation needed]

Before 1867 Shkodër (İşkodra) was a sanjak of Rumelia Eyalet in Ottoman Empire. In 1867, Shkodër sanjak merged with Skopje (Üsküp) sanjak and became Shkodër vilayet. Shkodër vilayet was split into Shkodër, Prizren and Dibra sanjaks. In 1877, Prizren passed to Kosovo vilayet and Debar passed to Monastir vilayet, while Durrës township became a sanjak. In 1878 Bar and Podgorica townships belonged to Montenegro. In 1900, Shkodër vilayet was split into Shkodër and Durrës sanjaks.

Construction of the Shkodër Cathedral in 1867

After Ottoman domination was secure, large number of the population fled. Around the 17th century, the city began to prosper and it became the center of the Sanjak of Scutari (sanjak was an Ottoman administrative unit smaller than a vilayet). It became the economic center of northern Albania, its craftsmen producing fabric, silk, arms, and silver artifacts. Construction included two-story stone houses, the bazaar, and the Central or Middle Bridge (Ura e Mesit) over the Kir river, built during the second half of the 18th century, over 100 meters long, with 13 arcs of stone, the largest one being 22 meters wide and 12 meters tall.

Era of Nationalism[edit]

Shkodër played an important role during the League of Prizren, the Albanian liberation movement. The people of Shkodër participated in battles to protect Albanian land. The branch of the League of Prizren for Shkodër, which had its own armed unit, fought for the protection of Plava and Gusinje, Hoti, and Gruda, and the war for the protection of Ulcinj. The Bushati Library, built during the 1840s, served as a center for the League of Prizren's branch for Shkodër. Many books were collected in libraries of Catholic missionaries working in Shkodër. Literary, cultural, and sports associations were formed, such as Bashkimi ("The Union") and Agimi ("The Dawn"). The first Albanian newspapers and publications printed in Albania came out of the printing press of Shkodër. The Marubi family of photographers began working in Shkodër, which left behind over 150,000 negatives from the period of the Albanian liberation movement, the rise of the Albanian flag in Vlorë, and life in Albanian towns during the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.

20th century[edit]

During the Balkan Wars, Shkodër went from one occupation to another, when the Ottomans were defeated by the Kingdom of Montenegro. The Ottoman forces led by Hasan Riza Pasha and Esad Pasha had resisted for seven months the surrounding of the town by Montenegrin forces and their Serbian allies. Esad (Hasan had previously been mysteriously killed in an ambush inside the town) finally surrendered to Montenegro in April 1913, after Montenegro suffered a high death toll with more than 10,000 casualties. Miss Edith Durham also notes the cruelties suffered at the hand of Montenegrins in the wake of October 1913: "Thousands of refugees arriving from Djakovo and neighbourhood. Victims of Montenegro. My position was indescribably painful, for I had no funds left, and women came to me crying: 'If you will not feed my child, throw it in the river. I cannot see it starve.'"[23] Montenegro was compelled to leave the city to the new country of Albania in May 1913, in accordance with the London Conference of Ambassadors.

Newly constructed swing bridge over Buna River

During World War I, Montenegrin forces again occupied Shkodër on June 27, 1915. In January 1916, Shkodër was taken over by Austria-Hungary and was the center of the zone of their occupation. After World War I, the international military administration of Albania was temporarily located in Shkodër, and in March 1920, Shkodër was put under the administration of the national government of Tirana. In the second half of 1920, Shkodër resisted another threat, the military intervention of the forces of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

The pedestrian street known as Sheshi or Pjaca on Kol Idromeno Street

Shkodër was the center of democratic movements of the years 1921–1924. The democratic opposition won the majority of votes for the Constitutional Assembly, and on May 31, 1924, the democratic forces took over the town and from Shkodër headed to Tirana. From 1924 to 1939, Shkodër had a slow industrial development, small factories that produced food, textile, and cement were opened. From 43 of such in 1924, the number rose to 70 in 1938. In 1924, Shkodër had 20,000 inhabitants, the number grew to 29,000 in 1938.

Shkodër was the seat of a Catholic archbishopric and had a number of religious schools. The first laic school was opened here in 1913, and the State Gymnasium was opened in 1922. It was the center of many cultural associations. In sports Shkodër was the first city in Albania to constitute a sports association, the "Vllaznia" (brotherhood). Vllaznia is the oldest sport club in Albania.

During the early 1990s, Shkodër was once again a major center, this time of the democratic movement that finally brought to an end the communist regime established by Enver Hoxha. In the later 2000s (decade), the city experiences a rebirth as main streets are being paved, buildings painted and streets renamed. In December 2010, Shkodër and the surrounding region was hit by probably the worst flooding in the last 100 years.[24] In 2011, a new swing bridge over the Buna River was constructed, thus replacing the old bridge nearby.

