Shoulder wing

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Shoulder wing
ARV Midwest.pdf
An ARV Super2 with a shoulder-wing.

A shoulder wing (a category between high-wing and mid-wing) is a monoplane aircraft wing configuration in which the wing is mounted near the top of the fuselage, but not on the top.[1]

Shoulder wing designs include a wide range of aircraft from pre-World War II airliners, World War II bombers and strike aircraft, through Cold War fighters, civil and military transports to light aircraft and gliders.

Terminology[edit]

In the 1920s the term "shoulder decker" was applied in Germany to note a monoplane where the wing was attached near the top longerons; the Junkers G.38 being an example.[2]

There seems to be a difference of professional opinion over this sub-category. For instance, Flight describes the Short SC.7 Skyvan, an apparent high-winged aircraft, as "shoulder-winged". Arguably, the shoulder-wing terminology is of useful significance only to small aircraft, such as the Saab Safari, Bölkow Bö 208 Junior and ARV Super2.[3]

Shoulder wing on light aircraft[edit]

The shoulder wing has a particular advantage for smaller aircraft with a canopied cockpit, in that it gives the pilot unrestricted forward visibility, especially prior to and during turns.[4][5] Optimally, the shoulder wing should be positioned at the level of the pilot's eyes, to minimise any obstruction to visibility from the wing.[3]

On a light aircraft, a shoulder-wing may need to be swept forward to maintain correct center of gravity.[5] Shoulder wings and high-wings share two characteristics, namely: they support a pendulous fuselage which requires no wing dihedral for stability; and, by comparison with a low-winged aircraft, the limited ground effect reduces float on landing.[6][7][8]

Examples of shoulder wing aircraft[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kumar, Bharat (2005). An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation. New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-139606-3. 
  2. ^ "The Junkers G.38" Flight, November 29, 1929
  3. ^ a b Flight International (March 1975). "High Wing, Low Wing". Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  4. ^ "Pilot" magazine February 1986, page 32
  5. ^ a b "Air Pictorial, ARV Super 2". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2012-07-18. 
  6. ^ "Ground Effect in Aircraft". Aviation-history.com. 2009-11-30. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  7. ^ "Ground Effect". Avweb.com. 2003-10-22. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  8. ^ "Ground effect in aircraft". Sccs.swarthmore.edu. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  9. ^ "Saab Safari (advertisement)". Flight: 4. 30 October 1975. 
  10. ^ Taylor, John W R (1966). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1966-67. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co. Ltd. p. 67. 
  11. ^ "Two Four-engined Transports : Liberator and A.W. Ensign". Flight XLI (1725): a. 15 January 1942. 
  12. ^ "Aircraft In Flying Attitudes". Flight XLV (1849): 587. 1 June 1944. 
  13. ^ "Two Unusual Bomber Tails : The Botha and Boston III". Flight: g. 11 December 1941. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  14. ^ Gaines, Mike (23 April 1983). "Inshore maritime market". Flight International: 1122.