Shooting thaler

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At left, the obverse of shooting thaler, showing a kneeling rifleman aiming to right, surrounded by the inscription EIDGENÖSSISCHES SCHÜTZENFEST IN LUZERN, with 1939 below. At right, the reverse, showing the words EINER FÜR ALLE, ALLE FÜR EINEN above the Lucerne coat of arms in the middle, with EINLÖSBAR BIS 31. AUGUST 1939 around the outer edge, and 5 FR at the bottom.
1939 Lucerne shooting thaler

A shooting thaler (/ˈʃtɪŋ tɑːlərz/ TAH-lərz; German: Schützentaler, French: Écu de tir) is a commemorative coin minted to commemorate one of the Schützenfest (French: Fête de tir) or free shooting (German: Freischiessen, French: Tir libre) tournaments held in various cantons within the Swiss Confederation. Most of the designs differ from their circulating counterparts, though the pieces issued for the shooting festivals in Geneva in 1851 and Solothurn in 1855 are exceptions. Most shooting thaler designs depict strongly cantonal or patriotic themes, such as historical military leaders or heraldry. The entire series can be distinguished from shooting medals by their adherence to the specifications of circulating coinage. All but the Stans and St. Gallen issues are denominated. Other countries have minted coins in honor of shooting festivals or marksmanship competitions, but only Swiss pieces are considered shooting thalers.

The first shooting thaler was issued for the Chur shooting festival in 1842 and is denominated at four francs. The second, issued for Glarus, has a face value of forty batzen. The third, minted for the shooting festival in Geneva, is denominated at ten francs. A total of eighteen designs were struck in the nineteenth century, concluding with the Bern issue of 1885. All those struck from 1855 to 1885 bear the denomination of five francs. Many nineteenth-century issues were also struck in various other metals besides silver, including gold and white metal, in small quantities. In 1934, a new series began production. This series, however, was cut short due to the outbreak of World War II. Another series of shooting thalers began mintage in 1984. The first coins issued in this new series were those minted for the festival at Oberhasli. Every year since has seen the mintage of two coins, each bearing the same design, one struck in silver, the other in gold. The only exceptions are the issues of Zürich and Sion in 1999, one of which was struck in copper–nickel, two in silver and two in gold. Until 1995, silver issues were denominated at fifty francs, while gold pieces were denominated at 1,000 francs. Later, gold issues were denominated at 500 francs, excepting only the Zürich issues of 1999.

History[edit]

At left, the obverse of the silver-colored thaler, featuring a standing soldier looking left, a rifle in his right hand, surrounded by the inscription TIR FEDERAL FRIBOURG 1934. At right, the reverse, showing an oval form of the Fribourg coat of arms encircled by laurel branches, with a crown above. Along the outer edge is the inscription BON DE 5Fr REMBOURSABLE AVANT LE 31 AOUT 1934, with 5 FR at the bottom.
1934 Fribourg shooting thaler. Reverse legend reads: BON DE 5Fr REMBOURSABLE AVANT LE 31 AOUT 1934 (English: Good for five francs reimbursable before August 31, 1934)

The first shooting thalers were cantonal pieces, minted by the sovereign cantons of Switzerland. All of these pieces, as well as the 1855 Solothurn issue, were strictly legal tender.[1] Nineteenth-century Confederation shooting thaler issues were minted to legal fineness, and were thus allowed to bear the denomination of five francs.[1] Beginning in 1865, Switzerland became a member of the Latin Monetary Union.[2] Shooting thalers were not included in the mintages authorized by the Union. Therefore, these issues are commonly considered semi-medallic, though they could circulate due to their size and weight being the same as that of the regular five franc issues.[1] This series of shooting thalers, following the standards of the Latin Monetary Union, began in 1855 with the Solothurn issue and ended in 1885 with the Bern issue.[1] In 1927, the Monetary Union ceased to exist.[2] Mintage began on a new series of shooting thalers in 1934 in honor of the shooting festival in Fribourg. Another design was issued in 1939 for the Lucerne festival. The 1934 issue was the last official shooting thaler that matched the circulating counterpart in both diameter and weight. The 1939 issues were not the same size and weight as their circulating counterparts. Both issues were redeemable only at the shooting festival or participating businesses.[1] This series was cut short, however, due to the outbreak of World War II.[3] In 1984, a new series of shooting thalers began mintage, due largely to the efforts of California-based coin dealer Richard Nelson.[3] These issues, like those minted in 1939, are not minted to legal fineness and are not considered legal tender.[1]

