Šiauliai

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Šiauliai
City municipality
Cathedral of Šiauliai
Cathedral of Šiauliai
Flag of Šiauliai
Flag
Coat of arms of Šiauliai
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Saulės miestas (The Sun City)
Šiauliai is located in Lithuania
Šiauliai
Šiauliai
Location of Šiauliai
Coordinates: 55°56′N 23°19′E / 55.933°N 23.317°E / 55.933; 23.317Coordinates: 55°56′N 23°19′E / 55.933°N 23.317°E / 55.933; 23.317
Country  Lithuania
Ethnographic region Samogitia
County Šiauliai County
Municipality Šiauliai city municipality
Capital of Šiauliai County
Šiauliai city municipality
Šiauliai district municipality
First mentioned 1236
Granted city rights 1589
Elderships Medelynas eldership, Rėkyva eldership
Area
 • Total 81.13 km2 (31.32 sq mi)
Elevation 151 m (495 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 107,875
 • Density 1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 76xxx
Area code(s) (+370) 41
Vehicle registration S
Website www.siauliai.lt
Pedestrian boulevard at night
Former Šiauliai Jewish school
Šiauliai during January 13, 1991
Venclauskai Palace
Šiauliai church in 19th century
Šiauliai after the First World War

Šiauliai ([ʃɛʊ̯ˈlʲɛɪ̯ˑ] ( )), is the fourth largest city in Lithuania, with a population of 133,900. 1994 to 2010 it was the capital of Šiauliai County. Unofficially, the city is the capital of Northern Lithuania.

Names[edit]

Šiauliai is referred to by a various names in different languages: Samogitian: Šiaulē, Latvian Saule (historic) and Šauļi (modern), German (outdated): Schaulen, Polish: Szawle, Russian: Шавли (Shavli – historic) and Шяуля́й (Shyaulyai – modern), Yiddish: שאַװל (Shavel).

History[edit]

The city was first mentioned in written sources as Soule in Livonian Order chronicles describing the battle of Saule. Thus the city's founding date is now considered to be September 22, 1236, the same date when the battle took place, not far from Šiauliai. At first it developed as a defense post against the raids by the Teutonic and Livonian Orders. After the battle of Grunwald in 1410, the raids stopped and Šiauliai started to develop as an agricultural settlement. In 1445, a wooden church was built. It was replaced in 1625 with the brick church which can be seen in the city center today.[1]

Šiauliai was granted Magdeburg city rights in the 16th century. In the 16th century it became an administrative center of the area. However, in the 16th to 18th centuries the city was devastated by The Deluge and epidemics of the Bubonic plague.[1]

The credit for the city's rebirth goes to Antoni Tyzenhaus (1733–1785) who after a violent revolt of peasants of the Crown properties in the Northern Lithuania (so-called in Polish: Powstanie Szawelskie, 1769), started the radical economic and urban reforms.[citation needed] He decided to rebuild the city according to the Classicism ideas: at first houses were built randomly in a radial shape, but Tyzenhaus decided to build the city in an orderly rectangular grid. Šiauliai grew to become a well-developed city, with several prominent brick buildings.[citation needed] In 1791 Stanisław August Poniatowski, king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, confirmed once again that Šiauliai's city rights and granted it a coat of arms which depicted a bear, the symbol of Samogitia, the Eye of Providence, and a red bull, the symbol of the Poniatowski family. The modern coat of arms has been modeled after this version.

After the Partitions of Poland, Šiauliai got a new coat of arms. The city grew and became an important educational and cultural center. Also, infrastructure was rapidly developing: in 1836–1858 a road connecting Riga and Tilsit was built, in 1871 a railroad connecting Liepāja with Romny was built.[citation needed] Šiauliai, being in a crossroad of important merchant routes, started to develop as an industrial town. Already in 1897 it was the third largest city in Lithuania with population of about 16,000. The demographics changed also: 56.4% of the inhabitants were Jewish in 1909. Šiauliai was known for its leather industry. Chaim Frenkel owned the biggest leather factory in the Russian Empire.

During World War I, about 85% of the buildings were burned down and the city center was destroyed.[1] After the war and re-establishment of Lithuania, the importance of Šiauliai grew. Before Klaipėda was attached to Lithuania, the city was second after Kaunas by population size. By 1929 the city center was rebuilt. Modern utilities were also included: streets were lighted, it had public transportation, telephone and telegraph lines, water supply network and sewer.

