Buk missile system

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For other uses, see Buk (disambiguation).
9K37 Buk
NATO reporting name:
SA-11 Gadfly, SA-17 Grizzly
Buk-M1-2 air defence system in 2010
Buk-M1-2 air defence system in 2010
Type Medium range SAM system
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1979–present
Used by See list of present and former operators
Wars See combat service
Production history
Designer

Almaz-Antey:

Tikhomirov NIIP (lead designer)
Lyulev Novator (SA missile designer)
MNIIRE Altair (naval version designer)
NIIIP (surveillance radar designer)
DNPP (missiles)
UMZ (TELARs)
MZiK (TELs)[1]
MMZ (GM chassis)
Variants 9K37 "Buk", 9K37M, 9K37M1 "Buk-M1", 9K37M1-2 "Buk-M1-2", 9K37M1-2A, 9K317 "Buk-M2", "Buk-M3"
naval: 3S90 (M-22), 3S90M, 3S90E1, 3S90M1

The Buk missile system (Russian: "Бук"; “beech” (tree), /bʊk/) is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, and designed to fight cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles.[2]

The Buk is a mobile, radar-guided surface to air missile (SAM) missile system with all four main components — acquisition and targeting radars, a command element, missile launchers, and a logistics element — mounted on tracked vehicles. This allows the system to move with other military forces and relocate to make it a more difficult target to find than a fixed SAM system.

  • The acquisition radar component (several variants have differing capabilities) allows the system to identify, track and target selected targets.
  • The command component is intended to discern "friendly" military aircraft from foes (IFF), prioritize multiple targets, and pass radar targeting information to the missile launchers.
  • The missile launcher component can carry a variety of missiles (as listed below) and may be able to engage more than one target simultaneously.
  • The logistics component carries additional (reload) missiles and provides other supplies and parts for the system and the operators.

In general, the system identifies potential targets (radar), selects a particular target (command), fires a missile (launcher) at the target, and resupplies the system (logistics). The missiles require a radar lock to initially steer the missile to the target until the missile's on-board radar system takes over to provide final course corrections. A proximity fuse aboard the missile determines when it will detonate, creating an expanding fragmentation pattern of missile components and warhead to intercept and destroy the target. A proximity fuse improves the "probability of kill" given the missile and target closure rates, which can be more than 3,000 km/h (1,900 mph) (or more than 900 m/s (3,000 ft/s)).

Alternatively, the command component may be able to remotely detonate the missile, or the on-board contact fuse will cause the warhead to detonate. The most capable radar, assuming it has a line of sight (no terrain between the radar and the target), can track targets (depending on size) as low as 30 m (98 ft) and as far as 140 km (87 mi). The most capable missile can hit targets as far as 50 km (31 mi) and more than 24,000 m (79,000 ft) in altitude. Since the introduction of the Buk in the 1970s, the capabilities of its system components have evolved, which has led to different nomenclature and nicknames for the components' variants. The Buk has also been adapted for use on naval vessels.

The Buk missile system is the successor to the NIIP/Vympel 2K12 Kub (NATO reporting name SA-6 "Gainful").[3] The first version of Buk adopted into service carried the GRAU designation 9K37 and was identified in the west with the NATO reporting name "Gadfly" as well as the US Department of Defense designation SA-11.

With the integration of a new missile the Buk-M1-2 and Buk-M2 systems also received a new NATO reporting name Grizzly and a new DoD designation SA-17. The latest incarnation "Buk-M3" is scheduled for production.[4]

A naval version of the system, designed by MNIIRE Altair (currently part of GSKB Almaz-Antey) for the Russian Navy, according to Jane's Missiles & Rockets, received the GRAU designation 3S90M1 and will be identified with the NATO reporting name Gollum and a DoD designation SA-N-7C. The naval system is scheduled for delivery in 2014.[5]

Development[edit]

Development of the 9K37 "Buk" was started on 17 January 1972 at the request of the Central Committee of the CPSU.[6] The development team comprised many of the same institutions that had developed the previous 2K12 "Kub" (NATO reporting name "Gainful", SA-6). These included the Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design (NIIP) as the lead designer and the Novator design bureau, which were responsible for the development of the missile armament.[6] In addition to the land-based missile system a similar system was to be produced for the naval forces, the result being the 3S90 "Uragan" (Russian: "Ураган"; hurricane) which also carries the SA-N-7 and "Gadfly" designations.[7]


 
 
 
Kub Kvadrat
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kub-M1
 
Kub-M
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kub-M3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Buk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Uragan Shtil
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Buk-M1
 
Buk-1 (Kub-M4)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Buk-M1-2 Gang
 
Buk-M1-2A
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Buk-M2 Ural Buk-M2E Buk-M2EK
 
 
Ezh Shtil
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Buk-M3
 
 
 
Export Version
 
Soviet or Russian Version
 
Smerch Shtil-1

The Buk missile system was designed to surpass the 2K12 Kub in all parameters, and its designers, including its chief designer Ardalion Rastov, visited Egypt in 1971 to see Kub in operation.[8] Both the Kub and Buk used self-propelled launchers developed by Ardalion Rastov. As a result of this visit, the developers came to the conclusion that each Buk transporter erector launcher (TEL) should have its own fire control radar, rather than being reliant on one central radar for the whole system as in Kub.[8] The result of this move from TEL to transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) was a system able to shoot at multiple targets from multiple directions at the same time.