Mintage data and designs[edit]

19th-century Cantonal issues[edit]

Chur[edit]

Obverse of coin. A shield bearing the Swiss Cross in front of flags, branches and rifles. Above the shield is a crown with three feathers. A powder horn is suspended below. Inscription and date around outer edge.
Obverse
Reverse of coin. Three ovals, each depicting coats of arms. Above the ovals are two clasped hands emerging from clouds, surrounded by rays. Below are two intersected branches
Reverse
  • Year: 1842
  • Location: Chur
  • Denomination: 4 francs
  • Designer(s): Karl Friedrich Voigt
  • Diameter: 40 mm (1.57 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 4,256[4]
  • Notes: White metal and zinc pieces are known to have been struck. The zinc pieces were allegedly fixed in the center of a target during the shooting festival. If hit, the shooter would be given a larger award.[4]
Chur specifications
Details Translation
Obverse EIDGENÖSSISCHES FREISCHIESSEN IN CHUR – 1842 Federal Free Shoot in Chur – 1842
Reverse CANTON GRAUBÜNDEN – 4 SCHWEIZER FRANKEN Canton of Graubünden – 4 Swiss francs
Edge EINTRACHT MACHT STARK Harmony is strength

Glarus[edit]

Obverse of coin. Coat of arms of Glarus in the center, encircled by oak and laurel. Inscription and date around the outer edge.
Obverse
Reverse of coin, with Swiss cross in the center, rifles and flags arrayed behind, above which are two clasped hands, denomination below. Around the outer edge are laurel branches.
Reverse
  • Year: 1847
  • Location: Glarus
  • Denomination: 40 batzen
  • Designer(s): S. Burger, Karl Friedrich Voigt
  • Diameter: 40 mm (1.57 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 3,200[5]
  • Notes: 1,023 pieces melted. White metal and zinc pieces are known to have been struck. The zinc pieces were allegedly fixed in the center of a target during the shooting festival. If hit, the shooter would be given a larger award.[5]
Glarus specifications
Details Translation
Obverse EIDGENÖSSISCHES FREYSCHIESSEN IN GLARUS – 1847 Federal Free Shoot in Glarus – 1847
Reverse 40 Btz. 40 batzen
Edge EINTRACHT MACHT STARK Harmony is strength

Geneva[edit]

Obverse of coin. "IHS" surrounded by rays, above the coat of arms of Geneva.
Obverse
Reverse of coin. A wreath of oak and laurel surrounding the date and denomination. Inscription around the outer edge.
Reverse
  • Year: 1851
  • Location: Geneva
  • Denomination: 10 francs
  • Designer(s): Antoine Bovy
  • Diameter: 48 mm (1.89 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 1,000[6]
  • Notes: The design is identical to the regular 10 franc issues.[6]
Geneva specifications
Details Translation
Obverse POST – TENEBRAS – LUX Light after darkness
Reverse REPUBLIC ET CANTON DE GENEVE – 10 FRANCS 1851 Republic and Canton of Geneva – 10 francs 1851
Edge None None

19th-century Swiss Confederation issues[edit]

Solothurn[edit]

Helvetia seated, holding shield bearing the Swiss Cross, pointing left. Legend above.
Obverse
Wreath of oak and rhododendron surrounding date and denomination.
Reverse
  • Year: 1855
  • Location: Solothurn
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Antoine Bovy
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 3,000[7]
  • Notes: The design is identical to the regular 5 franc issues.[7]
Solothurn specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse HELVETIA Switzerland
Reverse 5 Fr. 1855 5 francs 1855
Edge EIDGEN. FREISCHIESEN SOLOTHURN 1855 Federal free shoot Solothurn 1855

Bern[edit]

Legend surrounding rifleman in regalia.
Obverse
Rifles crossed over the Swiss Cross. The Swiss Cross is surrounded by rays encircled by a wreath of oak and laurel. Surrounded by legend and denomination.
Reverse
  • Year: 1857
  • Location: Bern
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Ferdinand Korn
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 5,191[8]
  • Notes: Examples are known to have been struck in white metal.[8]
Bern specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse EHRE IST MEIN HOECHSTES ZIEL Honor is my highest goal
Reverse EIDGENÖSSISCHES FREISCHIESSEN IN BERN 1857 – 5 FRANKEN Federal free shoot in Bern 1857 – 5 francs
Edge None None

