Shoe-banging incident

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Khrushchev at a meeting of the UN General Assembly on 22 September, three weeks before the incident

Nikita Khrushchev's shoe-banging incident allegedly occurred at some point in autumn 1960 (on 23[1] or 29 September,[2][3] or on 12[4] or 13[5] October) during the 902nd Plenary Meeting of the UN General Assembly held at the United Nations.

Some sources claim Khruschev pounded his shoe on his delegate-desk in protest of a speech by Philippine delegate Lorenzo Sumulong. Others argue Khrushchev was responding to the British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.[1][2][3]

Though all parties are in agreement that Khrushchev was enraged by both Sumulong's and Macmillan's speeches, and loudly denounced them, there are no photographic or video records of the incident available.[5] There is at least one fake photographic depiction of the incident, where a shoe was added into an existing photograph.[6]

Description of incident with Sumulong[edit]

The often used fake image of Khrushchev waving a shoe (above), and the original photo made at the United Nations General Assembly, September 23, 1960, AP archives (below)[7][8][9][10][11]

During the meeting, head of the Filipino delegation Lorenzo Sumulong referred to "the peoples of Eastern Europe and elsewhere which have been deprived of the free exercise of their civil and political rights and which have been swallowed up, so to speak, by the Soviet Union".[12] Upon hearing this, Khrushchev quickly came to the rostrum, being recognized on a Point of Order. There he demonstratively, in a theatrical manner, brushed Sumulong aside, with an upward motion of his right arm — without physically touching him — and began a lengthy denunciation of Sumulong, branding him (among other things) as "a jerk, a stooge, and a lackey", and a "toady of American imperialism"[13] and demanded Assembly President Frederick Boland (Ireland) call Sumulong to order. Boland did caution Sumulong to "avoid wandering out into an argument which is certain to provoke further interventions", but permitted him to continue speaking and sent Khrushchev back to his seat.

Khrushchev pounded his fists on his desk in protest as Sumulong continued to speak, and, as some sources claim, at one point picked up his shoe and banged the desk with it.[14] Some other sources report a different order of events: Khrushchev first banged the shoe then went to the rostrum to protest.[15] Sumulong's speech was again interrupted. Another Point of Order was raised by the highly agitated Romanian Foreign Vice-minister Eduard Mezincescu, a member of the Eastern Bloc. Mezincescu gave his own angry denunciation of Sumulong and then turned his anger on Boland, managing to provoke, insult and ignore the Assembly President to such an extent that his microphone was eventually shut off, prompting a chorus of shouts and jeers from the Eastern Bloc delegations. The chaotic scene finally ended when Boland, crimson-faced with frustration, abruptly declared the meeting adjourned and slammed his gavel down so hard he broke it, sending the head flying.

Subsequent commentary[edit]

Next day after the incident the The New York Times published an article "Khrushchev Bangs His Shoe on Desk".[16] It featured a photo that pictured Khrushchev and Andrei Gromyko, with a shoe on Khrushchev's desk.[17]

Khrushchev's granddaughter Nina L. Khrushcheva writes that after years of embarrassed silence her family explained their recollection of the event. According to Nina, Khrushchev was wearing new and tight shoes, so he took them off while sitting. When he started pounding the table with his fist during his angry response his watch fell off. When he was picking it up his discarded shoes caught his eye and he took the opportunity to pick one up and pound the desk with it. She also mentions that multiple versions of the incident have been in circulation, with various dates and occasions.[18]

Nina's account is very similar to that of Khrushchev's long-time interpreter, Viktor Sukhodrev, who sat with Khrushchev during the event and reported his boss pounded on his delegate-desk so hard his watch stopped, which only infuriated him further and prompted the switch to the shoe.[5]

Nikita Khrushchev in his memoirs mentioned yet another case of shoe-banging. Khrushchev wrote that he was speaking against the Franco regime in strong expressions. A representative of Spain took the floor to reply, and after his speech the delegates from Socialist countries made a lot of noise in protest. Khrushchev wrote: "Remembering reports I have read about the sessions of the State Duma in Russia, I decided to add a little more heat. I took off my shoe and pounded it on desk so that our protest would be louder."[19] The footnote to this text says that Khrushchev's recollections are mistaken.

