Shu Han family trees

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This article contains the family trees of members of the Liu clan, who ruled the state of Shu Han (221-263) in the Three Kingdoms period (220-280) in China. They were related to the House of Liu, the imperial clan of the Han Dynasty.

Liu Bei's ancestors[edit]

Liu Bei's biography in the Sanguozhi stated that Liu Bei was a descendant of Liu Sheng, Prince of Zhongshan, who was a son of Emperor Jing of Han. Liu Sheng's son was Liu Zhen.[1]

However, the Dianlue claimed that Liu Bei descended from the Marquis of Linyi.[2] Based on historical records in the Han Shu and the Houhanshu, there were two Marquis of Linyi lineages which could be traced to Emperor Jing's sons, hence there were another two lines from which Liu Bei could have possibly descended.[3][4][5][6][7]

The central line in the family tree below shows the Liu Sheng lineage, while the other two show the Marquis of Linyi lineages.


 
 
 
 
Liu Qi
劉啟
(Emperor Jing
景帝)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Fa
劉發
(Prince Ding of Changsha
長沙定王)
 
Liu Sheng
劉勝
(Prince Jing of Zhongshan
中山靖王)
 
Liu Shun
劉舜
(Prince Xian of Changshan
常山憲王)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Mai
劉買
(Marquis Jie of Chongling
舂陵節侯)
 
Liu Zhen
劉貞
(Marquis of Lucheng
陸城侯)
 
Liu Ping
劉平
(Prince Qing of Zhending
真定頃王)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Wai
劉外
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Yan
劉偃
(Prince Lie of Zhending
真定烈王)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Hui
劉回
 
 
 
 
 
Liu You
劉由
(Prince Xiao of Zhending
真定孝王)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Qin
劉欽
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Yong
劉雍
(Prince An of Zhending
真定安王)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Yan
劉縯
(Prince Wu of Qi
齊武王)
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Pu
劉普
(Prince Gong of Zhending
真定共王)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Xing
劉興
(Prince Jing of Beihai
北海靖王)
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Rang
劉讓
(Marquis of Linyi
臨邑侯)
 
 
 
 
Liu Fu
劉復
(Marquis of Linyi
臨邑侯)
 
 
 
 
Liu Taotu
劉騊駼
(Marquis of Linyi
臨邑侯)

Liu Bei[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Xiong
劉雄
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Hong
劉弘
 
 
 
Liu Zijing
劉子敬
 
Wu Yi
吳懿
Ziyuan
子遠
 
 
Empress Mu
穆皇后
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Mi
麋氏
 
 
Mi Zhu
麋竺
Zizhong
子仲
 
 
Mi Fang
麋芳
Zifang
子方
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Gan
甘氏
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Bei
劉備
Xuande
玄德
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Sun
孫氏
 
 
Sun Quan
孫權
Zhongmou
仲謀
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Shan
劉禪
Gongsi
公嗣
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Yong
劉永
Gongshou
公壽
 
Daughter
(name unknown)
 
Daughter
(name unknown)
 
Liu Feng1
劉封
 
Liu Li
劉理
Fengxiao
奉孝
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Yong's son
(name unknown)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Yin
劉胤
 
Liu Ji
劉輯
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Xuan
劉玄
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Cheng
劉承

Liu Bei's father was Liu Hong. Liu Hong's father was Liu Xiong.[8] Liu Bei's uncle was Liu Zijing.[9]

Liu Bei had four wives: Lady Gan, Lady Mi, Lady Sun and Empress Mu. Lady Mi was the younger sister of Mi Zhu and Mi Fang;[10] Lady Sun was Sun Quan's younger sister (see Eastern Wu family trees for details);[11] Empress Mu, née Wu, was Wu Yi's younger sister.[12]

Lady Gan bore Liu Shan.[13][14] Liu Yong and Liu Li were also Liu Bei's sons and were Liu Shan's younger half-brothers. Liu Yong and Liu Li were born to different mothers.[15][16] Liu Bei had two daughters, who were captured by Cao Chun during the Battle of Changban.[17] Liu Feng was Liu Bei's adopted son.[18]

Liu Li had two sons: Liu Yin and Liu Ji. Liu Yin's son was Liu Cheng.[19] Liu Yong's grandson was Liu Xuan.[20]

1Liu Feng was Liu Bei's adopted son.

Liu Shan[edit]

 
 
 
Zhang Fei
張飛
Yide
益德
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Li
李昭儀
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Shan
劉禪
Gongsi
公嗣
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Wang
王貴人
 
Empress Jing'ai
敬哀皇后
 
 
 
 
Empress Zhang
張皇后
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Xuan
劉璿
Wenheng
文衡
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Yao
劉瑤
 
Liu Cong
劉琮
 
Liu Zan
劉瓚
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Qian1
劉虔
 
Liu Xun
劉恂
 
Liu Chen
劉諶
 
 
 
 
 

Liu Shan had four wives: Empress Jing'ai, Empress Zhang, Lady Li[21] and Lady Wang. Empress Jing'ai, née Zhang, was Empress Zhang's elder sister. Both of them were Zhang Fei's daughters.[22][23]

Lady Wang bore Liu Xuan.[24] Liu Shan had another six sons: Liu Yao, Liu Cong, Liu Zan, Liu Chen, Liu Xun and Liu Qian.[25][20] The identities of their mothers were not known.

