Shoreham-by-Sea

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Shoreham-by-Sea
Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex, England-2Oct2011.jpg
Shoreham Beach, from the air, with the centre of Shoreham in the background
Shoreham-by-Sea is located in West Sussex
Shoreham-by-Sea
Shoreham-by-Sea
 Shoreham-by-Sea shown within West Sussex
Area  3.80 sq mi (9.8 km2[1]
Population 19,175 2001 Census[1]
   – density  5,046 /sq mi (1,948 /km2)
OS grid reference TQ220051
   – London  57 miles (92 km) N 
District Adur
Shire county West Sussex
Region South East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town SHOREHAM-BY-SEA
Postcode district BN43
Dialling code 01273
Police Sussex
Fire West Sussex
Ambulance South East Coast
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament East Worthing and Shoreham
List of places
UK
England
West Sussex

Coordinates: 50°49′58″N 0°16′06″W / 50.8329°N 0.2682°W / 50.8329; -0.2682

Shoreham Bay, May 1828, by John Constable

Shoreham-by-Sea (often shortened to Shoreham) is a small seaside town and port in West Sussex, England.

The town has a population of 17,537 according to the 2001 census, and is historically part of Sussex.

The town is bordered to its north by the South Downs, to its west by the Adur Valley and to its south by the River Adur and Shoreham Beach on the English Channel. The town lies in the middle of the ribbon of urban development along the English south coast between the city of Brighton & Hove and the town of Worthing. Shoreham civil parish covers an area of 984.88 hectares (2,433.7 acres) and has a population of 19,175 (2001 census).

History[edit]

Old Town hall

Old Shoreham dates back to pre-Roman times.[2] St Nicolas' Church, inland by the River Adur, is partly Anglo-Saxon[3] The name of the town has an Old English origin.[4] The town and port of New Shoreham was established by the Norman conquerors towards the end of the 11th century.

St Mary de Haura Church (St Mary of the Haven) was built in the decade following 1103 (the Domesday Book was dated 1086), and around this time the town was laid out on a grid pattern that, in essence, survives in the town centre. The church is only half the size of the original - the former nave was ruinous at the time of the civil war although remnants of the original west façade survive in the churchyard to some height.

The severe storms of the 14th and 15th centuries wreaked much damage along this part of the south coast.

The rise of Brighton, Hove and Worthing - in particular the arrival of the railway in 1840 - prepared the way for Shoreham's rise as a Victorian sea port, with several shipyards and an active coasting trade. Shoreham Harbour remains in commercial operation.

Southdown Golf Club, Shoreham-by-Sea, (now defunct) was founded in 1902. The club disappeared in the 1950s.[5]

Shoreham Beach[edit]

Shoreham Beach, to the south of the town, is a shingle spit deposited over millennia by longshore drift, as an extension to Lancing parish in the west. This blocks the southerly flow of the River Adur which turns east at this point to discharge into the English Channel further along the coast at a point that has varied considerably over time. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the mouth of the river shifted eastwards which restricted trade to the port; by 1810 it was almost opposite Aldrington church. In 1816, work had been completed to fix the position of the river in its present position, flowing into the sea between two piers. Once the harbour mouth was stabilised it was defended by Shoreham Fort which was built in 1857.[6] Converted railway carriages became summer homes around the start of the 20th century, and Bungalow Town, as it was then known, became home for a short time to the early UK film industry. Shoreham Beach officially became part of Shoreham-by-Sea in 1910. Much housing in the area was cleared for defence reasons during the Second World War and most of what remained after the war is now gone, replaced by modern houses.[7] The Church of the Good Shepherd, built in 1913, still stands. Along the Adur mud flats adjacent to Shoreham Beach sits (and at high tides floats) a large collection of houseboats made from converted barges, tugs, mine sweepers,[8] Motor Torpedo Boats etc. The seaside shingle bank of Shoreham beach extends further east past the harbour mouth, forming the southern boundary of the commercial harbour in Southwick, Portslade and Hove. The Monarch's Way long-distance footpath, commemorating the flight of Charles II to France after the Battle of Worcester, follows the beach westwards from Hove past Portslade and Southwick, terminating by the harbour mouth's east breakwater. There are many shops around the area and a playground for small children.