Climate[edit]

Shkodër has a Mediterranean climate (Csa) that is almost wet enough in July to be a humid subtropical climate (Cfa); the average yearly temperature in the city varies from 14.5 °C (58.1 °F) to 16.8 °C (62.2 °F). The temperature in January ranges from 1.7 °C (35.1 °F) to 9 °C (48.2 °F); in July, from 20 °C (68.0 °F) to 32 °C (89.6 °F). The average yearly rainfall is about 2,000 millimetres (78.7 in), which makes the area one of the wettest in Europe.

Climate data for Shkodër
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9
(48)
10
(50)
14
(57)
18
(64)
23
(73)
27
(81)
31
(88)
31
(88)
27
(81)
21
(70)
15
(59)
11
(52)
19.8
(67.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
5.5
(41.9)
10
(50)
14
(57)
18
(64)
22
(72)
25
(77)
25
(77)
22
(72)
16
(61)
12
(54)
7.5
(45.5)
15.21
(59.44)
Average low °C (°F) 2
(36)
1
(34)
5
(41)
9
(48)
13
(55)
17
(63)
19
(66)
19
(66)
16
(61)
11
(52)
8
(46)
4
(39)
10.3
(50.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 245
(9.65)
208
(8.19)
216
(8.5)
209
(8.23)
130
(5.12)
63
(2.48)
34
(1.34)
53
(2.09)
115
(4.53)
199
(7.83)
278
(10.94)
307
(12.09)
2,057
(80.99)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12 12 14 12 11 7 5 5 6 10 18 16 128
 % humidity 64 60 56 54 54 47 41 38 46 54 71 69 54.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.9 124.3 170.5 204.0 248.0 300.0 353.4 334.8 264.0 204.6 96.0 89.9 2,510.4
Source: Climate And Temperature[25]


Culture[edit]

Interior of the Shkodër Mosque

Shkodër is an important educational and industrial center. The city produces various mechanical and electrical components, along with textile and food products. Luigj Gurakuqi University of Shkodër is one of the more prestigious learning centers of Albania. The public library of the city contains more than 250,000 books. Several other cultural institutions exist, such as the Cultural Center, the Marubi Photo Archives, the Artists and Writers Association, the Migjeni Theatre (named after Millosh Gjergj Nikolla), the Gallery of Arts, and the Museum of History. Shkodër is the center of Albanian Catholicism and the most prominent city of Roman Catholics in Albania. Historic cultural architecture includes the Castle of Shkodër, the Turkish Bath, and the Lead Mosque. The Castle of Shkodër became famous during the First Balkan War when it was protected by the Turkish general Hasan Riza Pasha and Esad Pasha. Many festivals take place on an annual basis such as Carnival, Children Festival, Lake Day, and Shkodra Jazz Fest.

Shkodër is also famous for its Islamic scholarship. The site of the only institution in Albania which provides high-level education in Arabic and Islamic Studies.

.

Music[edit]

City tunes differ from the rural music of the land, but both enjoy popularity in Shkodra. Northern music is a refined combination of romantic and sophisticated undertones with oriental-sounding scales and a constant interplay of major and minor. It bears a significant affinity with the sevdalinke of Bosnia and the neighboring region of Raska Oblast in Serbia, but differs from them in their extreme forms while maintaining a typically Albanian quality through the exceptional fluidity of rhythm and tempo. Early descriptions of such music groups, which date from the end of the 19th century, suggest use of the violin, clarinet, saze, defi, and sometimes Indian-style harmonium and percussion (provided by rattling a stick between two bottles). Today, the accordion and guitar have replaced the more exotic instruments. Among the most important players are Bik Ndoja, Luçije Miloti, Xhevdet Hafizi and Bujar Qamili.

Sights[edit]

The Mes Bridge, built in the 18th century

The city and the surrounding area are blessed with a large variety of natural and cultural elements. The most attractive quarters of the city are commonly thought to be Pjaca, identifiable as the main city centre between statues of Mother Teresa and Luigj Gurakuqi, and Gjuhadol, the neighborhood around one of the most scenic streets connecting the Cathedral on the east side of town with the middle of the city. The most recognizable memorial is the legendary castle of Rozafa known also as Rozafati.

Rozafa Castle at the top of a hill overlooking the Buna

Built during the Serbian reign, the castle has sprouted a legend explaining the keeping of a promise. Gojkovica, the bride of the youngest of three royal Mrnjavcevic brothers, was walled up alive in the mortar of the walls of the castle to fulfill the request of a Nymph that was destroying them each night. The calcareous water passing through the stones at the main entrance is connected in the folk fantasy with the milk of the bosom of Gojkovica, which she requested be left available to nurse her newborn baby boy. She also requested that one foot be used to rock his cradle and one arm to lull him to sleep. Inside the ancient walls is a museum dedicated to the history and legends of the castle. This song is sang in Serbian epic poetry accompanied by the Gusle.

Lake of Shkodër is the biggest lake of the Balkans peninsula. It is a major summer attraction for tourists and inhabitants.

