Space Shuttle Challenger

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Challenger
OV-099
Space Shuttle Challenger
Challenger is launched on its first mission, STS-6
OV designation OV-099
Country United States
Contract award January 1, 1979
Named after HMS Challenger (1858)
Status Destroyed January 28, 1986
First flight STS-6
April 4–9, 1983
Last flight STS-51-L
January 28, 1986
Number of missions 10
Time spent in space 62 days 07:56:22[1]
Number of orbits 995
Distance travelled 25,803,939 mi (41,527,414 km)
Satellites deployed 10

Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASA's second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia having been the first. The shuttle was built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division in Downey, California. Its maiden flight was on April 4, 1983, and it completed nine missions before breaking apart 73 seconds after the launch of its tenth mission, STS-51-L on January 28, 1986, resulting in the death of all seven crew members. It was the first of two shuttles (the other being Columbia) to be destroyed. The accident led to a two-and-a-half year grounding of the shuttle fleet, with missions resuming in 1988 with the launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-26. Challenger itself was replaced by the Space Shuttle Endeavour, which first launched in May 1992 and was constructed from structural spares that had been ordered by NASA as part of the construction contracts for Discovery and Atlantis.

History[edit]

Challenger was named after HMS Challenger, a British corvette that was the command ship for the Challenger Expedition, a pioneering global marine research expedition undertaken from 1872 through 1876.[2] The Apollo 17 lunar module that landed on the Moon in 1972 was also named Challenger.[2]

Construction[edit]

Challenger being prepared in 1985 for its second-to-last flight STS-61-A

Because of the low production of orbiters, the Space Shuttle program decided to build a vehicle as a Structural Test Article, STA-099, that could later be converted to a flight vehicle. The contract for STA-099 was awarded to North American Rockwell on July 26, 1972, and its construction was completed in February 1978.[3] After STA-099's rollout, it was sent to a Lockheed test site in Palmdale, where it spent over 11 months in vibration tests designed to simulate entire shuttle flights, from launch to landing.[4] In order to prevent damage during structural testing, qualification tests were performed to a factor of safety of 1.2 times the design limit loads. The qualification tests were used to validate computational models, and compliance with the required 1.4 factor of safety was shown by analysis.[5] STA-099 was essentially a complete airframe of a Space Shuttle orbiter, with only a mockup crew module installed and thermal insulation placed on its forward fuselage.[6]

NASA planned to refit the prototype orbiter Enterprise (OV-101), used for flight testing, as the second operational orbiter, but design changes made during construction of the first orbiter, Columbia (OV-102), would have required extensive work. Because STA-099's qualification testing prevented damage, NASA found that rebuilding STA-099 as OV-099 would be less expensive than refitting Enterprise. Work on converting STA-099 into Challenger began in January 1979, starting with just the crew module (the pressurized portion of the vehicle) as the rest of the orbiter was still used by Lockheed. STA-099 returned to the Rockwell plant in November 1979, and the original unfinished crew module was replaced with the newly constructed model. Major portions of STA-099, including the payload bay doors, body flap, wings and vertical stabilizer, also had to be returned to their individual subcontractors for rework. By early 1981, most of these components had returned to Palmdale and were reinstalled on the orbiter. Work continued on the conversion until July 1982.[4]

Challenger (and the orbiters built after it) had fewer tiles in its Thermal Protection System than Columbia, though it still made heavy use of the white LRSI tiles on the cabin and main fuselage compared to the later orbiters. Most of the tiles on the payload bay doors, upper wing surfaces, and rear fuselage surfaces were replaced with DuPont white Nomex felt insulation. These modifications as well as an overall lighter structure allowed Challenger to carry 2,500 lb (1,100 kg) more payload than Columbia. Challenger's fuselage and wings were also stronger than Columbia's despite being lighter.[4] The hatch and vertical stabilizer tile patterns were also different from that of the other orbiters. Challenger was also the first orbiter to have a head-up display system for use in the descent phase of a mission, and the first to feature Phase I main engines rated for 104% maximum thrust.

Construction milestones (as STA-099)[edit]

Date Milestone[7]
1972 July 26 Contract Award to North American Rockwell
1975 November 21 Start structural assembly of crew module
1976 June 14 Start structural assembly of aft fuselage.
1977 March 16 Wings arrive at Palmdale from Grumman
1977 September 30 Start of Final Assembly
1978 February 10 Completed Final Assembly
1978 February 14 Rollout from Palmdale

Construction milestones (as OV-099)[edit]

Date Milestone[7]
1979 January 5 Contract Award to Rockwell International, Space Transportation Systems Division
1979 January 28 Start structural assembly of crew module
1980 November 3 Start of Final Assembly
1981 October 23 Completed Final Assembly
1982 June 30 Rollout from Palmdale
1982 July 1 Overland transport from Palmdale to Edwards
1982 July 5 Delivery to KSC
1982 December 19 Flight Readiness Firing (FRF)
1983 April 4 First Flight (STS-6)

Flights and modifications[edit]

Challenger broke apart during launch in 1986, killing all crew on board.