Zürich[edit]

Legend surrounding standing rifleman. Date below.
Obverse
Legend above two rampant lions flanking three shields, one bearing the Swiss Cross. Denomination below.
Reverse
  • Year: 1859
  • Location: Zürich
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Ferdinand Korn
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 6,000[9]
  • Notes:
Zürich specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse EIDGENÖSSISCHES FREISCHIESSEN – 1859 Federal free shoot – 1859
Reverse ZÜRICH – 5 FRANKEN Zürich – 5 francs
Edge None None

Stans[edit]

Legend surrounding Arnold Winkelried falling on the pikes of Habsburg soldiers.
Obverse
Swiss Cross surrounded by rays. Legend along edge.
Reverse
  • Year: 1861
  • Location: Stans
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Antoine Bovy, Lukas Ferdinand Schlöth
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 6,000[10]
  • Notes: Essai pieces are known to have been struck in white metal.[10]
Stans specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse ARNOLD WINKELRIED Arnold Winkelried
Reverse EIDGENÖSSISCHES SCHÜTZENFEST IN NIDWALDEN – 1861 Federal shooting festival in Nidwalden – 1861
Edge None None

La Chaux-de-Fonds[edit]

Helvetia seated, pointing left, holding Swiss shield. Legend above, denomination below.
Obverse
Crossed standards and rifles intertwined with wreath. Coat of arms of canton of Neuchâtel superimposed. Radiant Swiss cross above. Legend and date along edge.
Reverse
  • Year: 1863
  • Location: La Chaux-de-Fonds
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Antoine Bovy, Jacob Siber
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 6,000[11]
  • Notes: Examples are known to have been struck in white metal.[11]
La Chaux-de-Fonds specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse HELVETIA – 5 FRANCS Switzerland – 5 francs
Reverse TIR FEDERAL A LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS – JÚILLET 1863 Federal shoot in La Chaux-de-Fonds – July 1863
Edge None None

Schaffhausen[edit]

Helvetia seated, holding wreath. Boy holding an apple shot through by arrow, to right of Helvetia.
Obverse
Coat of arms of canton of Schaffhausen superimposed over Swiss cross. Legend and date along edge. Denomination at bottom.
Reverse
  • Year: 1865
  • Location: Schaffhausen
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Antoine Bovy
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 10,000[12]
  • Notes: Two examples are known to have been struck in gold.[12]
Schaffhausen specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse None None
Reverse EIDGENÖSSISCHES SCHÜTZENFEST IN SCHAFFHAUSEN 1865 – 5 Fr. Federal shooting festival in Schaffhausen 1865 – 5 francs
Edge None None

Schwyz[edit]

Rampant lion, holding sword, supporting shield. Lion's right back paw standing on a quiver of arrows. Legend on either side of lion.
Obverse
Weapons and standards crossed behind Swiss shield, wreath below. Legend and date along edge. Denomination at bottom.
Reverse
  • Year: 1867
  • Location: Schwyz
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Antoine Bovy
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 8,000[13]
  • Notes:
Schwyz specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse KANTON SCHWYZ Canton of Schwyz
Reverse EIDGENÖSSISCHES SCHÜTZENFEST IN SCHWYZ 1867 – 5 Fr. Federal shooting festival in Schwyz 1867 – 5 francs
Edge None None

Zug[edit]

Hans Landwing, in full military dress, holding standard aloft in left hand, battle axe in right. Legend and date along edge. "1422" in exurge.
Obverse
Feathered cap over two shields, superimposed over crossed rifles and wreath of oak and laurel. Legend along edge, denomination at bottom.
Reverse
  • Year: 1869
  • Location: Zug
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Antoine Bovy
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 6,000[14]
  • Notes: Four examples are known to have been struck in gold.[14]
Zug specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse HANS LANDWING RETTET DAS PANNER BEI ARBEDO – 1422 Hans Landwing saves the banner at Arbedo – 1422
Reverse EIDGENÖSSISCHES SCHÜTZENFEST 1869 IN ZUG – 5 Fr. Federal shooting festival 1869 in Zug – 5 francs
Edge None None

