Shushtar

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For the administrative subdivision, see Shushtar County.
Shushtar
شوشتر
city
Shushtar abshar.JPG
Shushtar is located in Iran
Shushtar
Shushtar
Coordinates: 32°02′44″N 48°51′24″E / 32.04556°N 48.85667°E / 32.04556; 48.85667Coordinates: 32°02′44″N 48°51′24″E / 32.04556°N 48.85667°E / 32.04556; 48.85667
Country  Iran
Province Khuzestan
County Shushtar
Bakhsh Central
Population (2012)
 • Total 192,361
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 • Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)

Shushtar (Persian: شوشتر‎; also Romanized as Shūshtar and Shūstar, and Shooshtar)[1] is a city in and the capital of Shushtar County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2012 census, its population was 192,361.[2]

Shushtar is an ancient fortress city, approximately 92 kilometres (57 mi) away from Ahvaz, the centre of the province. Much of its past agricultural productivity derives from the Roman-built irrigation system which centered on the Band-e Kaisar, the first dam bridge in Iran.[3] The Mayor of Shushtar is Ahmad Asefi.

History[edit]

In the Elamite times Shushtar was known as Adamdun. In the Achaemenian times its name was Šurkutir. The modern name, Shushtar, is connected with the name of another ancient city, Susa (or Shush, in Persian pronunciation), and means "greater (or better) than Shush."

During the Sassanian era, it was an island city on the Karun river and selected to become the summer capital. The river was channelled to form a moat around the city, while bridges and main gates into Shushtar were built to the east, west, and south. Several rivers nearby are conducive to the extension of agriculture; the cultivation of sugar cane, the main crop, dates back to 226. A system of subterranean channels called Ghanats, which connected the river to the private reservoirs of houses and buildings, supplied water for domestic use and irrigation, as well as to store and supply water during times of war when the main gates were closed. Traces of these ghanats can still be found in the crypts of some houses.

The ancient fortress walls were destroyed at the end of the Safavid era.

Band-e Kaisar[edit]

The Band-e Kaisar ("Caesar's dam") was a Roman arch bridge, and the first in the country to combine it with a dam.[3] When the Sassanian Shah Shapur I defeated the Roman emperor Valerian, he is said to have ordered the captive Roman soldiers to build a large bridge and dam stretching over 500 metres.[4] Lying deep in Persian territory, the structure which exhibits typical Roman building techniques became the most eastern Roman bridge and Roman dam.[5] Its dual-purpose design exerted a profound influence on Iranian civil engineering and was instrumental in developing Sassanid water management techniques.[6]

The approximately 500 m long overflow dam over the Karun, Iran's most effluent river, was the core structure of the Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System, a large irrigation complex from which Shushtar derived its agricultural productivity,[7] and which has been designated World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 2009.[8] The arched superstructure carried across the important road between Pasargadae and the Sassanid capital Ctesiphon.[9] Many times repaired in the Islamic period,[10] the dam bridge fell out of use in the late 19th century, leading to the degeneration of the complex system of irrigation.[11]

People and culture[edit]

Shushtar handicrafts

The people of Shushtar, called Shushtaris, maintain a unique cultural heritage stretching back to ancient times, and a Persian dialect distinct to their group.

Language[edit]

The Shushtari dialect is spoken in Shushtar and Dezful and is a dialect of the Persian language.

Shushtar New Town[edit]

In 1973, the Pahlavi dynasty initiated efforts to revitalise the economy of Shushtar, which had stagnated since the deterioration of the waterways in the 19th century, and to further develop agricultural resources in the province. The Karun Agro-Industries Corporation built a satellite town across the river from the old city, naming it Shushtar New Town. The primary purpose of this new development was to house the employees of a nearby cane sugar mill, while also intending to stimulate interest in the old city and to provide additional housing necessary to accommodate industrial growth in the province.

Climate[edit]

Shushtar has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) with extremely hot summers and mild winters. Rainfall is higher than most of southern Iran, but is almost exclusively confined to the period from November to April, though on occasions it can exceed 250 millimetres (9.8 in) per month or 600 millimetres (24 in) per year.[12]

Climate data for Shushtar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28.0
(82.4)
29.0
(84.2)
36.0
(96.8)
40.5
(104.9)
46.5
(115.7)
50.0
(122)
53.6
(128.5)
52.0
(125.6)
48.0
(118.4)
43.0
(109.4)
35.0
(95)
29.0
(84.2)
53.6
(128.5)
Average high °C (°F) 17.2
(63)
19.6
(67.3)
24.1
(75.4)
30.0
(86)
37.5
(99.5)
43.7
(110.7)
46.0
(114.8)
44.9
(112.8)
41.7
(107.1)
34.8
(94.6)
26.2
(79.2)
19.3
(66.7)
32.08
(89.76)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.8
(51.4)
13.2
(55.8)
17.3
(63.1)
22.8
(73)
29.9
(85.8)
35.1
(95.2)
37.0
(98.6)
35.8
(96.4)
32.0
(89.6)
25.6
(78.1)
17.9
(64.2)
12.5
(54.5)
24.16
(75.48)
Average low °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
6.8
(44.2)
10.0
(50)
14.7
(58.5)
20.5
(68.9)
23.8
(74.8)
26.2
(79.2)
25.5
(77.9)
21.1
(70)
16.2
(61.2)
10.8
(51.4)
6.8
(44.2)
15.64
(60.15)
Record low °C (°F) −9
(16)
−4.0
(24.8)
−2
(28)
3.0
(37.4)
10.0
(50)
16.0
(60.8)
19.0
(66.2)
16.5
(61.7)
10.0
(50)
6.0
(42.8)
1.0
(33.8)
−2
(28)
−9
(16)
Rainfall mm (inches) 100.6
(3.961)
60.0
(2.362)
50.2
(1.976)
34.5
(1.358)
9.2
(0.362)
0.0
(0)
0.2
(0.008)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
7.4
(0.291)
39.1
(1.539)
83.2
(3.276)
384.4
(15.133)
Avg. rainy days 9.9 8.1 8.1 6.5 3.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 2.1 6.2 8.0 52
 % humidity 75 68 59 49 32 22 24 28 29 40 59 73 46.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 131.6 158.4 192.3 217.7 272.5 325.6 322.7 317.0 291.3 234.8 158.2 121.9 2,744
Source: NOAA (1961-1990) [13]