Sergei Khrushchev (Nikita's son) stated that he could not find any photo or video evidence of the incident. Both NBC and CBC ran a search in their archives but were unable to find a tape of the event.[5] In Sergei's opinion it would be very unlikely that Nikita Khrushchev intentionally removed his shoe. There was little space under the desk, and the Soviet leader, being rather obese, couldn't reach his feet.[20]

This specific issue was addressed in 2002 by a former UN staffer, who confirmed that Khrushchev could not have spontaneously removed his shoe at his desk, but claimed he had previously lost it after a journalist stepped on it. The UN staffer then retrieved the shoe, wrapped it in a napkin and passed it back to Khrushchev, who was unable to put it back on and had to leave it on the floor next to his desk; the same staffer also confirmed she saw him later bang the shoe on the desk, thus functionally confirming the reports by Nina Khrushcheva and Viktor Sukhodrev.[5][20]

According to the German journalist Walter Heinkels, a shoe producer in Pirmasens claimed to have seen a picture of the shoe in a newspaper. He recognized the shoe as being from his production. The Federal Ministry of Economics explained that the Federal Republic had sent 30,000 pairs of shoes to the Soviet Union. Among them were 2000 pairs of good low shoes, one of them might have found its way to Khrushchev.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b William J. Tompson (1997). Khrushchev: A Political Life. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0312163600. 
  2. ^ a b David Phillips (2007). On This Day: Volume One. iUniverse. p. 172. ISBN 978-0595462889. 
  3. ^ a b E. Bruce Geelhoed; Anthony O. Edmonds (2003). Eisenhower, Macmillan and Allied Unity 1957-61. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0333642276. 
  4. ^ Michele Ingrassia (December 6, 1988). "Krushchev brought chaos to UN in 1960". The Milwaukee Journal. Newsday. p. 87. 
  5. ^ a b c d e William Taubman (2003-07-26). "Did he bang it?: Nikita Khrushchev and the shoe". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-09-28. 
  6. ^ Fred Bals (July 15, 2009). "K Blows Top!". Dreamtime. 
  7. ^ Frances Romero (September 23, 2008). "Khrushchev Loses His Cool". Time.  Using the fake photo.
  8. ^ "Khrushchev Addressing United Nations General Assembly". Associated Press.  The original photo from the AP.
  9. ^ Faisal J. Abbas (December 16, 2008). "Shoe Fetishism...The Arab Way!". The Huffington Post.  Using the fake image.
  10. ^ "Хрущев кричал в ООН про кузькину мать, чтобы поглумиться над переводчиками" [Khrushchev was shouting at the UN about the gruel to mock translators] (in Russian). КОМСОМОЛЬСКАЯ ПРАВДА (Komsomolskaya Pravda). March 29, 2004. 
  11. ^ Yulia Latynina (October 3, 2008). "Трагические последствия победы" [The Tragic Consequences of Victory] (in Russian). The Daily Journal.  Russian oppositional site using the original picture.
  12. ^ Official Records, 15th Session of the UN General Assembly
  13. ^ Other translations exist, see Nina Khrushcheva's article
  14. ^ Amy Janello; Brennon Jones, eds. (1995). A Global Affair: An Inside Look at the United Nations. p. 230. ISBN 1-86064-139-3. 
  15. ^ William Taubman; Sergei Khrushchev; Abbott Gleason; David Gehrenbeck (May 2000). Nikita Khrushchev. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07635-5. 
  16. ^ Benjamin Welles (1960-10-14). "Khrushchev Bangs His Shoe on Desk". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2012-06-08. 
  17. ^ Carl T. Gossett Jr. "Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev with his shoe before him, at the United Nations, 1960". New York Times Store. Archived from the original on 2012-06-08. 
  18. ^ Nina Khrushcheva (2 October 2000). "The case of Khrushchev's shoe". New Statesman. Archived from the original on November 23, 2006. 
  19. ^ Sergei Khrushchev (2007). Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev. Vol. III: Statesman. Penn State Press. p. 269. ISBN 0-271-02935-8. 
  20. ^ a b "А был ли ботинок?" [Was there a shoe?] (in Russian). Izvestia. 2002-08-09. Retrieved 2010-09-28. 
  21. ^ Walter Heinkels, Adenauers gesammelte Bosheiten. Eine anekdotische Nachlese, Exon, Düsseldorf / Vienna, 1983, pp. 55/56.