During 1974 the developers determined that although the Buk missile system is the successor to the Kub missile system, both systems could share some interoperability. The result of this decision was the 9K37-1 Buk-1 system.[6] Interoperability between Buk TELAR and Kub TEL meant an increase in the number of fire control channels and available missiles for each system, as well as faster entry of Buk system components into service. The Buk-1 was adopted into service in 1978 following completion of state trials, while the complete Buk missile system was accepted into service in 1980[8] after state trials took place between 1977 and 1979.[6]

External images
Photo of TELAR 9A38, Buk vehicle, based on Kub components
Photo of TELAR 9A38, Buk vehicle, based on Kub components (sideview)

The naval variant of the 9K37 "Buk", the 3S-90 "Uragan," was developed by the Altair design bureau under the direction of chief designer G.N. Volgin.[9] The 3S-90 used the same 9M38 missile as the 9K37, though the launcher and associated guidance radars were exchanged for naval variants. After the 9S-90 system was tested, between 1974 and 1976 on the Kashin-class destroyer Provorny, it was accepted into service in 1983 on the Project 956 Sovremenny-class destroyers.[9]

No sooner had the 9K37 "Buk" entered service than the Central Committee of the CPSU authorised the development of a modernised 9K37 which would become the 9K37M1 Buk-M1, adopted into service in 1983.[6] The modernisation improved the performance of the system radars, its "probability of kill" and its resistance to electronic countermeasures (ECM). Additionally a non-cooperative threat classification system was installed, relying on analysis of returned radar signals to purportedly identify and clearly distinguish civilian aircraft from potential military targets in the absence of IFF.[8] The export version of Buk-M1 missile system is known as "Gang" (Russian: "Ганг"; Ganges)[citation needed].

A Buk-M1-2 SAM system 9A310M1-2 TELAR at 2005 MAKS Airshow

Another modification to the Buk missile system was started in 1992 with work carried out between 1994 and 1997 to produce the 9K37M1-2 Buk-M1-2,[6] which entered service in 1998.[10] This modification introduced a new missile, the 9M317, which offered greater kinematic performance over the previous 9M38, which could still be used by the Buk-M1-2. Such sharing of the missile type caused a transition to a different GRAU designation, 9K317, which has been used independently for all later systems. The previous 9K37 series name was also preserved for the complex, as was the "Buk" name. The new missile, as well as a variety of other modifications, allowed the system to shoot down ballistic missiles and surface targets, as well as enlarging the "performance and engagement envelope" (zone of danger for potential attack) for more traditional targets like aircraft and helicopters.[6] The 9K37M1-2 Buk-M1-2 also received a new NATO reporting name distinguishing it from previous generations of the Buk system; this new reporting name was the SA-17 Grizzly. The export version of the 9K37M1-2 system is called "Ural" (Russian: "Урал")

Shtil-1 SA missile system (graphic)

The introduction of the 9K37M1-2 system for the land forces also marked the introduction of a new naval variant, the "Ezh", which carries the NATO reporting name SA-N-7B 'Grizzly' (9M317 missile). was exported under the name "Shtil" and carries a NATO reporting name of SA-N-7C 'Gollum' (9M317E missile), according to Jane's catalogue.[7] The 9K317 incorporates the 9M317 missile to replace the 9M38 used by the previous system. A further development of the system was unveiled as a concept at EURONAVAL 2004, a vertical launch variant of the 9M317, the 9M317ME, which is expected to be exported under the name 3S90E "Shtil-1". Jane's also reported that in the Russian forces it would have a name of 3S90M "Smerch" (Russian: "Смерч", English translation: 'tornado').[9][11][12]

The Buk-M1-2 modernisation — based on a previous more advanced developmental system referred to as the 9K317 "Buk-M2" —[6] featured new missiles and a new third-generation phased-array fire control radar allowing targeting of up to four targets while tracking a further 24. A new radar system with a fire control radar on a 24 m extending boom reputedly enabled more accurate targeting of low-altitude planes.[13] This new generation of Buk missile systems was stalled due to poor economic conditions after the fall of the Soviet Union. The system was presented as a static display at the 2007 MAKS Airshow. The export version of the Buk-M2 missile system Buk-M2E is also known as Ural (Russian: Урал; English: Ural)[citation needed].