Zürich[edit]

Helvetia standing, holding wreath aloft in left hand, supporting coat of arms of Zürich in right. Gears and crops at feet. Legend along edge.
Obverse
Swiss shield superimposed over fasces, crossed rifles and banner reading "ALLE FÜR EINEN – EINER FÜR ALLE", translated as "all for one, one for all". Surrounded by wreath of oak and laurel. Legend and date along edge. Denomination below.
Reverse
  • Year: 1872
  • Location: Zürich
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Fritz Landry
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 10,000[15]
  • Notes: The obverse design was used on a shooting medal issued for the same festival.[15]
Zürich specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse FÜR FREIHEIT UND VATERLAND For freedom and the fatherland
Reverse EIDGENÖSSISCHES SCHÜTZENFEST IN ZÜRICH 1872 – 5 Fr. Federal shooting festival in Zürich 1872 – 5 francs
Edge None None

St. Gallen[edit]

Bearded general, kneeling, holding standard in left hand, holding sword aloft and pointing toward the sun. "1474 A 1476" in exurge.
Obverse
Coat of arms of St. Gallen superimposed over crossed rifles and wreath of oak and laurel. Swiss cross above, city view behind. Legend along top edge. Date below, in exurge.
Reverse
  • Year: 1874
  • Location: St. Gallen
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Fritz Landry
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 15,000[16]
  • Notes:
St. Gallen specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse 1474 A 1476 1474 to 1476
Reverse EIDGENÖSS. SCHÜTZENFEST IN ST. GALLEN – 1874 Federal shooting festival in St. Gallen – 1874
Edge None None

Lausanne[edit]

Two allegorical females shake hands, one holding goblet. Behind the females are standards, fasces, shields, grape vines and scenery. At their feet are the dates of 1839 and 1876. Legend along edge above, denomination in exurge below.
Obverse
City view of Lausanne. Legend and date above.
Reverse
  • Year: 1876
  • Location: Lausanne
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Edouard Durussel
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 20,000[17]
  • Notes: The reverse design was used on a shooting medal issued for the same festival.[17]
Lausanne specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse POUR ETRE FORTS SOYONS UNIS – 5 F Let us be strong and united – 5 francs
Reverse TIR FÉDÉRAL DE 1876 LAUSANNE Federal shoot of 1876 Lausanne
Edge None None

Basel[edit]

Front–facing male in regalia, holding long sword. Legend along edge.
Obverse
Cockatrice in center surrounded by legend and date. Denomination below. Shields of the Swiss cantons along edge.
Reverse
  • Year: 1879
  • Location: Basel
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Edouard Durussel
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 30,000[18]
  • Notes: Two varieties exist. One variety depicts rays between the sword and leg, while the other does not. Examples are known to have been struck in white metal.[18]
Basel specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse DAS SCHWERT ZUR HAND IM HERZEN GOTT SO WIRD D. SCHWEIZER NIE Z. SPOTT With sword in his hand and God in his heart, so will the Swiss never be disgraced
Reverse EIDG. SCHÜTZENFEST IN BASEL 1879 – 5 Fr. Federal shooting festival in Basel 1879 – 5 francs
Edge None None

Fribourg[edit]

Two seated soldiers, one wielding crossbow and one battle axe, supporting shields below standing Helvetia holding Swiss flag. Legend along edge, "1481" in exurge.
Obverse
Swiss cross above city view of Fribourg. Legend and date along edge, denomination at bottom.
Reverse
  • Year: 1881
  • Location: Fribourg
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Edouard Durussel
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 30,000[19]
  • Notes:
Fribourg specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse ENTRÉE DE FRIBOURG & SOLEURE DANS LA CONFÉDÉRATION SUISSE – 1481 Entry of Fribourg and Solothurn into the Swiss Confederation – 1481
Reverse TIR FÉDÉRAL À FRIBOURG 1881 – 5 Fr Federal shoot in Fribourg 1881 – 5 francs
Edge None None

Lugano[edit]