Another interesting historical site is the ruins of Shurdhah (Sarda), a medieval town situated only 15 kilometres (9 miles) from Shkodër. To go out there you must take a motor-boat from the dam of Vau i Dejës out to the island where Shurdhah is located (about 10 miles, or 16 km). Shurdhah was built atop a hill on the island, roughly 5 ha in area, surrounded by the waters of the Drini river (which has been rerouted now to form an artificial lake). At one time it was the summer retreat of the famous Dukagjini Family.

About 5 km (3 mi) east of Shkodër lies the medieval citadel of Drisht.

Many visitors feel that Shkodër is the soul of Albania. The very characteristic appearance of the city is formed by the juxtaposition of ancient houses and narrow streets joined with stone walls and modern buildings. After World War II, some of Shkodër was rebuilt with wider streets to accommodate automotive traffic, and new residential buildings are being constructed all the time.

Shkodër is also the home of Loro-Boriçi Stadium, the second biggest stadium in Albania.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Shkodër is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

Below are some of the most notable personalities born or long time residents in Shkodër:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Annotations[edit]

Notes:

a.   ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 107 out of 193 United Nations member states.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Population and Housing Census in Albania". Institute of Statistics of Albania. 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c Matzinger, Joachim (2009). "Die Albaner als Nachkommen der Illyrer aus der Sicht der historischen Sprachwissenschaft". In Schmitt, Oliver Jens; Frantz, Eva Anne. Albanische Geschichte: Stand und Perspektiven der Forschung. Munich: Oldenbourg. pp. 22–24. 
  3. ^ Krahe, Hans (1925). Die alten balkanillyrischen geographischen Namen auf Grund von Autoren und Inschriften. Heidelberg. p. 36. 
  4. ^ e.g. Ptolemy, Geographia II.16.; Polybius, Histories, XXVII.8.
  5. ^ Wilkes, John (1992). The Illyrians. pp. 177–179. ISBN 0-631-19807-5. 
  6. ^ Cabej, Eqrem (1974). "Die Frage nach dem Entstehungsgebiet der albanischen Sprache". Zeitschrifl für Balkanologie 1012: 7–32. ; cited after Matzinger 2009.
  7. ^ Demiraj, Shaban (1999). Prejardhja e shqiptarëve nën dritën e dëshmive të gjuhës shqipe. Tirana. pp. 143–144. ; cited after Matzinger 2009.
  8. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition (1911), "Scutari" article.
  9. ^ Polybius
  10. ^ Titus Livius
  11. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica 2002 page 680
  12. ^ The Illyrians by John Wilkes,ISBN 0-631-19807-5,1992,page 172,"...Gentius among the Labeates around Scodra/"
  13. ^ The Illyrians by John Wilkes,page 213,"The list of Roman settlements includes some of the... Scodra..."
  14. ^ a b Fine 1991, p. 193
  15. ^ Koti 2006, para. 1, 2
  16. ^ Fine 1991, p. 206
  17. ^ Miladin Stevanović; Vuk Branković (srpski velmoža.) (2004). Vuk Branković. Knjiga-komerc. p. 38. Retrieved 20 April 2013. "После битке код Велбужда млади краљ Душан, чији је углед знатно порастао, добио је од оца на управљање Зету са седиштем у Скадру." 
  18. ^ Jović, Momir (1994). Srbija i Rimokatolička crkva u srednjem veku. Bagdala. p. 102. Retrieved 21 December 2013. "Краљ је у јануару 1331. г. разорио Душанов двор на реци Дримац, код Скадра. Половином априла долази до примирја" 
  19. ^ Nikolić, Dejan (1996). Svi vladari Srbije. Narodna biblioteka "Resavska škola". p. 102. Retrieved 21 December 2013. "Стефан Душан је августа 1331. крен- уо са својом војском из Скадра и дошао до Стефановог дворца у Неродимљу, где је изненадио оца. Краљ Стефан је једва успео да побегне из свог дворца у град Петрич у коме га је Душанова војска опколила" 
  20. ^ Anamali, Skënder and Prifti, Kristaq. Historia e popullit shqiptar në katër vëllime. Botimet Toena, 2002, ISBN 99927-1-622-3 pp. 231-232
  21. ^ Nadin, Lucia. Statuti di Scutari: della prima meta del secolo XIV con le addizioni fino al 1469 / Statutet e Shkodrës: në gjysmën e parë të shekullit XIV me shtesat deri më 1469. Tirana: Onufri, 2012.
  22. ^ Clayer, Nathalie. " Is̲h̲ḳodra." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online , 2012. Reference. 2 January 2012 <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/ishkodra-SIM_8713>
  23. ^ Twenty Years of Balkan Tangle: M.Edith Durham
  24. ^ "Nato joins Albania rescue effort after Balkan floods". BBC News. 6 December 2010. 
  25. ^ http://www.Shkodër.climatetemp.info/
  26. ^ TAFILAKU, RIZA. "Masar Bushati, memoire on the great teacher on this 100th anniversary" (in Albanian). Lajme Shkodra. Retrieved 27 July 2010. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]