In October 2007, Russian General Nikolai Frolov, commander of the Russian Ground Forces air defense, declared that the army would receive the brand-new Buk-M3 to replace the Buk-M1. He stipulated that the M3 would feature advanced electronic components and enter into service in 2009.[14] The upgraded Buk-M3 TELAR will have a seven rollers tracked chassis and 6 missiles in launch tubes.[15]

Description[edit]

Inside the TELAR of a Buk-M1 SAM system

A standard Buk battalion consists of a command vehicle, target acquisition radar (TAR) vehicle, six transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) vehicles and three transporter erector launcher (TEL) vehicles. A Buk missile battery consists of two TELAR and one TEL vehicle. The battery requires no more than 5 minutes to set up before it is ready for engagement and can be ready for transit again in 5 minutes. The reaction time of the battery from target tracking to missile launch is around 22 seconds.[citation needed]

Inside the TEL of a Buk-M1-2 SAM system

The Buk-M1-2 TELAR uses the GM-569 chassis designed and produced by JSC MMZ (Mytishchi).[16] TELAR superstructure is a turret containing the fire control radar at the front and a launcher with four ready-to-fire missiles on top. Each TELAR is operated by a crew of four and is equipped with chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) protection. The radar fitted to each TELAR, referred to as the 'Fire Dome' by NATO, is a monopulse type radar and can begin tracking at the missile's maximum range (32 km/20 mi) and can track aircraft flying at between 15 m and 22 km (50 to 72,000 ft) altitudes. It can guide up to three missiles against a single target. The 9K37 system supposedly has much better ECCM characteristics (i.e., is more resistant to ECM and jamming) than the 3M9 Kub system that it replaces. While the early Buk had a day radar tracking system 9Sh38 (similar to that used on Kub, Tor and Osa missile system), its current design can be fitted with a combined optical tracking system with a thermal camera and a laser range-finder for passive tracking of the target. The 9K37 system can also utilise the same 1S91 Straight Flush 25 kW G/H band continuous wave radar as the 3M9 "Kub" system.

The 9S35 radar of the original Buk TELAR uses a mechanical scan of a Cassegrain antenna reflector, where the Buk-M2 TELAR design used a PESA, for tracking and missile guidance.

A Buk-M1-2 SAM system 9S18M1-1 Tube Arm target acquisition radar (TAR) on 2005 MAKS Airshow

The 9K37 utilises the 9S18 "Tube Arm" or 9S18M1 (which carries the NATO reporting name "Snow Drift") (Russian: СОЦ 9C18 "Купол"; dome) target acquisition radar in combination with the 9S35 or 9S35M1 "Fire Dome" H/I band tracking and engagement radar which is mounted on each TELAR. The Snow Drift target acquisition radar has a maximum detection range of 85 km (53 mi) and can detect an aircraft flying at 100 m (330 ft) from 35 km (22 mi) away and even lower flying targets at ranges of around 10–20 km (6–12 mi). Snow Drift is mounted on a chassis similar to that of the TELAR, as is the command vehicle. The control post which coordinates communications between the surveillance radar(s) and the launchers is able to communicate with up to six TELs at once.

Console of the upgraded TELAR of a Buk-M2E

The TEL reload vehicle for the Buk battery resembles the TELAR, but instead of a radar they have a crane for the loading of missiles. They are capable of launching missiles directly but require the cooperation of a Fire Dome–equipped TELAR for missile guidance. A reload vehicle can transfer its missiles to a TELAR in around 13 minutes and can reload itself from stores in around 15 minutes.

Also, the Buk-M2 featured a new vehicle like TELAR but with radar atop of a telescopic lift and without missiles, called a target acquisition radar (TAR) 9S36. This vehicle could be used together with two TELs 9A316 to attack up to four targets, missile guidance in forested or hilly regions.

The mobile simulator SAM Buk-M2E was shown at MAKS-2013. A self-propelled fire simulator installation JMA 9A317ET SAM "Buk-M2E", based on the mobile, is designed for training and evaluating the combat crew in the war environment to detect, capture, lock on to ("maintain") and defeat targets. A computer information system fully records all actions of the crew to a "black box" to allow objective assessment of the consistency of the crew's actions and results.[17]

All vehicles of the Buk-M1 (Buk-M1-2) missile system use an Argon-15A computer, as does the Zaslon radar (the first Soviet-made airborne digital computer, designed in 1972 by the Soviet Research Institute of Computer Engineering (NICEVT, currently NII Argon). It is produced at a Kishinev plant originally named "50 Years of the USSR".[18][19] The vehicles of Buk-M2 (Buk-M2E) missile system use a slightly upgraded version of Argon-A15K. This processor is also used in such military systems as anti-submarine defense Korshun and Sova, airborne radars for MiG-31 and MiG-33, mobile tactical missile systems Tochka, Oka and Volga. Currently, Argons are upgraded with the Baget series of processors by NIIP.