1Liu Qian's name was recorded as "Liu Qu" (劉璩) in the Shu Shipu.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (先主姓劉,諱備,字玄德,涿郡涿縣人,漢景帝子中山靖王勝之後也。勝子貞,元狩六年封涿縣陸城亭侯。坐酎金失侯,因家焉。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  2. ^ (典略曰:備本臨邑侯枝屬也。) Dianlue annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  3. ^ (世祖光武皇帝諱秀,字文叔,南陽蔡陽人,高祖九世之孫也,出自景帝生長沙定王發。發生舂陵節侯買,買生鬱林太守外,外生鉅鹿都尉回,回生南頓令欽,欽生光武。) Houhanshu vol. 1.
  4. ^ (齊武王縯字伯升,光武之長兄也。 ... 有二子。建武二年,立長子章為太原王,興為魯王。) Houhanshu vol. 14.
  5. ^ (北海靖王興,建武二年封為魯王,嗣光武兄仲。 ... 三十年,封興子復為臨邑侯。 ... 復子騊駼及從兄平望侯毅,並有才學。) Houhanshu vol. 14.
  6. ^ (常山憲王舜以孝景中五年立。舜,帝少子,驕淫,數犯禁,上常寬之。三十三年薨,子勃嗣為王。 ... 勃王數月,廢,國除。 ... 其封憲王子平三萬戶,為真定王; ... 子烈王偃嗣,十八年薨。子孝王由嗣,二十二年薨。子安王雍嗣,二十六年薨。子共王普嗣,十五年薨。子陽嗣,王莽時絕。) Han Shu vol. 53.
  7. ^ (時真定王劉揚復造作讖記云:「赤九之後,癭揚為主。」 ... 時揚弟臨邑侯讓及從兄細各擁兵萬餘人, ...) Houhanshu vol. 21.
  8. ^ (先主祖雄,父弘, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  9. ^ (叔父子敬謂曰:「汝勿妄語,滅吾門也!」) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  10. ^ (先主轉軍廣陵海西,笁於是進妹於先主為夫人, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 38.
  11. ^ (權稍畏之,進妹固好。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  12. ^ (先主穆皇后,陳留人也。兄吳壹, ... 焉時將子瑁自隨,遂為瑁納后。瑁死,后寡居。先主旣定益州,而孫夫人還吳,羣下勸先主聘后, ... 於是納后為夫人。) Sanguozhi vol. 34.
  13. ^ (先主甘皇后, ... 隨先主於荊州,產後主。) Sanguozhi vol. 34.
  14. ^ (後主諱禪,字公嗣,先主子也。) Sanguozhi vol. 33.
  15. ^ (劉永字公壽,先主子,後主庶弟也。) Sanguozhi vol. 34.
  16. ^ (劉理字奉孝,亦後主庶弟也,與永異母。) Sanguozhi vol. 34.
  17. ^ (從征荊州,追劉備於長坂,獲其二女輜重,收其散卒。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  18. ^ (劉封者,本羅侯寇氏之子,長沙劉氏之甥也。先主至荊州,以未有繼嗣,養封為子。) Sanguozhi vol. 40.
  19. ^ (子哀王胤嗣,十九年卒。子殤王承嗣,二十年卒。 ... 輯,理子也, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 34.
  20. ^ a b (孫盛蜀世譜曰:璿弟,瑤、琮、瓚、諶、恂、璩六人。蜀敗,諶自殺,餘皆內徙。值永嘉大亂,子孫絕滅。唯永孫玄奔蜀,李雄偽署安樂公以嗣禪後。永和三年討李勢,盛參戎行,見玄於成都也。) Shu Shipu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 34.
  21. ^ (漢晉春秋曰:魏以蜀宮人賜諸將之無妻者,李昭儀曰:「我不能二三屈辱。」乃自殺。) Han Jin Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 34.
  22. ^ (後主敬哀皇后,車騎將軍張飛長女也。) Sanguozhi vol. 34.
  23. ^ (後主張皇后,前后敬哀之妹也。) Sanguozhi vol. 34.
  24. ^ (後主太子璿,字文衡。母王貴人,本敬哀張皇后侍人也。) Sanguozhi vol. 34.
  25. ^ ([延熈元年春正月, ... 立子璿為太子,子瑤為安定王。] ... [十五年, ... 立子琮為西河王。] ... [十九年春, ... 秋八月, ... 是歲,立子瓚為新平王。] ... [二年夏六月,立子諶為北地王,恂為新興王,虔為上黨王。]) Sanguozhi vol. 33.