Shumshu

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Shumshu
Native name: Шумшу
占守島(Shumushu-tō)
Shumshu.jpg
A Landsat 7 image of Shumshu Island. The northern tip of Paramushir Island is at left. The First Kuril Strait lies across the upper portion of the image.
Kuriles Shumshu.PNG
Geography
Location Pacific Ocean
Coordinates 50°44′N 156°19′E / 50.733°N 156.317°E / 50.733; 156.317
Archipelago Kuril Island
Area 388 km2 (150 sq mi)
Length 28 km (17.4 mi)
Width 15 km (9.3 mi)
Highest elevation 171 m (561 ft)
Country
Russia
Oblast Sakhalin Oblast
District Severo-Kurilsky

Shumshu (Russian: Шумшу, Shumushu; Japanese: 占守島 Shumushu-tō), is the next to northernmost island of the Kuril Islands chain in the Sea of Okhotsk in the northwest Pacific Ocean. The name of the island is derived from the Ainu language meaning “good island”. It is separated from Paramushir by the very narrow Second Kuril Strait in the northeast 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi), its northern tip is 11 km from Cape Lopatka at the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula. The island has a seasonal population of around 100 inhabitants.

Geography[edit]

Shumshu is the least elevated in the entire Kuril group with a height of 189 metres (620 ft). The terrain is low-lying and covered with numerous lakes and marshland. Is roughly oval, and has an area of 388 square kilometres (150 sq mi). [1]

History[edit]

Shumshu was inhabited by the Ainu at the time of European contact, who subsisted off of the abundant fish, marine mammals and birdlife in the area. The island appears on an official map showing the territories of Matsumae Domain, a feudal domain of Edo period Japan dated 1644. Due to its proximity to Kamchatka Shumshu became the first of the Kurils to be reached by Cossacks from the peninsula in the first years of the 18th century. Russian fur traders are known to have visited the island in 1711 and 1713, and it was from this base that Russian fur hunters and traders gradually expanded into other islands of the chain and Sakhalin. Although the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan officially confirmed the Matsumae Domain’s claims to the island, the island remained outside of de facto Japanese control. Also claimed by the Empire of Russia, sovereignty over the island was confirmed to be under Russia under the terms of the Treaty of Shimoda in 1855. In 1875, sovereignty was transferred to the Empire of Japan per the Treaty of Saint Petersburg along with the rest of the Kuril Islands. A number of colonizing expeditions followed, establishing the settlement of Kataoka (on the site of the Ainu settlement of Mairuppo) as the commercial center of Shumshu. As the island closest to Russia, it became an important military outpost, as well as a center for the commercial fishing industry. The island was administered as part of Shimushu District of Nemuro Subprefecture of Hokkaidō. In 1910, a cannery was established, and the island’s civilian population exceeded 2000 persons by the early 1940s.

Towards the end of World War II the island was strongly garrisoned by both the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy. A garrison of over 24,500 men reinforced by sixty tanks was garrisoned on Shumshu in nine locations centered around Kataoka. All coastal areas convenient for landings were covered with permanent emplacements and bunkers, interconnected with underground passages and trenches. All the warehouses, power station and hospitals were up to 50 meters underground. These defenses were manned by the IJA 91st Infantry Division, with the IJA 73rd Infantry Brigade. Miyoshino Airfield was a joint Japanese Army-Navy airfield, located near the center of the Shumshu island. This airfield based several units including B5N2 Kate, G3M Nell, Ki-44 Tojos and Ki-43 Oscars. Kataoka Naval Base was under the IJN 5th Fleet and had three 60' oil storage tanks and other barracks and supply buildings. The base also had a seaplane facility on the harbor, as well as a 4000-foot and a 5000-foot land runways at neighboring Imaizaki Airfield. These facilities were subject to sporadic air raids from the US Army Air Force and US Navy based in the Aleutian Islands from 1943 until the end of the war.

During the Invasion of the Kuril Islands, Soviet landed on Shumshu on August 18, 1945, and combat operations continued through August 23, ending with the surrender of the surviving members of the Japanese garrison. The Battle of Shumshu was one of the last battles of the war. The Soviets forcibly deported the remaining Japanese civilian inhabitants and sent the prisoners of war, including most male civilians to labor camps. Kataoka was renamed Baikovo (Russian: Байково), and the island annexed by the Soviet Union in 1946. Japan formally gave up sovereignty over the island under the terms of the San Francisco Peace Treaty of 1951.

The island is now administered as part of the Sakhalin Oblast of the Russian Federation.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "International Kuril Island Project(IKIP)". University of Washington Fish Collection or the respective authors. 

References[edit]

  • Gorshkov, G. S. Volcanism and the Upper Mantle Investigations in the Kurile Island Arc. Monographs in geoscience. New York: Plenum Press, 1970. ISBN 0-306-30407-4
  • Krasheninnikov, Stepan Petrovich, and James Greive. The History of Kamtschatka and the Kurilski Islands, with the Countries Adjacent. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1963.
  • Rees, David. The Soviet Seizure of the Kuriles. New York: Praeger, 1985. ISBN 0-03-002552-4
  • Takahashi, Hideki, and Masahiro Ōhara. Biodiversity and Biogeography of the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. Bulletin of the Hokkaido University Museum, no. 2-. Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University Museum, 2004.

External links[edit]