Cypripedium reginae

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Showy lady's Slipper
Queen's Lady's-slipper
Pink-and-white Lady's-slipper
Cypripedium reginae Orchi 004.jpg
Conservation status

Apparently Secure (NatureServe)[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Cypripedioideae
Genus: Cypripedium
Species: C. reginae
Binomial name
Cypripedium reginae
Walter (1788)
Synonyms[2]
  • Cypripedium album Aiton (1789)
  • Cypripedium spectabile Salisb. (1791)
  • Cypripedium canadense Michx. (1803)
  • Calceolus reginae (Walter) Nieuwl. (1913)
  • Cypripedium hirsutum f. album R.Hoffm. 1922

The Showy Lady's-slipper (Cypripedium reginae), also known as the Pink-and-white Lady's-slipper or the Queen's Lady's-slipper, is a rare, terrestrial, temperate, lady's-slipper orchid native to northern North America.

Despite producing a large amount of seeds per seed pod, it reproduces largely by vegetative reproduction,[3] and remains restricted to the North East region of the United States and south east regions of Canada. Although never common, this rare plant has vanished from much of its historical range due to habitat loss.[4] It has been a subject of horticultural interest for many years with Charles Darwin who like many, were unsuccessful in cultivating the plant.[5]

It is the state flower of Minnesota, United States and was also proposed to be the provincial flower of Prince Edward Island, Canada.

Etymology[edit]

The species name reginae is Latin for "of a queen". Common names include Fairy Queen, Queen's Lady Slipper, Showy Lady's Slipper, White Wing Moccasin, Royal Lady's Slipper Female, Nervine and Silver-Slipper.[6]

Cultural significance[edit]

The plant became the state flower of Minnesota in 1902 and was protected by state law in 1925. It is illegal to pick or uproot a Showy Lady's Slipper flower in Minnesota.

Although this plant was chosen as the provincial flower for Prince Edward Island in 1947, it is so rare on the island that another Lady's-slipper, C. acaule (moccasin flower or pink lady slipper), has replaced it as the province's floral emblem.

Ecology[edit]

Habitat[edit]

Cypripedium reginae grows in wetlands such as fens and open wooded swamps that are sometimes populated by tamarack and black spruce.[7] Cyp. reginae thrives in neutral to basic soils but can be found in slightly acidic conditions. The plants often form in clumps by branching of the underground rhizomes. It roots are typically within a few inches of the top of the soil. It prefers very loose soils and when growing in fens it will most often be found in mossy hummocks. It can tolerate full sun but prefers partial shade for some part of the day. When exposed to full sun, the flower lip is somewhat bleached and less deeply colored. It is occasionally eaten by white-tailed deer.[8] Cypripedium reginae can be found in Canada from Saskatchewan east to Atlantic Canada, and the eastern United States south to Arkansas and Tennessee.[2]


Cypripedium reginae can be found in Canada from Saskatchewan east to Atlantic Canada, and the eastern United States south to Arkansas and Tennessee.[2]

Conservation[edit]

Flower in profile

Cypripedium reginae is quite rare, and is considered imperiled (SRANK S2) or critically imperiled (S1) in Arkansas, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Newfoundland and Labrador, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia. Additionally, it is considered vulnerable (S3) in Indiana, Maine, Manitoba, Massachusetts, New York, Quebec, Vermont, Minnesota, Wisconsin,Rhode Island and several areas of east Canada.[7]

It was historically found in Kentucky and North Carolina, but has not been found recently. The only province to rank C. reginae as apparently secure (S4) is Ontario.

The Showy Lady's-Slipper is sensitive to hydrologic disturbances, and is threatened by wetland draining, habitat destruction and horticultural collectors.

