Side-striped jackal

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Side-striped jackal[1]
Side-striped Jackal.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: C. adustus
Binomial name
Canis adustus
(Sundevall, 1847)
Side-striped Jackal area.png
Side-striped jackal range

The side-striped jackal (Canis adustus) is a species of jackal, native to central and southern Africa.[1][2] Unlike its cousin, the smaller black-backed jackal, which dwells in open plains, the side-striped jackal primarily dwells in woodland and scrub areas.[3]

Description[edit]

The side-striped jackal is a medium-sized canid, which tends to be slightly larger on average than the black-backed jackal. Body mass ranges from 6.5 to 14 kg (14 to 31 lb), head-and-body length from 69 to 81 cm (27 to 32 in) and tail length from 30 to 41 cm (12 to 16 in).[4] Shoulder height can range from 35 to 50 cm (14 to 20 in).[5] Its pelt is coloured buff-grey. The back is darker grey than the underside, and the tail is black with a white tip. Indistinct white stripes are present on the flanks, running from elbow to hip. The boldness of the markings varies between individuals, with those of adults being better defined than those of juveniles.[3]

The side-striped jackal's skull is similar to that of the black-backed jackal's, but is flatter, with a longer and narrower rostrum. Its sagittal crest and zygomatic arches are also lighter in build. Due to its longer rostrum, its third upper premolar lies almost in line with the others, rather than at an angle. Its dentition is well suited to an omnivorous diet. The long, curved canines have a sharp ridge on the posterior surface, and the outer incisors are canine-like. Its carnassials are smaller than those of the more carnivorous black-backed jackal. Females have four inguinal teats.[3] The side-striped jackal's dental formula is:[3]

Dentition
3.1.4.2
3.1.4.3

Dietary habits[edit]

The side-striped jackal tends to be less carnivorous than other jackal species, and is a highly adaptable omnivore whose dietary preferences change in accordance to seasonal and local variation.[6] It tends to forage solitarily, though family groups of up to 12 jackals have been observed to feed together in western Zimbabwe. In the wild, it feeds largely on invertebrates during the wet season and small mammals, such as the springhare, in the dry months. It frequently scavenges from campsites and the kills of larger predators. In the wild, fruit is taken exclusively in season, while in ruralised areas, it can account for 30% of their dietary intake. The side-striped jackal tends to be comparatively less threatening to game and livestock when compared to other jackal species. It typically does not target game exceeding the size of neonatal antelopes, and one specimen was recorded to have entered a duck's pen to eat their feed, whilst ignoring the birds.[3]

Social behaviour and reproduction[edit]

The side-striped jackal lives both solitarily and in family groups of up to seven individuals. The family unit is dominated by a breeding pair, which remains monogamous for a number of years.[3]

The breeding season for this species depends on where they live; in southern Africa, breeding starts in June and ends in November. The side-striped jackal has a gestation period of 57 to 70 days, with average litter of three to six young. The young reach sexual maturity at six to eight months of age, and typically begin to leave when 11 months old. The side-striped jackal is among the few mammal species that mate for life, forming monogamous pairs.

Subspecies[edit]

There are seven recognized subspecies of this jackal:[1][7]

  • Canis adustus adustus (Western Africa to most of Angola) – Sundevall jackal
  • Canis adustus bweha (Eastern Africa, Kisumu, Kenya)
  • Canis adustus centralis (Central Africa, Cameroon, near the Uham River)
  • Canis adustus grayi (Morocco and Tunisia)
  • Canis adustus kaffensis (Kaffa, southwestern Ethiopia) – Kafue jackal
  • Canis adustus lateralis (Kenya, Uasin Gishu Plateau, south of Gabon)
  • Canis adustus notatus (Kenya, Loita Plains, Rift Valley Prov.) – East African jackal, East African side-striped jackal

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ a b Atkinson RPD & Loveridge AJ (2008). Canis adustus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2008-11-12. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Side-Striped Jackal". Canids.org. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  4. ^ Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0789477645
  5. ^ "Side-Striped Jackal". Botswana Travel Guide. Retrieved 2013-07-10. 
  6. ^ "Side-Striped Jackal in the Kruger Park". www.krugerpark.co.za. Retrieved 2013-07-10. 
  7. ^ "Canis adustus". Planet-mammiferes.org. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 

References[edit]

  • The New Encyclopedia of Mammals edited by David Macdonald, Oxford University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-19-850823-9
  • Cry of the Kalahari, by Mark and Delia Owens, Mariner Books, 1992.
  • The Velvet Claw: A Natural History of the Carnivores, by David MacDonald, BBC Books, 1992.
  • Foxes, Wolves, and Wild Dogs of the World, by David Alderton, Facts on File, 2004.