Short track speed skating

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Short track speed skating
Saguenay 500m.jpg
500 meters short track heat at the 2004 World Cup in Saguenay
Highest governing body International Skating Union
Characteristics
Mixed gender Yes
Equipment ice skates, helmet, gloves, suit
Presence
Olympic 1988 (demonstration)
1992 - present

Short track speed skating is a form of competitive ice speed skating. In competitions, multiple skaters (typically between four and six) skate on an oval ice track with a circumference of 111.12 m. The rink itself is 60 m by 30 m, which is the same size as an international-sized ice hockey rink.

History[edit]

Skaters at the starting line.

Short track speed skating originated in the speed skating events held with mass starts. This form of speed skating was mainly practiced in the United States and Canada, as opposed to the international form, where skaters skated in pairs. At the 1932 Winter Olympics, speed skating events were conducted in the mass start form. Competitions in North America were also held indoors, for example in Madison Square Garden, New York, and therefore on shorter tracks than usual for outdoor skating.

In 1967, the International Skating Union adopted short track speed skating, although it did not organize international competitions until 1976. World Championships have been held since 1981 (though events held in 1976-1980 under different names later received the status of World Championships). After several changes in the name of the competition (last time in 1989), the event is now held annually as the World Short Track Speed Skating Championships.

At the 1988 Winter Olympics, held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, short track was a demonstration sport. It was upgraded to a full Olympic sport in 1992 and has been part of the Winter Olympics since. The programme was expanded from four events in 1992 to eight in 2002. The events are the same for both men and women: 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m, 3000m, and the relay (5000 m (men)/3000 m (women)).

Rules[edit]

There are several actions that will result in skaters being disqualified (DQ) from a race, and having their time rendered invalid.[citation needed]

  • Impeding (DQI): Pushing, blocking,tripping or otherwise causing an impediment for another skater
  • Off track (DQO): Skating outside the designated track
  • Team skating(?): Conspiring with members from the same country, club, or other individual skaters to determine the race result. For example, forming a wall to impede passing. These infractions are rarely called as it is difficult to prove.
  • Assistance (?): Giving physical assistance to another skater. For example: pushing a teammate from behind for an extra boost, or allowing a teammate to lean on another for stability in corners
  • Shooting the line or Kicking out (DQK): Driving the foot in lead ahead to reach the finish faster, resulting in the lead foot lifting off the ice and creating a dangerous situation for others
  • Unsportsmanlike conduct (DQU): Acting in a manner not befitting an athlete or a role model. Including cursing at a competitor, kicking your feet, striking other skaters or officials, etc.
  • Equipment (DQE): Not wearing the proper safety equipment, losing equipment during the race, or exposure of skin not on face or neck.
  • False Start (DQS): Leaving before firing of the starter's pistol. On the second violation in the race, the offender on that start is disqualified.[1]
  • Did not finish (DNF): Usually due to injury, the skater did not finish the race.
  • Did not skate (DNS): The skater did not go to the starting line.

Classes[edit]

In Canada, short track competitions are held either as all-points meets, where skaters are seeded based only on their times for a standard distance (usually the 500m), or an age class, where people are seeded by age and gender. All-points meets allow racing against skaters of all ages and genders, with the exception of the Masters age class (30+). All-points meets are usually held at the local level in only certain provinces. Age class meets are utilized at the provincial and national levels. Age classes are:

  • Tiny Tot: 2–4
  • Peewee: 5–7
  • Pony: 8–10
  • Midget: 11–12
  • Juvenile: 13–14
  • Junior: 15–16
  • Intermediate: 17–18
  • Senior: 19–29
  • Master1: 30–39
  • Master2: 40–49
  • Master3: 50–59
  • Master4: 60+

Ages are determined as of July 1 or June 30 prior to competition. At International and Olympic competitions, skaters are placed by gender only.

World records[edit]

Men[edit]

Distance Athlete Nation City Date Record Time
500 meters JR Celski  United States Calgary, Canada October 21, 2012 39.937
1000 meters Kwak Yoon-Gy  South Korea Calgary, Canada October 21, 2012 1:23.007
1500 meters Noh Jin-Kyu  South Korea Shanghai, China December 10, 2011 2:09.041
3000 meters Noh Jin-Kyu  South Korea Warsaw, Poland March 19, 2011 4:31.891
5000 m relay Canada*  Canada Calgary, Canada October 19, 2012 6:30.958
* Relay members for Canada were: Charles Hamelin, Francois Hamelin, Michael Gilday and Olivier Jean

Women[edit]

Distance Athlete Nation City Date Record Time
500 meters Wang Meng  China Dresden, Germany October 2, 2013 42.597
1000 meters Shim Suk Hee  South Korea Calgary, Canada October 21, 2012 1:26.661
1500 meters Zhou Yang  China Salt Lake City, UT February 9, 2008 2:16.729
3000 meters Jung Eun-Ju  South Korea Harbin, China March 15, 2008 4:46.983
3000 m relay South Korea*  South Korea Kolomna, Russia November 17, 2013 4:06.215
* Members of the Korean National Team: Shim Suk Hee, Kim Alang, Cho Ha-Ri, Park Seung-Hi.

Notable skaters[edit]

The following is the list of athletes who are Individual gold medalist at the Olympic Winter Games or Overall World Champion and who have won Olympic Winter Games or Overall World Championships at least two times.