Basic missile system specifications[edit]

  • Target acquisition range (by TAR 9S18M1, 9S18M1-1)
    Range: 140[clarification needed]
    Altitude: 60 meters – 25 kilometers (197 feet – 15.5 miles)
  • Firing groups in one division: up to 6 (with one command post)
  • Firing groups operating in a sector
    90° in azimuth, 0–7° and 7–14° in elevation
    45° in azimuth, 14–52° in elevation
  • Radar mast lifting height (for TAR 9S36): 21 meters
  • Reloading of 4 missiles by TEL from itself: around 15 minutes
  • Combat readiness time: no more than 5 minutes
  • Kill probability (by one missile): 90–95%
  • Target engagement zone
    Aircraft
    Altitude: 15 meters – 25 kilometers (50 feet – 15.5 miles)
    Range: 3–42 kilometres (2–26 miles)
    Tactical ballistic missiles
    Altitude: 2.0–16 kilometres (1.2–9.9 miles)
    Range: 3–20 kilometres (1.9–12.4 miles)
    Sea targets: up to 25 kilometres (16 miles)
    Land targets: up to 15 kilometres (9.3 miles)

Integration with higher level command posts[edit]

The basic command post of the Buk missile system is 9С510 (9K317 Buk-M2), 9S470M1-2 (9K37M1-2 Buk-M1-2) and 9S470 (Buk-M1) vehicles, organizing the Buk system into a battery. It is capable of linking with various higher level command posts (HLCPs). As an option, with the use of HLCP, the Buk missile system may be controlled by an upper level command post system 9S52 Polyana-D4, integrating it with S-300V/S-300VM into an air defence brigade.[20][21] Also, it may be controlled by an upper-level command-post system 73N6ME «Baikal-1ME»[22] together with 1-4 units of PPRU-M1 (PPRU-M1-2), integrating it with SA-19 "Grison" (9K22 Tunguska) (6-24 units total) into an air defence brigade.[23] With the use of the mobile command center Ranzhir or Ranzhir-M (GRAU designations 9S737, 9S737М) the Buk missile system allows creation of mixed groups of air defense forces, including Tor, Tungushka, Strela-10, and Igla.[24] "Senezh" [25] is another optional command post for a free mixing of any systems.

3S90 "Uragan"[edit]

3S90E "Shtil" (export version of M-22 Uragan) on INS Talwar (F40)

The 3S90 "Uragan" (Russian: Ураган; hurricane) is the naval variant of the 9K37 "Buk" and has the NATO reporting name "Gadfly" and US DoD designation SA-N-7, it also carries the designation M-22. The export version of this system is known as "Shtil" (Russian: Штиль; still). The 9М38 missiles from the 9K37 "Buk" are also used on the 3S90 "Uragan". The launch system is different with missiles being loaded vertically onto a single arm trainable launcher, this launcher is replenished from an under-deck magazine with a 24 round capacity, loading takes 12 seconds to accomplish.[9] The Uragan utilises the MR-750 Top Steer D/E band as a target acquisition radar (naval analogue of the 9S18 or 9S18M1) which has a maximum detection range of 300 km (190 mi) depending on the variant. The radar performing the role of the 9S35 the 3R90 Front Dome H/I band tracking and engagement radar with a maximum range of 30 km (19 mi).

3S90 "Ezh"[edit]

The modernised version of the 3S90 the 9K37M1-2 (or 9K317E) "Ezh" which carries the NATO reporting name "Grizzly" or SA-N-12 and the export designation "Shtil" was developed which uses the new 9M317 missile. This variant was supposed to be installed on Soviet Ulyanovsk-class nuclear aircraft carriers, and has been retrofitted to the Sovremenny-class destroyers.[citation needed].

In 1997, India signed a contract for the three Project 1135.6 frigates with "Shtil". Later, when the decision was made to modernize it with a new package of hardware & missiles, the name changed to "Shtil-1".

3S90M "Shtil-1"[edit]

In 2004, the first demonstration module of the new 9M317ME missile was presented by Dolgoprudniy Scientific and Production Plant for the upgraded 3S90M "Shtil-1" naval missile system (jointly with 'Altair'). Designed primary for the export purpose, its latest variant used a vertical launch missile which is fired from under-deck silos clustered into groups of twelve, twenty-four or thirty-six. The first Shtil-1 systems were installed into ships exported to India and China.[26][27] Old systems Uragan, Ezh and Shtil could be upgraded to Shtil-1 by replacing the launcher module inside the ship.