Seated Helvetia and nude man. Helvetia is holding a sword and shield bearing the Swiss cross; nude man is holding a lyre. The figures are seated above a stone tunnel with train emerging. Legend along edge at top, denomination at bottom.
Obverse
Coat of arms of Lugano superimposed over rifles, standard and laurel branches. Shooting cap above. View of lake to right. Legend and year within banner above.
Reverse
  • Year: 1883
  • Location: Lugano
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Edouard Durussel
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 30,000[20]
  • Notes:
Lugano specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse LIBERTADE INERME É DE' TIRANNI AGEVOL PREDA – 5 Fr. Defenseless liberty is easy prey for tyrants – 5 francs
Reverse TIRO FEDERALE IN LUGANO 1883 Federal shoot in Lugano 1883
Edge None None

Bern[edit]

Standing Helvetia holding sword and shield, bear behind. Legend along edge.
Obverse
Coat of arms of Bern superimposed over crossed rifles and wreaths. Swiss cross above. Legend and date along edge, denomination below.
Reverse
  • Year: 1885
  • Location: Bern
  • Denomination: 5 francs
  • Designer(s): Edouard Durussel, Christian Bühler
  • Diameter: 37 mm (1.46 in)
  • Coinage metal: Silver
  • Mintage: 25,000[21]
  • Notes: Examples are known to have been struck in white metal.[21]
Bern specifications
Inscription Translation
Obverse DEM BUND ZUM SCHUTZ DEM FEIND ZUM TRUTZ The Federation to protect, the enemy to defy
Reverse EIDGENÖSSISCHES SCHÜTZENFEST IN BERN 1885 – 5 Fr. Federal shooting festival in Bern 1885 – 5 francs
Edge None None

20th- and 21st-century Swiss Confederation issues[edit]

Later thalers with event location and year, showing denomination, metal, number struck and Standard Catalog of World Coins reference number
Location Date Denomination Coinage metal Mintage[22] KM number
Fribourg 1934 000055 francs Silver 40,650 S18
Fribourg 1934 00100100 francs Gold 2,000 S19
Lucerne 1939 000055 francs Silver 40,000 S20
Lucerne 1939 00100100 francs Gold 6,000 S21
Oberhasli 1984 0005050 francs Silver 6,300 S22
Oberhasli 1984 010001,000 francs Gold 300 S23
Altdorf 1985 0005050 francs Silver 3,500 S24
Altdorf 1985 010001,000 francs Gold 300 S25
Appenzell 1986 0005050 francs Silver 3,700 S26
Appenzell 1986 010001,000 francs Gold 300 S27
Glarus 1987 0005050 francs Silver 3,200 S28
Glarus 1987 010001,000 francs Gold 300 S29
Brugg 1988 0005050 francs Silver 3,000 S30
Brugg 1988 010001,000 francs Gold 400 S31
Menzingen 1989 0005050 francs Silver 2,200 S32
Menzingen 1989 010001,000 francs Gold 250 S33
Winterthur 1990 0005050 francs Silver 5,000 S34
Winterthur 1990 010001,000 francs Gold 250 S35
Langenthal 1991 0005050 francs Silver 4,000 S38
Langenthal 1991 010001,000 francs Gold 400 S39
Dielsdorf 1992 0005050 francs Silver 1,750 S40
Dielsdorf 1992 010001,000 francs Gold 175 S41
Weinfelden 1993 0005050 francs Silver 2,200 S42
Weinfelden 1993 010001,000 francs Gold 200 S43
Rorschach 1994 0005050 francs Silver 2,200 S44
Rorscach 1994 010001,000 francs Gold 200 S45
Thun 1995 0005050 francs Silver 5,000 S46
Thun 1995 00500500 francs Gold 500 S47
Sempach 1996 0005050 francs Silver 1,500 S48
Sempach 1996 00500500 francs Gold 96 S49
Neuhausen am Rheinfall 1997 0005050 francs Silver 1,500 S50
Neuhausen am Rheinfall 1997 00500500 francs Gold 97 S51
Schwyz 1998 0005050 francs Silver 1,500 S52
Schwyz 1998 00500500 francs Gold 98 S53
Zürich 1999 000055 francs Copper–Nickel 2,000 S54
Zürich 1999 0002020 francs Silver 10,000 S55
Sion 1999 0005050 francs Silver 1,500 S57
Zürich 1999 00200200 francs Gold 100 S56
Sion 1999 00500500 francs Gold 99 S58
Bière 2000 0005050 francs Silver 3,500 S59
Bière 2000 00500500 francs Gold 300 S60
Altdorf, Uri 2001 0005050 francs Silver 1,500 S61
Altdorf, Uri 2001 00500500 francs Gold 150 S62
Zürich 2002 0005050 francs Silver 1,500 S63
Zürich 2002 00500500 francs Gold 150 S64
Liestal 2003 0005050 francs Silver 1,500 S65
Liestal 2003 00500500 francs Gold 150 S66
Fribourg 2004 0005050 francs Silver 1,500 S67
Fribourg 2004 00500500 francs Gold 150 S68
Brusio 2005 0005050 francs Silver 1,500 S69
Brusio 2005 00500500 francs Gold 150 S70
Solothurn 2006 0005050 francs Silver 2,000 S71
Solothurn 2006 00500500 francs Gold 200 S72
Lucerne 2007 0005050 francs Silver 2,000 S73
Lucerne 2007 00500500 francs Gold 200 S74
Geneva 2008 0005050 francs Silver 1,500 S75
Geneva 2008 00500500 francs Gold 150 S76
Obwalden 2009 0005050 francs Silver 1,500 S77
Obwalden 2009 00500500 francs Gold 175 S78
Aarau 2010 0005050 francs Silver 2,000 S79
Aarau 2010 00500500 francs Gold 200 S80

