Shovelnose guitarfish

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Shovelnose guitarfish
Shovelnose guitarfish.JPG
Dorsal view
ShovelnoseGuitarfish01.JPG
Ventral view
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Subclass: Elasmobranchii
Order: Rajiformes
Family: Rhinobatidae
Genus: Rhinobatos
Species: R. productus
Binomial name
Rhinobatos productus
Ayres, 1854
World map with blue coloring along the coastal area of California reaching to Mazatlan
Range of R. productus
This article is about one North American West Coast species. For other related shovelnose rays, see guitarfish.

The shovelnose guitarfish, Rhinobatos productus, is a ray in the family Rhinobatidae.[1][2] It becomes sexually mature at an estimated seven to eight years old. Males are between 90 and 100 cm long, while females are around 99 cm at that age.[3] The ray can live up to 11 years, and full-grown sizes are around 120 cm for males, and females reach 137 cm.[4] They range from central California south to the Sea of Cortez.[5] Morphological and genetic variations occur in the mitochondrial DNA in those found in the Sea of Cortez, evidencing their isolation from the rest. Because of this, the conservation of this species must be carefully managed to preserve the biological diversity.[6] The shovelnose is considered to be a primitively developed ray, with many features of both sharks and rays.

Rhinobatos productus has magnetic particles in its vestibular receptors, and the magnetic particles believed to be exogenous in origin. The magnetic particles' spatial arrangement may aid in the sensitivity of the receptors to movements.[7]

The visual system of the shovelnose is more extensive and developed than other Elasmobranchii, with multiple large projections connecting to the brain. Almost the entire dorsal and ventral hypothalamus is connected to the visual system, but still maintains a similar lack of differentiation as with sharks.[8]

This species has had one documented case of an attack on a diver when a male guitarfish was interrupted during mating. Because of the tooth structure of the guitarfish, this attack could have resulted in a "gumming" at worst.

The shovelnose guitarfish was first considered to be a shark because of its dorsal fin's shape.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Rhinobatos productus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 24 January 2006. 
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2005). "Rhinobatos productus" in FishBase. August 2005 version.
  3. ^ Timmons, M and Bray, R. Age, growth, and sexual maturity of shovelnose guitarfish, Rhinobatos productus. Fishery Bulletin 95:349–359 (1997).
  4. ^ Timmons, M Bray RN (2004). "Age, growth, and sexual maturity of shovelnose guitarfish, Rhinobatos productus (Ayres)". Fishery Bulletin 95 (2): 349–359. 
  5. ^ Márquez et al. (2005). Rhinobatos productus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is near threatened
  6. ^ J. Sandoval-Castillo, A. Rocha-Olivares, C. Villavicencio-Garayzar, E. Balart (2004). "Cryptic isolation of Gulf of California shovelnose guitarfish evidenced by mitochondrial DNA". Marine Biology 145 (5): 983–988. doi:10.1007/s00227-004-1378-7. 
  7. ^ D.P. O’Leary, J. Vilches-Troya, R.F. Dunn and A. Campos-Muñoz (1981). "Magnets in guitarfish vestibular receptors". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 37 (1): 86–88. doi:10.1007/BF01965587. PMID 7202681. 
  8. ^ Ebbesson, S.O.E. and Meyer, D.L. (1980). "The visual system of the guitar fish (Rhinobatos productus)". Cell and Tissue Research 206 (2): 243–250. doi:10.1007/bf00232768. PMID 7388890.