Missiles[edit]

9М38
9M38M1 9M317.svg
Comparison of 9M38M1, 9M317 and 9M317ME surface-to-air missiles of the Buk missile system
Type Surface-to-air missile
Place of origin Soviet Union
Production history
Variants 9М38, 9М38M1, 9M317
Specifications (9М38, 9M317)
Weight 690 kg, (1521 Lbs) 715 kg,(1576 Lbs)
Length 5.55 m (18'-3")
Diameter 0.4 m (15 3/4") (wingspan 0.86 m)(2'-10")
Warhead Frag-HE
Warhead weight 70 kg,(154.3 Lbs)
Detonation
mechanism
Radar proximity fuse

Propellant Solid propellant rocket
Operational
range
30 kilometres (19 mi)
Flight altitude 14,000 metres (46,000 ft)
Speed Mach 3
Guidance
system
Semi-active radar homing
Launch
platform
See structure

9М38 and 9М38M1 missile[edit]

The 9M38 uses a single-stage X-winged design without any detachable parts; its exterior design is similar to the American Tartar and Standard surface-to-air missile series, which led to the half-serious nickname of Standardski.[28] The design had to conform to strict naval dimension limitations, allowing the missile to be adapted for the M-22 SAM system in the Soviet Navy. Each missile is 5.55 m (18.2 ft) long, weighs 690 kg (1,520 lb) and carries a relatively large 70 kg (150 lb) warhead which is triggered by a radar proximity fuze. In the forward compartment of the missile, a semi-active homing radar head (9E50, Russian: 9Э50, 9Э50М1), autopilot equipment, power source and warhead are located. The homing method chosen was proportional navigation. Some elements of the missile were compatible with the Kub's 3M9; for example, its forward compartment diameter (33 cm), which was less than the rear compartment diameter.

9M317 surface-to-air missile on the Buk-M2 quadruple launcher.

The 9M38 surface-to-air missile utilizes a two-mode solid fuel rocket engine with total burn time of about 15 seconds; the combustion chamber is reinforced by metal. For the purpose of reducing the centering dispersion while in flight, the combustion chamber is located close to the center of the missile and includes a longer gas pipe. A direct-flow engine was not used because of its instability at large angle of attack and by a larger air resistance on a passive trajectory section as well as by some technical difficulties.[citation needed] Those difficulties had already wrecked plans to create the missile for Kub.[citation needed] 9M38 is capable of readiness without inspection for at least 10 years of service. The missile is delivered to the army in the 9Ya266 (9Я266) transport container.

It has been suggested that the Novator KS-172 AAM-L, an extremely long range air-to-air missile and possible anti-satellite weapon, is a derivative of the 9M38.[citation needed]

9M317 missile[edit]

The 9M317 missile was developed as a common missile for the Russian Ground Force's Soviet Air Defence Forces (PVO) (using Buk-M1-2) as well as for ship-based PVO of the Russian Navy (Ezh). Its exterior design bears a resemblance to the Vympel R-37 air-to-air missile.

The unified multi-functional 9M317 (export designation 9M317E) can be used to engage aerodynamic, ballistic, above-water and radio contrast targets from both land and sea. Examples of targets include tactical ballistic missiles, strategic cruise missiles, anti-ship missiles, tactical, strategic and army aircraft and helicopters. It was designed by OJSC Dolgoprudny Scientific Production Plant (DNPP). The maximum engagable target speed was 1200 m/s and it can tolerate an acceleration overload of 24G. It was first used with Buk-M1-2 system of the land forces and the Shtil-1 system of the naval forces.

In comparison with 9M38M1, the 9M317 has a larger defeat area, which is up to 45 km of range and 25 km of altitude and of lateral parameter, and a larger target classification. Externally the 9M317 differs from the 9M38M1 by a smaller wing chord. It uses the inertial correction control system with semi-active radar homing, utilising the proportional navigation (PN) targeting method.

The semi-active missile homing radar head (used in 9E420, Russian: 9Э420) as well as 9E50M1 for the 9M38M1 missile (9E50 for 9M38) and 1SB4 for Kub missile (Russian: 1СБ4) was designed by MNII Agate (Zhukovskiy) and manufactured by MMZ at Ioshkar-Ola.

9M317M and 9M317A missile development projects[edit]

Currently, several modernized versions are in development, including the 9M317M / 9M317ME, and active radar homing (ARH) missile 9M317A / 9M317MAE.

The lead developer, NIIP, reported the testing of the 9M317A missile within Buk-M1-2A "OKR Vskhod" (Sprout in English) in 2005.[29] Range is reported as being up to 50 km (31 mi), maximum altitude around 25 km (82,000 ft) and maximum target speed around Mach 4. The weight of the missile has increased slightly to 720 kg (1587 lb).

The missile's Vskhod development program for the Buk-M1-2A was completed in 2011. This missile could increase the survival capability and firing performance of the Buk-M1-2A using its ability to hit targets over the skyline.[30]

In 2011, Dolgoprudny NPP completed preliminary trials of the new autonomous target missile system OKR Pensne (pince-nez in English) developed from earlier missiles.[30]

9M317ME missile[edit]

The weight of the missile is 581 kg, including the 62 kg blast fragmentation warhead initiated by a dual-mode radar proximity fuze. Dimensions of the hull are 5.18 m length; 0.36 m maximum diameter. Range is 2.5–32 km in a 3S90M "Shtil-1" naval missile system. Altitude of targets from 15 m up to 15 km (and from 10 m to 10 km against other missiles). 9M317ME missiles can be fired at 2-second intervals, while its reaction (readiness) time is up to 10 s.