Cultivation[edit]

The Showy Lady's Slipper is a popular plant among orchid collectors for its color and structure. However, it has proven to be a difficult plant to cultivate, due to its poor seed germination and slow maturation to flowering. This makes it more vulnerable to illegal collection. It was difficult to raise from seed, taking many months to germinate in sterile culture until progress on axenic culture from seed in the 1990s by a group of high school students in New Hampshire.[8][1][3][9] Efforts at micropropagation have had marginal success.[10][11]

Reproduction[edit]

C. reginae reproduces sexually and depends on insects such as syphid flies, beetles and Megachile bees for pollination. The structure of the flower creates a tight space through which insects have to squeeze. A pollinating insect first passes by the stigma, and upon exiting the trap rubs against the anther. Pollination typically occurs in June and the seed pod or fruit is ripe by September and dehisces by October. [12]Although a single seed pod can produce over 50,000 seeds low germination and a seed to flowering term of about 8 years indicate that sexual reproduction is inefficient. Asexual reproduction from rhizomes in the Showy Lady's slipper is a common means of sustaining a population.

It flowers in early to midsummer, usually with 1 to 2 flowers per stalk, less commonly 3 or 4.

Chemistry[edit]

Cypripedium reginae contains an irritant, phenanthrene quinone or cypripedin. The plant is known to cause dermatitis on the hands and face. The first report of the allergy reaction was first reported in 1875 by H. H. Babcock in the United States, 35 years before the term "allergy" was coined. The allergen was later isolated in West Germany by Bjorn M. Hausen and associates.[13]

Medicine[edit]

The Cypripedium species has been used in native remedies for dermatitis, tooth aches, anxiety, headaches, as an antispasmodic, stimulant and sedative, depression. However the preferred species for use are Cyp. parviflorum' and Cyp.acaule, used as topical applications or tea.[14][15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b NatureServe (2006), "Cypripedium reginae", NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life, Version 6.1., Arlington, Virginia, retrieved 2007-06-13 
  2. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ a b Orchids, Faletra et. al 139-143, Feb, 1997
  4. ^ Sokolski et. al. Selbyana 18(2): 172-182 Axenic Seed Culture and Micropropagation of Cypripedium reginae
  5. ^ Sokolski et. al. Selbyana 18(2): 172-182 Axenic Seed Culture and Micropropagation of Cypripedium reginae
  6. ^ Correll, Donovan (1978) [1950]. Native Orchid of North America North of Mexico. Stadford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 39–41. ISBN 0-8047-0999-8. 
  7. ^ "Comprehensive Report Species- Cypripedium reginae". Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  8. ^ Sokolski K. & Peter Faletra, 1997, Growth Studies of the Showy Lady Slipper (Cypripedium reginae) in Axenic Seed Culture, Bulletin of America Association for the Advancement of Scienc-es, Annual meeting, pp. A-112
  9. ^ AAAS Annual Meeting, Programs and Abstracts, 1998
  10. ^ Sokolski K. & Peter Faletra, 1997, Growth Studies of the Showy Lady Slipper (Cypripedium reginae) in Axenic Seed Culture
  11. ^ Sokolski et. al. Selbyana 18(2): 172-182 Axenic Seed Culture and Micropropagation of Cypripedium reginae
  12. ^ Characterization of Cypripedium species and Habitats in New Hampshire, V. Walsh, N. Ramos, P. Faletra, AAAS annual Symposium Abstracts, 2013
  13. ^ Arditti, Joseph (1992). Fundamentals of Orchid Biology. John Wiley & Sons Inc. 
  14. ^ "Lady's Slipper: Information on Uses, Doses, and Side Effects". Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  15. ^ Cichoke, Anthony J (2001). Secrets of Native American herbal remedies: a comprehensive guide to the Native American tradition of using herbs and the mind/body/spirit connection for improving health and well-being (. New York: Penguin Publisher. 
  • NatureServe (2006), "Cypripedium reginae", NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life, Version 6.1., Arlington, Virginia
  • Gray's Manual of Botany of the Northern United States, American Book Company, 1889

External links[edit]