Shuttle Loop

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Shuttle Loop
Greezed Lightnin' (Kentucky Kingdom).JPG
Kentucky Kingdom's Greezed Lightnin' before it closed in 2009
Status Discontinued
First manufactured 1977
No. of installations 12
Manufacturer Anton Schwarzkopf
Designer Werner Stengel & Reinhold Spieldiener
Capacity 1300 riders per hour
Vehicle type Roller coaster train
Vehicles 1
Riders per vehicle 28
Rows 14
Riders per row 2
Inversions 2
Shuttle Loop at RCDB

A Shuttle Loop is a type of steel launched shuttle roller coaster designed by Reinhold Spieldiener of Intamin and manufactured by Anton Schwarzkopf.[1] A total of 12 installations were produced between 1977 and 1990. These 12 installations have been located in a total of 22 different amusement parks.

History[edit]

The first installation of a Shuttle Loop dates back to 1977 when King Kobra opened at Kings Dominion.[2][3] Two other rides were also installed that year: White Lightnin' at Carowinds and Tidal Wave at Marriott's Great America (California).[4][5] Tidal Wave at Marriott's Great America (Illinois) opened in 1978 and was the last to feature the Weight Drop launch system.[6][7] Also that year, Knott's Berry Farm opened Montezooma's Revenge and Six Flags AstroWorld opened Greezed Lightnin' as the first installations to feature the Flywheel launch system.[7][8][9] A number of installations followed across the world.

Twenty-two theme parks have operated Shuttle Loops, with half of the twelve original installations being relocated at some time. As of September 2013, only six installations are operating, with another one in storage.[8][10][11][12][13][14][15] The remaining Shuttle Loops were either demolished to used for replacement parts on other installations.[12][16][17][18][19]

Notable installations[edit]

  • The original King Kobra from Kings Dominion is the most traveled shuttle loop having operated at Kings Dominion, Jolly Roger Amusement Park, Alton Towers and Hopi Hari.[13]
  • Montezooma's Revenge at Knott's Berry Farm, is the longest running shuttle loop that is still in its original location. All of the shuttle loops that were installed before it have either been moved or destroyed.[20]
  • Shuttle Loop at Nagashima Spa Land is the only remaining Shuttle Loop operating in Asia.[20]
  • The first European Shuttle Loop, Sirocco, was installed in 1982 at Walibi Wavre in Belgium. In 1999, the ride was partially enclosed to reduce noise and was renamed Turbine. Turbine closed in 2008 and reopened in 2013 with a new train from Gerstlauer and a new name, Psyké Underground. The ride is now completely enclosed making it the first indoor shuttle loop.
  • The shuttle loop, Greezed Lightnin', that operated at Kentucky Kingdom from 2003 to 2009 was composed of the two Tidal Wave Shuttle Loops from the Marriott's Great America parks in California and Illinois.[12]
  • The final new installation was Shuttle Loop at Oyama Yuenchi in 1990.[16]

Ride[edit]

The original train and station of Turbine at Walibi Belgium

Experience[edit]

The train is launched out of the station at a speed of between 53 and 60 miles per hour (85 and 97 km/h) before passing through a vertical loop and up a 138-foot-tall spike (42 m). Once the momentum of the train run outs on the 70° spike, it begins to traverse the track backwards. Upon reaching the station, it passes through it and goes up another 70° steep spike which stands at 105 feet (32 m) tall until it stalls again and rolls forward back into the brake run and station.[21][22]

Figure 1 from Anton Schwarzkopf's patent for the Shuttle Loop roller coaster (patent US4165695, "Amusement ride with vertical track loop"). The image shows the overall layout of the ride.