The missile was designed to be single-staged, semi-active radio command radar homing with inertial guidance.[26]

The tail surfaces have a span of 0.82 m when deployed after the missile leaves the launch container by a spring mechanism. Four gas-control vanes operating in the motor efflux turn the missile towards the required direction of flight. After the turnover manoeuvre, they are no longer used and subsequent flight controlled via moving tail surfaces. A dual-mode solid-propellant rocket motor provides the missile with a maximum speed of Mach 4.5.[31]

Comparison[edit]

Missile
(GRAU designation)
3M9 9М38 9М38
9М38M1
9М38
9М38M1
9М38M2/9M317
9M317 9M317ME
System
(GRAU and NATO designation)
2K12 "Kub"
(SA-6)
9K37
"Buk"
(SA-11)
9K37M
"Buk-M1"
(SA-11)
9K37M1-2
"Buk-M1-2"
(SA-17)
9K317E
"Buk-M2E"[32]
(SA-17)
3S90M/3S90E
"Smerch"/"Shtil-1"[26]
(SA-N-12)
Introduced 1966 1980 1984 1998 2007 2004
Missiles per TEL 3 4 4 4 4 12/24/36
Missile weight 599 kg
(1321 lb)
690 kg
(1521 lb)
690 kg
(1521 lb)
9М38M1: – 690 kg
(1521 lb);
9M317: – 710–720 kg
(1565–1587 lb)
710–720 kg
(1565–1587 lb)
581 kg
Range 3–24 km
(2–15 miles)
4–30 km
(3–19 miles)
3–35 km
(2–22 miles)
9М38M1: – 3–42 km
(2–26 miles);
9M317: 3–50 km
(2–31 miles)
3–50(M2),[33] 45(M2E)[34] km
(2–31(29) miles)
2.5–32 km
(against anti-ship missiles up to 12 km)
Range of altitude 800–11000 m
(2,600–36,000 ft)
30–14000 m
(100-46,000 ft)
30–22000 m
(100-72,000 ft)
30–25000 m
(100-82,000 ft)
15 of M2E[23] 10 of M2[35]–25000 m
(to-82,000 ft)
15–15000 m
Missile speed
(Mach)
2.8 3 3 3 4 4.5
Maximum target
speed (Mach)
2 2.5 4 4 4  ?
Maximum
maneuverability (G)
 ?  ? 20 24[36]  ?  ?
Simultaneous
fire
1–2 ("Kub"M4/"Buk-1" ) 18[37] 18[37] 22[37][38] 6 old/12 update 1997[36] 24[23][39] 4

Other variants[edit]

Original design tree[edit]

  • 9K37-1 'Buk-1' – First Buk missile system variant accepted into service, incorporating a 9A38 TELAR within a 2K12M3 Kub-M3 battery.
  • 9K37 'Buk'- The completed Buk missile system with all new system components, back-compatible with 2K12 Kub.
  • 9K37M1 'Buk-M1' – An improved variant of the original 9K37 which entered into service with the then Soviet armed forces.
  • 9K37M1-2 'Buk-M1-2' ('Gang' for export markets) – An improved variant of the 9K37M1 'Buk-M1' which entered into service with the Russian armed forces.
  • 9K317 'Ural' (9K37M2) – initial design of Buk-M2 which entered into service with the Russian armed forces
  • 9K317E 'Buk-M2E' - revised design for export markets[40]
Backside of the 9A317 TELAR of Buk-M2E (export version) at 2007 MAKS Airshow
9A317 TELAR of Buk-M2E (export version) at 2007 MAKS Airshow
Wheeled TELAR of Buk-M2EK SAM system at Kapustin Yar, 2011
  • 9K37M1-2A 'Buk-M1-2A' - redesign of Buk-M1-2 for the use of 9M317A missile
  • 'Buk-M2EK'[41] – A wheeled variant of Buk-M2 on MZKT-6922 chassis exported to Venezuela and Syria.
  • 9K317M 'Buk-M3' (9K37M3) – In Russian some active work is being conducted, aimed at the new perspective complex of Buk-M3. A zenith-rocket division of it will have 36 target channels in total. It will feature advanced electronic components.

Naval version design tree[edit]

  • 3S90/M-22 'Uragan' (SA-N-7 "Gadfly") – Naval version of the 9K37 Buk missile system with 9M38/9M38M1 missile.
  • 3S90 "Ezh" (SA-N-7B/SA-N-12 'Grizzly') – Naval version of the 9K37M1-2 with 9M317 missile.
  • 3S90 "Shtil" (SA-N-7C 'Gollum') – Naval export version of the 9K37M1-2 with 9M317E missile.
  • 3S90E "Shtil-1" (SA-N-12 'Grizzly') – Naval export version with 9M317ME missile.
  • 3S90M "Smerch" (SA-N-12 'Grizzly') – Possible naval version with 9M317M missile.