Watersports[edit]

Shushtar abshar night.JPG

Khuzestanis regularly travel to Shushtar to go swimming, boating and kayaking. File:Shushtar watermils3.jpg|منظومه آبشار ها و آسیاب های آبی شوشتـــر عکس : سید حمید میرهادی File:Shushtar waret mils 2.jpg|منظومه آبشار ها و آسیاب های آبی شوشتر File:Shushtar watermils4.jpg|منظومه آبشار ها و آسیاب های آبی شوشتر عکس : مهرداد میثاقیان File:Shushtar watermils5.jpg|منظومه آبشار ها و آسیاب های آبی شوشتر File:Shushtar water mils.jpg|منظومه آبشار ها و آسیاب های آبی شوشتر عکس : احمد خیرالله نژاد File:Shushtar water mils 6.jpg|سیکا بخشی از منظومه آبشار ها و آسیاب های آبی شوشتر

See also[edit]

  • Sahl al-Tustari, a medieval Islamic scholar and early Sufi mystic born in Shushtar

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shushtar can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3085511" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  2. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11. 
  3. ^ a b Vogel 1987, p. 50
  4. ^ Smith 1971, pp. 56–61; Schnitter 1978, p. 32; Kleiss 1983, p. 106; Vogel 1987, p. 50; Hartung & Kuros 1987, p. 232; Hodge 1992, p. 85; O'Connor 1993, p. 130; Huff 2010; Kramers 2010
  5. ^ Schnitter 1978, p. 28, fig. 7
  6. ^ Impact on civil engineering: Huff 2010; on water management: Smith 1971, pp. 60f.
  7. ^ Length: Hodge 1992, p. 85; Hodge 2000, pp. 337f.; extensive irrigation system: O'Connor 1993, p. 130
  8. ^ UNESCO World Heritage: Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System
  9. ^ Hartung & Kuros 1987, p. 232
  10. ^ Hartung & Kuros 1987, p. 246
  11. ^ Hodge 1992, p. 85; Hodge 2000, pp. 337f.
  12. ^ Dezful rainfall
  13. ^ "Shushtar Weather History". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 28, 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • Hartung, Fritz; Kuros, Gh. R. (1987), "Historische Talsperren im Iran", in Garbrecht, Günther, Historische Talsperren 1, Stuttgart: Verlag Konrad Wittwer, pp. 221–274, ISBN 3-87919-145-X 
  • Hodge, A. Trevor (1992), Roman Aqueducts & Water Supply, London: Duckworth, p. 85, ISBN 0-7156-2194-7 
  • Hodge, A. Trevor (2000), "Reservoirs and Dams", in Wikander, Örjan, Handbook of Ancient Water Technology, Technology and Change in History 2, Leiden: Brill, pp. 331–339 (337f.), ISBN 90-04-11123-9 
  • Huff, Dietrich (2010), "Bridges. Pre-Islamic Bridges", in Yarshater, Ehsan, Encyclopædia Iranica Online 
  • Kleiss, Wolfram (1983), Brückenkonstruktionen in Iran, Architectura 13: 105–112 (106) 
  • Kramers, J. H. (2010), "Shushtar", in Bearman, P., Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.), Brill Online 
  • O'Connor, Colin (1993), Roman Bridges, Cambridge University Press, p. 130 (No. E42), ISBN 0-521-39326-4 
  • Schnitter, Niklaus (1978), Römische Talsperren, Antike Welt 8 (2): 25–32 (32) 
  • Smith, Norman (1971), A History of Dams, London: Peter Davies, pp. 56–61, ISBN 0-432-15090-0 
  • Vogel, Alexius (1987), "Die historische Entwicklung der Gewichtsmauer", in Garbrecht, Günther, Historische Talsperren 1, Stuttgart: Verlag Konrad Wittwer, pp. 47–56 (50), ISBN 3-87919-145-X 

External links[edit]

File:Shushtar watermils3.jpg|shushtar water mills File:Shushtar waret mils 2.jpg|shushtar water mills File:Shushtar watermils4.jpg|shushtar water mills File:Shushtar watermils5.jpg|shushtar water mills File:Shushtar water mils.jpg|shushtar water mills File:Shushtar water mils 6.jpg|shushtar water mills