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Shyamnagar Upazila (Satkhira District) is a small town and the largest thana of Bangladesh with an area of 1968.24 km². It has many beautiful places including some part of the Sundarban, the largest mangrove forest in the world.
Shyamnagar Upazila is bounded by Kaliganj (Satkhira) and Assasuni upazilas on the north, Sundarbans and Bay of Bengal on the south, Koyra and Assasuni upazilas on the east, West Bengal of India on the west. The main rivers here are: Raymangal, Kalindi, Kobadak, Madar, Kholpetua, Arpangachia, Malancha, Hariabhanga and Chuna. South Talpatti Island at the estuary of the Hariabhanga is notable places.
Shyamnagar town consists of 5 mouzas and 13 villages. The area of the town is 10.76 km². The town has a population of 11021; male 52.36% and female 47.64%. The density of population is 1024 per km². Literacy rate among the town people is 37.3%. The town has three dakbungalows and a BDR Head Quarter.
Shyamnagar thana was turned into an upazila in 1982. It consists of 13 union parishads, 127 mouzas and 216 villages. Average literacy in whole upazila is 28.1% (male 38% and female 17.4%). There are 5 colleges, 28 high schools, 98 madrasas, 96 government primary schools. Main occupations of people is agriculture. About 32.93% people are engaged with this work. Main exports Paddy, jute and shrimp.
Once the capital of Raja Bikramaditya and Maharaja Pratapaditya was at Dhumghat. Later it was transferred to Ishwaripur (Originated from the name Jeshoreshwaripur). Maharaja Pratapaditya declared independence of South Bengal (Jessore, Khulna in north, Sundarbans, Bay of Bengal in South, Barisal in east and River Ganges in west) against the Mughal Empire of India.
Jashoreshwari Kali Temple (built by Pratapaditya), Chanda Bhairab Mandir at Ishwaripur (a triangular temple, built during the Sena period), Five domed Tenga Mosque at Banshipur (Mughal period), two big and four small domed Hammankhana (constructed by Pratapaditya) at Bangshipur, Govinda Dev Temple at Gopalpur (built by Basanta Roy, uncle of Maharaja Pratapaditya in 1593), Jahajghata Port (Khanpur). Pratapaditya king of Jessore and one of the bara-bhuiyans of Bengal. Pratapaditya fought against the Mughal imperial army during its inroad into Bengal in the early 17th century. His father Shrihari (Shridhar), a Kayastha, was an influential officer in the service of daud khan karrani. On the fall of Daud he fled away with the government treasure in his custody. He then set up a kingdom for himself in the marshy land to the extreme south of Khulna district (1574) and took the title of Maharaja. Pratapaditya succeeded to the kingship in 1574. The baharistan and the travel diary of Abdul Latif and the contemporary European writers, all testify to the personal ability of Pratapaditya, his political pre-eminence, material resources and martial strength, particularly in war-boats. His territories covered the greater part of what is now included in the greater Jessore, Khulna and Barisal districts. He established his capital at Dhumghat, a strategic position at the confluence of the Jamuna and Ichhamati.
Among the Bengal zamindars Pratapaditya was the first to send his envoy to Islam Khan Chisti with a large gift to win the favour of the Mughals, and then tendered personal submission to the Subahdar (1609). He promised military assistance and personal service in the Mughal campaign against musa khan, a pledge that he did not keep. To punish Pratapaditya for his disloyalty as a vassal and to subjugate his territory, a large expedition was launched under the command of Ghiyas Khan, which soon reached a place named Salka, near the confluence of the Jamuna and Ichhamati (1611). Pratapaditya equipped a strong army and a fleet and placed them under expert officers including Feringis, Afghans and Pathans. His eldest son Udayaditya made a big fort at Salka with natural barriers on three sides rendering it almost impregnable. In battle the Jessore fleet gained an initial advantage. But the imperial army cut off the Jessore fleet, made a breach in its ranks and broke its unity and discipline. In the melee that followed, the admiral Khwaja Kamal was killed. Udayaditya lost heart and hastily fled to his father, narrowly escaping capture. Jamal Khan evacuated the fort and followed Udayaditya.