Copies[edit]

  •  Belarus – In May on the MILEX-2005 exposition in Minsk, Belarus presented their own modification of 9K37 Buk called Buk-MB.[42] On 26 June 2013 an exported version of Buk-MB was displayed on a military parade in Baku. It included the new 80K6M Ukrainian-build radar on an MZKT chassis (instead the old 9S18M1) and the new Russian-build missile 9M317 (as in Buk-M2).[43]
  •  People's Republic of China – HQ-16 (Hongqi-16) - People's Republic of China project based on the naval 9K37M1-2 system 'Shtil' (SA-N-12).[44] Other sources also rumored the project involved some Buk technology. It is able to engage high altitude and very low flying targets.[45] The most visual distinction between SA-17 and HQ-16 is that the latter is truck-based and vertically launched instead of track based SA-17, its total number of missiles increased to six from the original four in SA-17 system.
    •  People's Republic of China – HQ-16A – Improvement of the HQ-16, with redesigned control surfaces incorporating leading edge, thus has better performance at higher angle of attack than HQ-16.
    •  People's Republic of China – HQ-16B – Further improvement of HQ-16A[46][47]
    •  People's Republic of China – LY80 – Export version of HQ-16A,[48][49] incorporating cold vertical launch method
  •  Iran – Ra'ad (Thunder) Medium Ranged Surface-to-Air Missile System using Ta'er 2 missiles. It has very similar layout to wheeled Buk-M2EK 9M317. It was shown during 2012 military parade.[50]

System composition[edit]

Composition[citation needed]
Complex
(GRAU and NATO designation)
9K37
"Buk"
(SA-11)
9K37-1
"Buk-1"
(SA-11)
9K37M1
"Buk-M1"
(SA-11)
9K37M1-2
"Buk-M1-2"
(SA-17)
9K317E
"Buk-M2E"
Command Post 9S470 N/A 9S470M1 9S470M1-2 9S510
Surveillance Radar
(SURN, SOTs or TAR)
9S18 Kupol 1S91M3 9S18M1 Kupol-M1 9S18М1-1 9S112,
9S36
TELAR 9А310,
9А38
9A38 9A310M1 9A310M1-2 9A317
TEL 9А39 2P25M3 9A39M1 9A39M1,
9A39M1-2
9A316

9K37 Buk[edit]

TEL 9A316
TELAR 9A317
  • Upper level CP (PBU of the zrbr – zenith-rocket brigade) from the structure of ASU Polyana-D4
    • 4 × zrdn (zenith-rocket division)
      • CP 9S470
      • SOTs 9S18 Kupol
    • 3 × zrbat (zenith-rocket battery)
      • 2 × TELAR 9А310
      • 1 × TEL 9А39
    • Technical service division
    • Сommunication service platoon

2K12M4 Kub-M4 (9K37-1 Buk-1)[edit]

  • 1 × SURN 1S91M3 (from the structure of 2K12M3 Kub-M3)
  • 4 × TEL 2P25M3 (from the structure of 2K12M3 Kub-M3)
  • 1 × TELAR 9A38 (from the structure of 9K37 Buk)

9K37M1 Buk-M1 (Ganges)[edit]

Technical service division[edit]

  • 9V95M1E – mobile automatized control and test station vehicle based on a ZiL-131 with a trailer
  • 9V883, 9V884, 9V894 – repair and technical service vehicles based on Ural-43203-1012
  • 9V881E – technical service workshop based on Ural-43203-1012
  • 9T229 – transporter vehicle for 8 missiles or 6 containers with missiles based on a KrAZ-255Б
  • 9T31M – autocrane
  • MTO-ATG-M1 – technical service workshop based on ZiL-131

9K37M1-2 Buk-M1-2 (Ural)[edit]

A command post vehicle 9S470M1-2 may take control over 4 batteries, each has 1 TELAR 9A310M1-2 with 1 × TEL 9A39M1/9A39M1-2 or 2 batteries, each has 1 target acquisition radar 9S18М1-1 and 2 x TELs 9A39M1

Additionally, the TELAR 9A310M1-2 may take control over the Kub vehicles – just the TEL 2P25 or the SURN 1S91 with a TEL 2P25. In this complex "Cube" can simultaneously fire two goals instead of one.[36]

Probability of hitting one rocket is:[38] - Statically the flying aircraft - 0.7–0.9; - Maneuvering aircraft with overdrive to 7–8 G - 0.5–0.7; - Tactical ballistic missiles - 0.5–0.7; - Anti-radar missiles - 0.6–0.8; - Cruise missiles - 0.6–0.8.