Mechanics[edit]

Anton Schwarzkopf designed the Shuttle Loop in the late 1970s. He filed a patent for the concept in 1978 which was approved the following year.[23] The patent describes two launch systems, both of which were implemented in various roller coasters:[21][22][23]

  • Weight Drop - a number of the early installations in 1977 and 1978 featured a Weight Drop launch system.[7] This system involved a catch car attaching itself to the train, which was attached to the weight via a cable. When the launch was triggered, the 40-tonne (39-long-ton; 44-short-ton) weight was dropped down a shaft pulling the cable and catch car which in turn pushed the train down the launch track.[24]
  • Flywheel - from 1978, all of the new installations featured a Flywheel launch system.[7] This system consists of a 6-tonne (5.9-long-ton; 6.6-short-ton) flywheel which is spun at over 1000 revolutions per minute. This flywheel is attached to a cable that in-turn propels the train forward.[24]

Gerstlauer completed an upgrade of Walibi Belgium's installation for the 2013 season. As part of the upgrade Gerstlauer replaced the existing flywheel launch system with a new linear induction motor (LIM) launch system. The company also added a new train. The ride was then completely enclosed and relaunched as Psyké Underground.[25][26][27]

Installations[edit]

Name Park Opened Closed Status Length Height Speed Launch
Cascabel
Laser Loop
La Feria Chapultepec Magico
Kennywood
1994
1980

1990
Operating
Relocated to La Feria Chapultepec Magico
876 ft or 267 m 139 ft or 42 m 54 mph or 87 km/h Flywheel [10][28]
Golden Loop
White Lightnin'
Gold Reef City
Carowinds
1989
1977

1988
Operating
Relocated to Gold Reef City
863 ft or 263 m 138 ft or 42 m 57 mph or 92 km/h Weight Drop [4][11]
Greased Lightnin'
Tidal Wave
Six Flags Discovery Kingdom
California's Great America
2003
1977
2006
2002
Closed[nb 1][12]
Relocated to Six Flags Discovery Kingdom
863 ft or 263 m 138 ft or 42 m 57 mph or 92 km/h Weight Drop [5][17]
Greezed Lightnin'
Viper
Tidal Wave
Kentucky Kingdom
Six Flags Over Georgia
Six Flags Great America
2003
1995
1978
2009[nb 2]
2001
1991
Closed
Relocated to Six Flags Kentucky Kingdom
Relocated to Six Flags Over Georgia
863 ft or 263 m 138 ft or 42 m 57 mph or 92 km/h Weight Drop [6][12][29]
Katapul
Thunder Looper
King Kobra
King Kobra
Hopi Hari
Alton Towers
Jolly Roger Amusement Park
Kings Dominion
1999
1990
1987
1977

1996
1989
1986
Operating
Relocated to Hopi Hari
Relocated to Alton Towers
Relocated to Jolly Roger Amusement Park
722 ft or 220 m 138 ft or 42 m 53 mph or 85 km/h Weight Drop [2][3][13][30]
Montezooma's Revenge Knott's Berry Farm 1978 Operating 800 ft or 240 m 148 ft or 45 m 55 mph or 89 km/h Flywheel [8]
Shuttle Loop Nagashima Spa Land 1980 Operating 863 ft or 263 m 138 ft or 42 m 57 mph or 92 km/h Flywheel [14]
Shuttle Loop Toshimaen 1980 2008 Closed 863 ft or 263 m 138 ft or 42 m 57 mph or 92 km/h Flywheel [18]
Shuttle Loop Oyama Yuenchi 1990 2005 Closed Unknown Unknown Unknown Flywheel [16]
Shuttle Loop Yokohama Dreamland 1979 2002 Closed Unknown Unknown Unknown Flywheel [19]
Psyké Underground
Turbine
Sirocco
Walibi Belgium 2013
1999
1982

2012
1998
Operating 722 ft or 220 m 138 ft or 42 m 53 mph or 85 km/h LIM
Flywheel
Flywheel
[25]
unknown*
unknown*
Greezed Lightnin'
Cliff's Amusement Park
Joyland Amusement Park
Six Flags AstroWorld
2012
2006
1978

2012
2005
In storage at Larson Manufacturing
Ownership transferred to Cliff's Amusement Park
Relocated to Joyland Amusement Park
849 ft or 259 m 138 ft or 42 m 60 mph or 97 km/h Flywheel [9][15][31][32]