Pratapaditya prepared himself to fight a second time from a new base near the confluence of Kagarghat canal and the Jamuna. He made a big fort at a strategic point and gathered all his available forces there. The imperialists began the battle by an attack on the Jessore fleet (Jan 1612) and compelled it to seek shelter beneath the fort. But their further advance was checked by the heavy cannonade of the Jessore artillery. A sudden attack of the imperialists completely defeated the Jessore fleet and they fell upon the fort with the elephants in front, thereby compelling Pratapaditya to evacuate the fort and retreat.
The second defeat sealed the fate of Pratapaditya. At Kagarghat he tendered submission to Ghiyas Khan, who personally escorted Pratapaditya to Islam Khan at Dhaka. The Jessore king was put in chains and his kingdom was annexed. Pratapaditya was kept confined at Dhaka. No authentic information is available regarding his last days. Probably he died at Benares on his way to Delhi, as a prisoner.
A battle between the Pak army and the freedom fighters was held at Gopalpur on 20 August 1971 in which freedom fighters Subedar Ilias Khan, Abul Kalam Azad, Abdul Kader and Abdul Jabbar were killed. On 12 September 1971 the Pak army conducted genocide at Harinagar in which 39 persons were killed and 2 wounded. Mass killing sites are Harinagar and Katkhali. Memorial monuments are found at Gopalpur and Harinagar.
General information 
Population: 265004; male 50.46%, female 49.54%; Muslim 74.14%, Hindu 25.40%, Christian 0.06%, Buddhist 0.01% and others 0.39%; ethnic nationals: Munda (Buno) families 300.
Religious institutions: Mosque 251, temple 98, church 1 and sacred place 2, most noted of which are Banshipur Sahi Mosque (Tenga Mosque), tomb of Nurullah Khan at Nurnagar, Joseshwari Mandir and Chanda Bhairab Mandir at iswaripur.
Literacy and educational institutions: Average literacy 28.1%; male 38% and female 17.4%. Educational institutions: college 5, high school 28, madrasa 98, government primary school 96, non-government primary school 56, kindergarten 2, orphanage 4. Noted educational institutions: Nakipur Haricharan High School (1899), Nurnagar Ashalata High School (1955), Shyamnagar Mohsin College (1972),Nawabenki High School.
Cultural organisations: Rural club 82, public library 1, martyr memorial library 1, cinema hall 2, literary society 3, theatre group 4, theatre stage 1, circus party 1, women's organisation 3. Locally published newspapers and periodicals: Ayan (Nurnagar) and Pratya (Shyamnagar).
Main occupations: Agriculture 32.93%, agricultural labour 25.81%, wage labourer 6.21%, forestry 2.34%, fishing 5.5%, transport 1.61%, commerce 10.11%, service 3.38% and transport 12.11%.
Land use: Total cultivable land 38552 hectares, fallow land 6257.79 hectares; single crop 23.8%, double crop 55.06% and treble crop land 21.14%.
Land control: Among the peasants, 19% are landless, 30% small, 28% marginal, 16.5% intermediate and 6.5% rich; cultivable land per head 0.13 hectare.
Value of land: The market value of the land of the first grade is approximately Tk 7000 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops: Paddy, jute, potato, linseed, sesame, pumpkin, mustard seed, kanchu and vegetables. Extinct or nearly extinct crops Local varieties of paddy. Fisheries, dairies, poultries Poultry 81, dairy 52, hatchery (poultry) 29.
Communication facilities: Roads (pucca 67 km, semi pucca 35 km and mud road 811 km) waterways 73-nautical-mile (135 km). Traditional transports Palanquin, bullock cart and horse carriage. These means of transport are extinct or nearly extinct.
Manufactories Printing press 2, ice factory 4, saw mill 11 and lathe machine 4. Cottage industries Weaving 51, goldsmith 18, blacksmith 39, potteries 4, wood work 200, bamboo work 70, fishing 300, baowali 400, moual 250. Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 42, most noted of which are Shyamnagar, Nawabenki, Bhetkhali, Harinagar, Munshiganj, Gabura and Nurnagar Bazar; fairs 6.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are BARSA,Nawabenki Ganamukhi foundation, brac, caritas, asa, Sushilan, LEDARS, GUS, Nakshi Kantha Mohila Unnayan Sangstha, Shyamnagar Mohila Attakarmasangsthan, Setu, Bharasa.
Health centees Upazila health complex 1, family planning centre 9.
- Black, George. “.” OnEarth Magazine 30 (2008): 22–37.
- Muazzam Hussain Khan (Banglapedia)