Shughni language

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Shughni
Shugnan-Rushan
xuǧnůn ziv/хуг̌ну̊н зив
Native to Tajikistan, Afghanistan
Native speakers
unknown (40,000 in Tajikistan cited 1975)[1]
40,000 in Afghanistan (2009)
Dialects
Arabic, Cyrillic, Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3 sgh
Glottolog shug1248[2]

Shughni is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group.[3][4] Its distribution is in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in Tajikistan and Badakhshan Province in Afghanistan.[3]

Shughni tends towards SOV word order, distinguishes a masculine and a feminine gender in nouns and some adjectives as well as the 3rd person singular of verbs. Shughni distinguishes between an absolutive and an oblique case in its system of pronouns. The Rushani dialect is noted for a typologically unusual 'double-oblique' construction, also called a 'transitive case', in the past tense.

Dialects[edit]

Rushani, Bartangi, Oroshor (Roshorvi), Khufi, and Shughni proper are considered to be dialects. However, Bartangi and Khufi are quite distinct, and may be separate languages.

Vocabulary[edit]

Chart of Sounds in Shughni
Letter English equivalent Usage in Shugni
A/a apple, angry bad, akuniath, aram, anor
Aa/aa Harvard, march xhaab, daav, zamunaa, baad
Ai/ai bite, fire taiyor, arai, aiyuum, maile
B/b big, able biyor, balad, abor
Ch/ch church, chair chiiz, chiid, choi, chorik
D/d dead, dried daak, diidor, murd, darc
Dh/dh this, mother dhid, dhust, dhud, pidhid, podh
Dz/dz buds, lads dzulik, pindz, wixhidz, majhdzuunj
E/e elephant, egg elak, qate, qine, biide
Ee/ee same as above but longer tseem, teez, deer, Apreel
Ey/ey aid, ancient peydow, xheydow,
Ff/ff fat, roof fort, famtow, faand, boft
G/h girl, big gaap, gandaa, gardha, yiga
Gh/gh ghaats, ghalat, bogh, shagh
I/i big, lift nist, yiwath, khirs, chis
Ii/ii feet, beat tiidow, miidow, shiintow, zhiiwj
J/j jam, barge jumla, jazo, majlis, ajab
Jh/jh jhinik, saajh, majh, sipajh
K/k book, kit kitob, maak, tukmaa, kiinaa
Kh/kh loch, Khorog khaat, sakht, bakht, kharid
L/l like, feel lap, liing, tambal, balad
M/m mouse, meet mund, tamand, famtow, shaam
N/n nut, mean naan, qand, fanaa, baandak
O/o pot, shop oyandaa, ofarin, boft, nolaan
Oo/oo boot, poodle noor, joor, mood, moon
P/p paint, top parwiin, lap, pardhedow, pool
Q/q Quran qamoch, qand, nuqtaa, qiin
R/r rabbit, rob raang, tsarang, roosht, rukhsat
S/s sit, miss sarake, baas, kasal, safar
Sh/sh shout, bush shamol, maash, bashand, shogird
T/t title, time tavaar, turd, sust, chust
Th/th think, moth achath, khobath, aquniath, thiir
Ts/ts blitz, fits tsavor, buts, tsarang, xhats
U/u look, should duzd, mund, tuid, buts
Uu/uu earn, fern luuvd, uun, yuudand, okhiruun
V/v vet, leave viidow, yelav, vaz, virod
W/w few, wait chiidow, wiintow, boware, wazmin
Xh/xh xheidow, xhats, tuxhna, duxhman
Y/y yellow, yet yordam, yelav, oyandaa, boyad
Z/z zoo, blaze zamiin, bozor, zardak, ziird
Zh/zh pleasure, de ja vu zholaa, zhiiwj, ghazhd, zhow

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

[5]

Labial Dental Alveolar Alveolo-
palatal
Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k ɡ q
Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ χ ʁ h
Approximant l j w
Rhotic r

Literature[edit]

  • Zarubin, I.I.. Shugnanskie teksty i slovar. Moskva : Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, 1960.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shughni at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Shughni". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b Karamšoev, Dodchudo K. (1988-99). Šugnansko-russkij slovar. 3 vols. Moskva: Nauka. ISBN 5-02-016991-9 (Vol. 2), ISBN 5-02-018101-3 /ISBN 5-02-017858-6 (Vol. 3)
  4. ^ Ethnologue:Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern
  5. ^ http://people.umass.edu/ellenw/shughni%20vowels%20and%20consonants.pdf

External links[edit]