The first independence years were difficult because the industrial city lost its markets in Russia. It needed to find new clients in Western Europe. In 1932 a railroad to Klaipėda was built and it connected the city to the Western markets. In 1938 the city produced about 85% of Lithuania's leather, 60% of footwear, 75% of flax fiber, 35% of candies. Culture also flourished as many new periodicals were printed, new schools and universities opened, a library, theater, museum, and normal school were opened.

In 1939, one fifth of the city's population was Jewish.[2] German soldiers entered Šiauliai on June 26, 1941. According to one of the Jewish survivors of Šiauliai, Nesse Godin, some 700 people were shot in nearby woods during the first weeks of occupation after having been forced to dig their own graves. The Šiauliai Ghetto was established in July 1941. There were two Jewish ghetto areas in Šiauliai, one in the Kaukas suburb, and one in Trakų. During World War II, the Jewish population was reduced from 8,000 to 500. About 80% of the buildings were destroyed.[3]

The city was largely rebuilt anew in a typical Soviet fashion during the years of subsequent Soviet occupation.

Mayors[edit]

  • 1990–1991 – Kazimieras Šavinis
  • 1991–1995 – Arvydas Salda
  • 1995 – 1997 – Alfredas Lankauskas
  • 2000 – Vida Stasiūnaitė
  • 2002–2003 – Vaclovas Volkovas
  • 2003–2007 – Vytautas Juškus
  • 2007–2011 – Genadijus Mikšys
  • 2011–present – Justinas Sartauskas

Geography[edit]

Šiauliai Žemaičių located in eastern part of the northern plateau, Mūša, Dubysa and Venta River divide. Distance of 210 kilometres (130 miles) to Vilnius, Kaunas – 142 km (88 mi), Klaipėda – 161 km (100 mi), Riga – 128 km (80 mi), Kaliningrad – 250 km (155 mi). The total city area 81.13 square kilometres (31.32 sq mi), from the green areas 18.87 square kilometres (7.29 sq mi), water – 12.78 square kilometres (4.93 sq mi). Urban land outside perimeter of the administrative 70,317 kilometres (43,693 miles).

Altitude: Rėkyvos the lake water level – 129.8 m (425.85 ft) above sea level, Talsos lake level – 103.0 m (337.93 ft) in the city center – 128.4 m (421.26 ft), Salduvės Hill – 149.7 m (491.14 ft) above sea level.

Water[edit]

The total water area – 1,280 ha, 15.7% in urban areas.

  • Šiauliai Lakes
    • Rėkyva Lake, 1179ha
    • Talša lake, 56,2ha
    • Ginkūnai Lake, 16,6ha
  • River
    • Kulpė
    • Rūdė
    • Vijolė
    • Švedė
    • Šimša
    • Tilžė
    • Šventupis

Climate[edit]

The average temperature in January; −7 °C (19 °F) in July; +18 °C (64 °F). The amount of precipitation in a year – 538.5 mm (21.2 in).

In 1942, the city recorded the lowest Lithuania year mean temperature (+3.6 °C).

Climate data for Šiauliai
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 9.1
(48.4)
13.3
(55.9)
21.0
(69.8)
25.1
(77.2)
30.4
(86.7)
32.1
(89.8)
34.3
(93.7)
32.4
(90.3)
28.5
(83.3)
23.3
(73.9)
16.9
(62.4)
13.4
(56.1)
34.3
(93.7)
Average high °C (°F) −2.6
(27.3)
−1.7
(28.9)
2.8
(37)
10.1
(50.2)
17.3
(63.1)
20.7
(69.3)
21.7
(71.1)
21.2
(70.2)
16.3
(61.3)
10.5
(50.9)
4.0
(39.2)
−0.2
(31.6)
10.0
(50)
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.1
(22.8)
−4.7
(23.5)
−1.0
(30.2)
5.2
(41.4)
11.8
(53.2)
15.5
(59.9)
16.7
(62.1)
16.1
(61)
11.7
(53.1)
7.0
(44.6)
1.8
(35.2)
−2.6
(27.3)
6.0
(42.8)
Average low °C (°F) −7.9
(17.8)
−7.7
(18.1)
−4.2
(24.4)
1.2
(34.2)
6.7
(44.1)
10.5
(50.9)
12.3
(54.1)
11.7
(53.1)
8.1
(46.6)
4.1
(39.4)
−0.3
(31.5)
−5.0
(23)
2.5
(36.5)
Record low °C (°F) −36.0
(−32.8)
−36.4
(−33.5)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−11.5
(11.3)
−5.5
(22.1)
−0.1
(31.8)
4.7
(40.5)
2.1
(35.8)
−5.7
(21.7)
−8.5
(16.7)
−17.8
(0)
−31.1
(−24)
−36.4
(−33.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 33
(1.3)
24
(0.94)
32
(1.26)
38
(1.5)
47
(1.85)
60
(2.36)
74
(2.91)
77
(3.03)
60
(2.36)
53
(2.09)
58
(2.28)
44
(1.73)
600
(23.62)
Avg. precipitation days 19 14 15 13 13 13 15 15 16 16 19 20 188
Mean monthly sunshine hours 37.2 65.0 124.0 177.0 263.5 276.0 260.4 241.8 170.5 99.2 42.0 27.9 1,784.5
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization [4] NOAA (extremes)[5]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)[6]