Landscape and wildlife[edit]

Transversed by the River Adur and with the downs and the sea nearby the area supports a diverse wildlife flora and fauna. The mudflats support wading birds and gulls, including the Ringed Plover which attempts to breed on the coastal shingle. The Pied Wagtail is common in the town in the winter months. Insect fauna includes dragonflies over the flood plains of the river. The south and west facing downs attract at least 33 species of butterflies including a nationally important population of the Chalkhill Blue Butterfly on Mill Hill.[9] The underlying rock is chalk on the downs, with alluvium in the old river channels. The Adur district has a variety of habitats in a small area, including natural chalk downs and butterfly meadows, freshwater and reed beds, salt marsh and estuary, brackish water lagoons, woodland, shingle seashore, chalk platform undersea and large expanses of sand.

Transport[edit]

Shoreham Airport is west of the main town and has been in private ownership since 2006. It is the UK's oldest licensed airport and has a 1936 Grade II-listed Art Deco terminal building. The terminal has been a filming location for: one of Agatha Christie's Poirot stories, Lord Edgware Dies,[10] a Crimewatch-type reconstruction (2000, ITV Meridian), BBC Tenko series episode and The Da Vinci Code film scenes (based on Dan Brown's book).[11]

The town is also served by Shoreham-by-Sea railway station, located on the West Coastway Line.

Local bus services are provided by the Brighton & Hove bus company, Stagecoach South and a local town route is operated by Compass Travel.

Shoreham Tollbridge crosses the River Adur in the west of the town. This bridge is a Grade II* listed building and was the last Sussex toll bridge in use. The bridge was part of the A27 road until it was closed to traffic in 1968. The structure is now too weak to carry vehicles and underwent extensive restoration, then was ceremonially re-opened for pedestrians on 23 October 2008, by the Prince Andrew, Duke of York.[12]

Sport and leisure[edit]

Shoreham-by-Sea has a non-League football club Shoreham F.C. who play at Middle Road. Shoreham also has a rugby club Shoreham RFC who play at Buckingham Park.

People[edit]

Twin towns[edit]

Shoreham (along with the other urban districts of Adur) is twinned with

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "2001 Census: West Sussex – Population by Parish". West Sussex County Council. Retrieved 22 March 2009. 
  2. ^ "'Old and New Shoreham', A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 6 Part 1: Bramber Rape (Southern Part) pp. 138-149". 1980. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  3. ^ "St Nicolas, Shoreham-by-Sea - West Sussex | Diocese of Chichester". aChurchNearYou.com. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  4. ^ Shoreham: Toponymy
  5. ^ “Southdown Golf Club”, “Golf’s Missing Links”.
  6. ^ Baines, Gary. "Shoreham Fort - History". www.shorehamfort.co.uk. Friends of Shoreham Fort. Retrieved 7 November 2013. 
  7. ^ BBC - WW2 People's War: Evacuation of Shoreham Beach
  8. ^ Shoreham Houseboat Archive
  9. ^ Mill Hill 2007
  10. ^ a b "Fiona Mont GPS 02 "Come fly with me"". [dead link]
  11. ^ "Titles with locations which include Shoreham Airport, Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex, England, UK". IMDB. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
  12. ^ "Adur District Council : The Old Toll Bridge". Archived from the original on 2012-02-07. Retrieved 28 September 2013. 
  13. ^ "Bert Longstaff – Shoreham's First Professional Footballer". May 2010. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  14. ^ [1][dead link]
  15. ^ [2][dead link]
  16. ^ Mendoza, Mike. "Jobs to follow as Ricardo wins planning bid". Shoreham Herald. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  17. ^ Rance, Adrian (1989). Fast Boats and Flying Boats. Southampton, England: Ensign Publications. p. 10. ISBN 1-85455-026-8. 
  18. ^ Honeyball, Lee. "Brits abroad: Darren Tulett". The Observer. Retrieved 4 December 2013. 

External links[edit]