Etymology[edit]

Though no coins denominated as thalers were officially issued within the Swiss Confederation, many coins measuring between 30 and 40 millimeters have been given the name unofficially due to the similarity in size to German and Austrian thalers.[23]

Shooting medals[edit]

The first shooting medals were struck in honor of the Officers' Shoot held in Langenthal, Bern, in 1822.[24] They can usually be distinguished from shooting thalers by their lack of denomination and difference in weight and often composition, though there is evidence that many of thaler-size did circulate amongst the legal tender coins of Switzerland.[23] Shooting medals were minted in a variety of metals, including silver, bronze, goldene and white metal.[24]

Other countries[edit]

Though not considered shooting thalers, some other European coin-issuing entities have minted coins to honor or promote shooting festivals that took place within their territory. Examples include the German States of Baden,[25] Bremen,[26] Frankfurt am Main[27] and Hanover,[28] as well as the Swiss canton of Vaud.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Bruce, p. 455
  2. ^ a b Kenen, Peter B. & Meade, Ellen E. (2008). Regional Monetary Integration Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-86250-7
  3. ^ a b Swiss Shooting Talers. pcgs.com. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
  4. ^ a b Richter, p. 161
  5. ^ a b Richter, p. 156
  6. ^ a b Richter, p. 113
  7. ^ a b Richter, p. 209
  8. ^ a b Richter, p. 60
  9. ^ Richter, p. 299
  10. ^ a b Richter, p. 193
  11. ^ a b Richter, p. 180
  12. ^ a b Richter, p. 199
  13. ^ Richter, p. 202
  14. ^ a b Richter, p. 293
  15. ^ a b Richter, p. 301
  16. ^ Richter, p. 215
  17. ^ a b c Richter, p. 274
  18. ^ a b Richter, p. 45
  19. ^ Richter, p. 93
  20. ^ Richter, p. 245
  21. ^ a b Richter, p. 62
  22. ^ Bruce, pp. 456–460
  23. ^ a b Krause, p. 10
  24. ^ a b Krause, p. 11
  25. ^ Krause & Mishler, p. 355
  26. ^ Krause & Mishler, p. 373
  27. ^ Krause & Mishler, p. 383
  28. ^ Bruce, p. 155

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bruce, Colin R. II Unusual World Coins Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications, 2007, ISBN 0-89689-576-9
  • Krause, Chester L. & Mishler, Clifford Standard Catalog of World Coins 1801–1900, Krause Publications, 1996, ISBN 0-87341-427-6
  • Krause, Delbert Ray Swiss Shooting Talers and Medals, Whitman Publishing Company, 1965
  • Martin, Jean L. Les médailles de tir Suisse 1612–1939 Lausanne, 1972
  • Richter, Jürg Die Schützentaler und Schützenmedaillen der Schweiz, 2005, ISBN 3-924861-95-1

External links[edit]