Demographics[edit]

In 1795 there were 3,700 people in Šiauliai, and by 1897 Šiauliai (16,128 population) was the second most populus city in Lithuania after Kaunas. In 1909 56.4% of the population was Jewish.[1] The Jewish population in Šiauliai has been steadily rising since the mid-1900, when many Jews congregated there after the war. A particular Jew called Shauli Bar-On encouraged the Jews of Europe to come to Lithuania because he saw enormous potential for success. In 1923 Šiauliai population was in third place in Kaunas and Klaipėda. Under the occupied territory of the area 24 km2 (9 sq mi) remained fourth in the city of Kaunas, Klaipėda and Panevėžys.

Economy[edit]

Iron Fox

Starting from the 19th century, Šiauliai become an industrial center. During the Russian Empire period, the city had the largest leather factory in the whole empire, owned by Chaim Frenkel. Šiauliai contributed to around 85% of all leather production in Lithuania, 60% of the footwear industry, 75% of the flax fiber industry, and 35% of the sweets industry.[citation needed]

During the Soviet years, the city produced electronics, mechanical engineering, wood processing, construction industry. Most of the industrial enterprises were concentrated in urban areas.

According to 2005 data,[citation needed] the city has:

  • Manufacturing and service companies – 3195
  • Commercial enterprises – 781
  • Shopping centers – 30, including
    • Akropolis, opened March 2009
    • Saulės miestas, opened March 2007
    • Bruklinas, opened November 2007
    • Tilžė, opened February 2008
    • Arena, opened November 2007

Education[edit]

Didždvaris gymnasium
Šiauliai State College
  • 1851 Boys Gymnasium (now Julius Janonis gymnasium) was opened
  • 1898 Girls Gymnasium (now Didždvaris gymnasum) was opened
  • 1920 Jewish Gymnasium was opened
  • 1920 Šiauliai Teachers seminary was founded
  • 1928 Primary education became compulsory
  • 1930 Vincas Kudirka primary school was opened
  • 1939 The Institute of trade was moved from Klaipėda, it was the first Higher Education school in Šiauliai
  • 1948 Šiauliai Teachers Institute was founded, in 1954 it became Pedagogical Institute, and since 1996, when the Šiauliai faculty of Kaunas Polytechnic Institute was connected, it is Šiauliai University.

Students in city (in 2006):

  • In Šiauliai University – 10 440
  • In Šiauliai College – 2770
  • In Northern Lithuania College – 700
  • In Šiauliai region College of Management and Languages – 517
  • In Šiauliai Conservatory – 149
  • In Šiauliai Vocational Training Center – 2663

There are 8 gymnasiums, 7 high schools, 16 secondary schools, 7 primary schools, 9 children non-formal education schools, 29 kindergartens. 21 000 students studied in general education schools in 2006.

Parks[edit]

City municipality building

The city park to the creation of Anton Tyzenhaus essentially graduated Vladimir Zubov. The 19th century Park was the middle of regular rectangular shape, and age at the end was close to the English style of the free layouts. Citizens for a small fee was allowed to walk in the park. In 1931, Park and Alley chestnut was officially donated to the Šiauliai city municipality.[citation needed]

Šiauliai has 16 parks, covering an area of 1177 hectares. Didždvario, province and Rėkyvos parks add to the cultural values of the registry.