Men[edit]

Athlete Nation Born Olympics World Championships (Overall) Olympics + World Championships (Overall) World Championships (Distances, Relay, Team) Total
Gold medal olympic.svg Silver medal olympic.svg Bronze medal olympic.svg Total Gold medal world centered-2.svg Silver medal world centered-2.svg Bronze medal world centered-2.svg Total Gouden medaille.svg Zilveren medaille.svg Bronzen medaille.svg Total Gold medal world centered-2.svg Silver medal world centered-2.svg Bronze medal world centered-2.svg Total Gouden medaille.svg Zilveren medaille.svg Bronzen medaille.svg Total
Ahn Hyun-Soo (Viktor Ahn)  South Korea/ Russia 1985 6 0 2 8 6 1 0 7 12 1 2 15 22 13 5 40 28 13 7 48
Marc Gagnon  Canada 1975 3 0 2 5 4 2 1 7 7 2 3 12 15 9 4 28 22 11 7 40
Kim Ki-hoon  South Korea 1967 3 0 0 3 1 2 1 4 4 2 1 7 2+ 1+ 2+ 5+ 6+ 3+ 3+ 12+
Lee Ho-Suk  South Korea 1986 1 4 0 5 2 2 0 4 3 6 0 9 8 5 4 17 11 11 4 26
Apolo Anton Ohno  United States 1982 2 2 4 8 1 2 1 4 3 4 5 12 8 5 6 19 11 9 11 31
Charles Hamelin  Canada 1984 3 1 0 4 0 2 3 5 3 3 3 9 11 12 7 30 14 15 10 39
Kim Dong-Sung  South Korea 1980 1 1 0 2 2 0 1 3 3 1 1 5 10 7 3 20 13 8 4 25
Li Jiajun  China 1975 0 2 3 5 2 1 3 6 2 3 6 10 12 4 7 23 14 7 13 34
Chae Ji-Hoon  South Korea 1974 1 2 0 3 1 1 2 4 2 3 2 7 4+ 4+ 1+ 6+ 6+ 7+ 3+ 16+
Gaétan Boucher  Canada 1958 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 5 2 3 0 5 5+ 5+ ? 10+ 7+ 8+ ? 15+
Lee Jung-Su  South Korea 1989 2 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 3 3 0 1 4 5 1 1 7
Michel Daignault  Canada 1966 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 2 2 1 0 3 1+ 4+ 2+ 7+ 3+ 5+ 2+ 10+
Lee Joon-Ho  South Korea 1965 1 0 1 2 1 0 2 3 2 0 3 5 1+ 2+ 2+ 5+ 3+ 2+ 5+ 10+
Toshinobu Kawai  Japan 1967 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 2 2 0 1 3 3+ 1+ 3+ 6+ 5+ 1+ 4+ 10+
Guy Daignault  Canada 1954 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 11+ 8+ 1+ 20+ 13+ 8+ 1+ 22+

Women[edit]

Athlete Nation Born Olympics World Championships (Overall) Olympics + World Championships (Overall) World Championships (Distances, Relay, Team) Total
Gold medal olympic.svg Silver medal olympic.svg Bronze medal olympic.svg Total Gold medal world centered-2.svg Silver medal world centered-2.svg Bronze medal world centered-2.svg Total Gouden medaille.svg Zilveren medaille.svg Bronzen medaille.svg Total Gold medal world centered-2.svg Silver medal world centered-2.svg Bronze medal world centered-2.svg Total Gouden medaille.svg Zilveren medaille.svg Bronzen medaille.svg Total
Yang Yang (A)  China 1976 2 2 1 5 6 1 0 7 8 3 1 12 26 12 5 43 34 15 6 55
Wang Meng  China 1985 4 1 1 6 3 3 0 6 7 4 1 12 18 11 3 32 25 15 4 44
Chun Lee-kyung  South Korea 1976 4 0 1 5 3 2 0 5 7 2 1 10 10 11 3 24 17 13 4 34
Sylvie Daigle  Canada 1962 1 1 0 2 5 2 1 8 6 3 1 10 22+ 8+ ? 31+ 28+ 11+ 1+ 40+
Jin Sun-yu  South Korea 1988 3 0 0 3 3 0 0 3 6 0 0 6 10 3 1 14 16 3 1 20
Nathalie Lambert  Canada 1962 1 2 0 3 3 2 2 7 4 4 2 10 14+ 3+ 2+ 19+ 18+ 7+ 4+ 29+
Choi Eun-kyung  South Korea 1984 2 2 0 4 2 1 0 3 4 3 0 7 12 3 3 18 16 6 3 25
Park Seung-hi  South Korea 1992 2 0 3 5 1 2 0 3 3 2 3 8 8 4 1 13 11 6 4 21
Zhou Yang  China 1991 3 0 0 3 0 1 1 2 3 1 1 5 5 4 4 13 8 5 5 18
Shim Suk-hee  South Korea 1997 1 1 1 3 1 0 1 2 2 1 2 5 4 1 0 5 6 2 2 10
Miyoshi Kato  Japan 1962 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 5 2 1 2 5 3+ 4+ 3+ 10+ 5+ 5+ 5+ 15+
Kim So-hee  South Korea 1976 1 0 1 2 1 1 0 2 2 1 1 4 3+ 2+ 2+ 7+ 5+ 3+ 3+ 11+
Cathy Turner  United States 1962 2 1 1 4 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 4 ? 1+ ? 1+ 2+ 2+ 1+ 5+
Cho Ha-ri  South Korea 1986 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 9 2 4 15 11 2 5 18
Annie Perreault  Canada 1971 2 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 3 5+ 2+ 6+ 13+ 7+ 2+ 7+ 16+
Eiko Shishii  Japan 1965 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 3 1+ 6+ ? 7+ 3+ 6+ 1+ 10+
Li Jianrou  China 1986 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 4 2 0 6 6 2 0 8

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]