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Shou County or Shouxian (simplified Chinese: 寿县; traditional Chinese: 壽縣; pinyin: Shòu Xiàn) is a county in Anhui Province, People's Republic of China, under the jurisdiction of Lu'an City. Its population is 1,280,000 and its area is 2986 square kilometers. It is a National Cultural and Historical City.
Shou County has jurisdiction over 17 towns, 7 townships and 1 ethnic township.
Shou, formerly known as Shouchun (壽春) and Shouyang (壽陽), was the site of the fourth capital of the former State of Chu from 241 BCE, after the Chu royal court fled in advance of the sack of the previous capital Chen (陳/陈), by the growing power of the kingdom of Qin, on its way to imperial ascendency. King You of Chu was buried in Shou County, though his tomb was destroyed by warlords in the 1930s. From the time of the Qin Dynasty to the Three Kingdoms Period, the county fell under the jurisdiction of Jiujiang Commandery (九江郡). It was also the site of the crowning of Yuan Shu during the Three Kingdoms. During the Jìn Dynasty, the Battle of Fei River also occurred within the borders of Shou. Shou became renowned throughout China for its pottery during the Sui and Tang Dynasties. The county also produced many well-known officials during the Song Dynasty, including multiple Prime Ministers and ministers. During the Taiping Rebellion in the later years of the Qing Dynasty, Chen Yucheng was captured in Shou.
Shou County is crisscrossed with rivers, and as a result it is a very productive agricultural region. Main products of this area include rice, wheat and cotton. Currently Shou County is a focal point of a national project to increase production of agricultural goods. Zhengyang Pass, located on the Wai River, is a major point of transportation and goods distribution in Anhui.
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