Transport[edit]

Trains in Šiauliai Train Station

Šiauliai has always been a major intersection. The famous Saulės battle took place near a trade route from Riga to Bubiai and Tauragė.In 1836–1858 Riga–Sovetsk highway was built near it.[citation needed] About 1912, first cars appeared on city's streets.[citation needed]

Highways passing through Šiauliai :

  • A9 / E272 Šiauliai – Panevėžys (79 km)
  • A11 / E272 Šiauliai – Palanga (147 km)
  • A12 / E77 Riga – Šiauliai – Sovetsk (186 km).
  • City has is western bypass A18.

In 2006 Šiauliai had 297 km (185 mi) of roads, of which 32% had gravel surface. Longest streets are Tilžės street – 9.72 km (6.04 mi) and Vilnius street – 5.67 km (3.52 mi) with 1.28 km (0.80 mi) of it being a pedestrian boulevard.

In 1871 Liepāja-Romny railway was built. In 1916 Tilžė–Riga, and in 1931 Šiauliai–Klaipėda railways were built. The city has a railway station.

In 1930, an air strip was developed. It was expanded in 1961 during the Soviet period and developed into a large VVS base. It is now a military (NATO) base, and home to the Šiauliai International Airport.

The first passenger transport company in the city of Šiauliai was founded in 1940.[citation needed] It was autotrestas, which had 29 buses. In 1944 instead of autotresto was organized motor firm. In 1947 the first taxi Šiauliai machines. And then, a growing city, increasing the number of passengers – in 1955 founded the city of Šiauliai bus and taksomotorų autoūkis. In 2006, a modern bus station with the trade center. The city has 27 city routes, the maximum number is 29.

Communications[edit]

Šiauliai of communication in 1897 could be used not only for mail or telegraph, and telephone. Telephone subscribers in 1923 was 170, while in 1937 – 700 rooms. 1936; the city to install a phone machine.[citation needed]

1957, a television tower, which are equipped with radio and antenna lines. In 1995 launched the construction of cable television lines, 1998 started to install the cable internet, since 2003 – Optical Internet line. In 2008 the city has 14 post offices (central LT-76001).

Sport[edit]

Šiauliai arena

Since 1924 soccer was played in Šiauliai. By the year 1936 there were 14 soccer teams in the city. Later other sports also started to be played professionally: basketball, handball, rugby, hockey, athletics, cycling, boxing and other sports. On 25 July 2007 in preparation for the 37th European men basketball championship, a modern Šiauliai Arena was opened to the public.

Club Sport League Venue
BC Šiauliai Basketball Lithuanian Basketball League (LKL), Baltic Basketball League (BBL), Eurocup Šiaulių arena
FK Šiauliai Football The A League A Lyga Šiaulių stadionas
ABRO- Saulė Basketball Šiaulių sporto rūmai
RC Vairas Rugby union Lithuanian Rugby Championship Zoknių stadionas
RC Baltrex Rugby union Talšos stadionas
RC Šiauliai Rugby union Talšos stadionas
Šiauliai central square

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Šiauliai is twinned with:[7]

Notable people[edit]

View of Siauliai

According to the population census of 2001, ethnic Lithuanians comprise 93%, Russians – 5%, and the remaining 2% consist of Ukrainians, Belarussians, Jews, Roma, Latvians, Armenians and other ethnic groups. About 94% of the city's population consider Lithuanian their native language, 5% are Russian speakers and the remainder speak Ukrainian, Belarussian, Latvian, Roma, Armenian etc. About 80% of those older than 20 have command of the Russian language, while only 17% can speak English and 7% – German.[citation needed]

The list of notable people who were born in Šiauliai:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "History of the city". Šiauliai. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Urieli, Assaf. "Shavl – שאַװל – Šiauliai, Lithuania". Kehila Links. JewishGen. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  3. ^ Levin, Dov (2008). "Šiauliai". Encyclopaedia Judaica. The Gale Group. 
  4. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Siauliai". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved February 2, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Siauliai Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 2, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Climatological Information for Siauliai, Lithuania". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved February 2, 2013. 
  7. ^ "International relations". Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  8. ^ "The History of Omaha Sister Cities Association." Omaha Sister Cities Association. Retrieved 12/8/08.

http://www.eilatgordinlevitan.com/siauliai/siauliai.html

External links[edit]