Technical service division[edit]

  • Technical service vehicle MTO 9V881M1-2 with a trailer ZIP 9T456
  • Technical service workshop MTO AGZ-M1
  • Technical service and maintenance vehicles MRTO: MRTO-1 9V883M1, MRTO-2 9V884M1, MRTO-3 9V894M1
  • Transport vehicle (TM) 9T243 with a technological equipment set KTO 9T3184
  • Automated control and test mobile station AKIPS 9V95M1
  • Workshop vehicle for the missile maintenance 9T458
  • Unified compressor station UKS-400V
  • Mobile power plant PES-100-T/400-AKP1

9K317 Buk-M2[edit]

There was an experimental 9А320 TEL (with 8 missiles).

Some works were conducted to utilize a wheeled vehicles for Buk-M2-1 on a KrAZ-260 chassis, but they were not completed.[51]

Developed in 1988. Accepted for service in 2008.

The structure of the Buk-M2[23][35][52]

  • Fighting means
    • Anti-aircraft missiles: 9М317
    • Self-propelled firing installation: 9А317 and 9А318 (towed),
    • Installation charging 9А317 and 9А318 or shooting teams 9С510: 9А316 and 9А320;[53]
  • Management tools

Command post 9С510,

  • Radar targets detection (all directions - 360°) 9С18М1-3

Radar illumination and guidance of missiles or radar targets detection range ±60° 9С36.

  • 9S36-1 range to 120 km (reflecting surface=1–2m2 height - 3 km), 30-35 km (rs=1-2m2, height - 10–15m) [35]

Translation in battle mode for the first time in battle-not more than 5 minutes. Translation in battle mode, not for the first time in battle (after moving to another place) - no more than 20 seconds.[35]

The probability of hitting targets one missile is: (data from the developer and several other sources)

  • Aircraft tactical aviation - 0.9–0.95
  • Tactical ballistic missiles - 0.6–0.7
  • Cruise missiles - 0.7–0.8
  • Hovering helicopters - 0.3–0.4[39]
  • Helicopter - 0.7–0.8[35]
  • Anti-radiation missile - 0.5–0.7.[33]

Service[edit]

Operators[edit]

9K37 Buk in Azerbaijan service
  •  Azerbaijan[54]
  •  Bulgaria Buk M2 4 Devisions based in Plovdiv for AirDefence
  •  Belarus[55]
  •  Egypt – Buk-M1 version[56]
  •  Finland – In 1996 Finland started operating the missile systems that they received from Russia as debt payment.[57] Due to concerns about susceptibility to electronic warfare, Finland has accelerated the plans to replace the missile system with NASAMS 2.[58][59][60]
  •  Georgia[61]
  •  India[62]
  •  North Korea[63]
  •  People's Republic of China[64] – Improved variant as the HQ-16, a navalized VLS system. Joint People's Republic of China/Russian project to upgrade the naval 9K37M1-2 system 'Shtil' (SA-N-12).
  •  Russia – more than 350 9К37 and 9К317, as of 2012[65] primary builder and constructor. Replacement of complexes 9К37 on the new options 9К317 [66] is planned, that by 2020 will be replaced by 70% complexes or more.[67][68]
  •  Syria[69][dead link] 8 complexes 9К317Э "Buk-M2E delivered from Russian Federation in 2011 (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute – Arms Transfers Database)Land Forces + 10/8[70] Buk-M2E Air Defence.[71] + 20 Buk-M1-2 [72]
  •  Ukraine [73]
    Ukrainian 9K37 Buk SAMS during the Independence Day parade in Kiev
  •  Vietnam - 06 Buk-M2E system (on order)[when?][citation needed]
  •  Venezuela – Buk-M2EK Received[77] (20 ordered).[78]

Former operators[edit]

Combat service[edit]

Abkhaz authorities claimed that Buk air defense system was used to shoot down four Georgian drones at the beginning of May 2008.[79]

Analysts concluded that Georgian Buk missile systems were responsible for downing four Russian aircraft—three Sukhoi Su-25 close air support aircraft and a Tupolev Tu-22M strategic bomber—in the 2008 South Ossetia war.[80] U.S. officials have said Georgia's SA-11 Buk-1M was certainly the cause of the Tu-22M's loss and contributed to the losses of the three Su-25s.[81] According to some analysts, the loss of four aircraft is surprising and a heavy toll for Russia given the small size of Georgia's military.[82][83] Some have also pointed out, that Russian electronic counter-measures systems were apparently unable to jam and suppress enemy SAMs in the conflict[84] and that Russia was, surprisingly, unable to come up with effective countermeasures against missile systems it had designed.[80]

Georgia bought these missile systems from Ukraine which had an inquiry to determine if the purchase was illegal.[85]

On 29 January 2013, the Israeli Air Force launched an airstrike on a convoy in Syria believed to have SA-17 BUK-M2E missiles bound for Hezbollah in Lebanon. The Syrian government denied that the shipment of weapons was taking place.[86]

The system is suspected of having been used in the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 (a Boeing 777-200ER) on 17 July 2014 with 298 fatalities in eastern Ukraine.[87]

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Sources[edit]

Russian sources[edit]

Video[edit]

External links[edit]