After its first flight in April 1983, Challenger quickly became the workhorse of NASA's Space Shuttle fleet, flying far more missions per year than Columbia. In 1983 and 1984, Challenger flew on 85% of all Space Shuttle missions. Even when the orbiters Discovery and Atlantis joined the fleet, Challenger flew three missions a year from 1983 to 1985. Challenger, along with Discovery, was modified at Kennedy Space Center to be able to carry the Centaur-G upper stage in its payload bay. If flight STS-51-L had been successful, Challenger's next mission would have been the deployment of the Ulysses probe with the Centaur to study the polar regions of the Sun.

Challenger flew the first American woman, African-American, and Canadian into space; three Spacelab missions; and performed the first night launch and night landing of a Space Shuttle. Challenger was also the first space shuttle to be destroyed in an accident during a mission. The collected debris of the vessel is currently buried in decommissioned missile silos at Launch Complex 31, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. From time to time, further pieces of debris from the orbiter wash up on the Florida coast.[8] When this happens, they are collected and transported to the silos for storage. Because of its early loss, Challenger was the only space shuttle that never wore the NASA "meatball" logo, and was never modified with the MEDS "glass cockpit". The tail was never fitted with a drag chute – it was fitted to the remaining orbiters in 1992.

Shuttle-challenger.jpg
Space Shuttle Challenger as STA-099.jpg
Challenger's rollout from Orbiter Processing
Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). Photo 1983-8-25 courtesy of NASA.
Challenger while in service as structural test article STA-099.
# Date Designation Launch pad Landing location Notes Mission duration
1 April 4, 1983 STS-6 LC-39A Edwards Air Force Base Deployed TDRS-A.

First spacewalk during a space shuttle mission.

5 days, 00 hours, 23 minutes, 42 seconds
2 June 18, 1983 STS-7 LC-39A Edwards Air Force Base Sally Ride becomes first American woman in space.

Deployed two communications satellites.

6 days, 02 hours, 23 minutes, 59 seconds
3 August 30, 1983 STS-8 LC-39A Edwards Air Force Base Guion Bluford becomes first African-American in space

First shuttle night launch and night landing.
Deployed Insat-1B.
Carried 260,000 envelopes stamped to commemorate the 25th Anniversary of NASA.

6 days, 01 hours, 08 minutes, 43 seconds
4 February 3, 1984 STS-41-B LC-39A Kennedy Space Center First untethered spacewalk using the Manned Maneuvering Unit.

Deployed WESTAR and Palapa B-2 communications satellites unsuccessfully (both were retrieved during STS-51-A).

7 days, 23 hours, 15 minutes, 55 seconds
5 April 6, 1984 STS-41-C LC-39A Edwards Air Force Base Solar Maximum Mission service mission. 6 days, 23 hours, 40 minutes, 07 seconds
6 October 5, 1984 STS-41-G LC-39A Kennedy Space Center First mission to carry two women.

Marc Garneau becomes first Canadian in space.
Kathryn D. Sullivan becomes first American woman to make a spacewalk.
Deployed Earth Radiation Budget Satellite.

8 days, 05 hours, 23 minutes, 33 seconds
7 April 29, 1985 STS-51-B LC-39A Edwards Air Force Base Carried Spacelab-3. 7 days, 00 hours, 08 minutes, 46 seconds
8 July 29, 1985 STS-51-F LC-39A Edwards Air Force Base Carried Spacelab-2. 7 days, 22 hours, 45 minutes, 26 seconds
9 October 30, 1985 STS-61-A LC-39A Edwards Air Force Base Carried German Spacelab D-1.

Wubbo Ockels becomes the first Dutchman in space

7 days, 00 hours, 44 minutes, 51 seconds
10 January 28, 1986 STS-51-L LC-39B (planned to land at Kennedy Space Center). Shuttle disintegrated after launch, killing all seven astronauts on board. Was to have deployed TDRS-B. 0 days, 00 hours, 01 minute, 13 seconds

Mission insignias[edit]

NASA Orbiter Tribute for Space Shuttle Challenger
Space Shuttle Challenger tribute poster.jpg
Mission insignia for Challenger flights
Sts-6-patch.png
Sts-7-patch.png
STS-8 patch.svg
Sts-41-b-patch.png
STS-41-C patch.png
STS-41-G patch.png
STS-6
STS-7
STS-8
STS-41-B
STS-41-C
STS-41-G
Sts-51-b-patch.png
Sts-51-f-patch.png
STS-61-a-patch.png
STS-51-L.svg
STS-51-B
STS-51-F
STS-61-A
STS-51-L

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Harwood, William (October 12, 2009). "STS-129/ISS-ULF3 Quick-Look Data". CBS News. Retrieved November 30, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "Orbiter Vehicles", Kennedy Space Center, NASA, 2000-10-03, retrieved November 7, 2007.
  3. ^ "NASA - Space Shuttle Overview: Challenger (OV-099)". Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c Lardas, Mark (2012). Space Shuttle Launch System: 1972-2004. Osprey Publishing. p. 36. 
  5. ^ NASA Engineering and Safety Center (2007). Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) Considerations for Safe and Reliable Human Rated Spacecraft Systems, Vol. II, June 14, 2007, p. 23.
  6. ^ Evans, Ben (2007). Space Shuttle Challenger: Ten Journeys Into the Unknown. Praxis Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 0-387-46355-0. 
  7. ^ a b "Shuttle Orbiter Challenger (OV-099)". NASA/KSC. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  8. ^ CNN (1996). "Shuttle Challenger debris washes up on shore". CNN. Retrieved November 7, 2007. 

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]