- *Coaster has been in storage near MacKenzie Park (track) and Larson Manufacturing (trains, flywheel and hardware) since 2006.[33][34]

Incidents[edit]

Montezooma's Revenge at Knott's Berry Farm

A 20-year-old woman died on September 1, 2001, one day after riding Montezooma's Revenge, the Shuttle Loop at Knott's Berry Farm. She suffered a ruptured middle cerebral artery, and an autopsy revealed a pre-existing condition. The ride was closed for several days while an investigation was conducted. Though state investigators concluded that the ride did not contribute to her death, a wrongful death lawsuit was later filed by her family in 2002.[35] The lawsuit was dismissed in 2006.[36]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The track was used as replacement parts for the Kentucky Kingdom installation during the 2005/2006 off season.
  2. ^ Ceased operation in 2009 before removal in 2013.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Scheinin, Lisa (1993). "Who's Who & What's What (Part II)". RollerCoaster! Magazine (Chicago, Illinois: American Coaster Enthusiasts) 15 (2): 33. ISSN 0896-7261. 
  2. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "King Kobra  (Kings Dominion)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "King Kobra  (Jolly Roger Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  4. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "White Lightnin'  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  5. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Greased Lightnin'  (California's Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Tidal Wave  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d Marden, Duane. "Roller Coaster Search Results  (Shuttle Loop)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c Marden, Duane. "Montezooma's Revenge  (Knott's Berry Farm)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  9. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Greezed Lightnin'  (Six Flags AstroWorld)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Cascabel  (La Feria Chapultepec Magico)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  11. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Golden Loop  (Gold Reef City)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Marden, Duane. "Greezed Lightnin'  (Kentucky Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c Marden, Duane. "Katapul  (Hopi Hari)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  14. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Shuttle Loop  (Nagashima Spa Land)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  15. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "unknown  (Cliff's Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  16. ^ a b c Marden, Duane. "Shuttle Loop  (Oyama Yuenchi)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  17. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Greased Lightnin'  (Six Flags Discovery Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  18. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Shuttle Loop  (Toshimaen)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  19. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Shuttle Loop  (Yokohama Dreamland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  20. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Roller Coaster Search Results". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 
  21. ^ a b "Shuttle Loop 1". Schwarzkopf Coaster Net. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  22. ^ a b "Shuttle Loop 2". Schwarzkopf Coaster Net. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  23. ^ a b US patent 4165695, Schwarzkopf, Anton, "Amusement ride with vertical track loop", issued August 28, 1979, assigned to Husar, Francis S. and Reece, Randolph A. 
  24. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Shuttle Loop". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  25. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Psyké Underground  (Walibi Belgium)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
  26. ^ Geering, Philipp (16 May 2013). Psyké Underground - The new Sirocco / Turbine at Walibi Belgium. (Interview). Walibi Belgium. Wavre, Walloon Brabant. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
  27. ^ "Psyké Underground". Park World Magazine: 10. September 2013. 
  28. ^ Marden, Duane. "Laser Loop  (Kennywood)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  29. ^ Marden, Duane. "Viper  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  30. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thunderlooper  (Alton Towers)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  31. ^ Marden, Duane. "unknown  (Joyland Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  32. ^ Rides4u.com http://www.rides4u.com/view/2056
  33. ^ "Historic Greezed Lightnin' moving to Cliffs Amusement Park". Amusement Today. Retrieved January 20, 2014. 
  34. ^ "Map coordinates 33.610636,-101.834203". Google Maps. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  35. ^ Anton, Mike (8 August 2002). "Knott's Sued in Death of Woman". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9 October 2010. 
  36. ^ "Court upholds dismissal of coaster lawsuit". Orange County Register. 24 February 2006. Retrieved 9 October 2010. 

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Revolution
World's Tallest Roller Coaster
(King Kobra, Greased Lightnin', and White Lightnin')

1977 - 1978
Succeeded by
Montezooma's Revenge