Sidney Webb, 1st Baron Passfield

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The Right Honourable
The Lord Passfield
PC
Sidney Webb.jpg
President of the Board of Trade
In office
22 January 1924 – 3 November 1924
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald
Preceded by Sir Philip Lloyd-Graeme
Succeeded by Sir Philip Lloyd-Graeme
Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs
In office
7 June 1929 – 5 June 1930
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald
Preceded by Leo Amery
Succeeded by James Henry Thomas
Secretary of State for the Colonies
In office
7 June 1929 – 24 August 1931
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald
Preceded by Leo Amery
Succeeded by James Henry Thomas
Personal details
Born (1859-07-13)13 July 1859
London
Died 13 October 1947(1947-10-13) (aged 88)
Liphook, Hampshire
Nationality British
Political party Labour
Spouse(s) Beatrice Potter
(1858–1943)
Alma mater Birkbeck, University of London
King's College London

Sidney James Webb, 1st Baron Passfield PC OM (13 July 1859 – 13 October 1947) was a British socialist, economist, reformer and a co-founder of the London School of Economics. He was one of the early members of the Fabian Society in 1884, along with George Bernard Shaw (they joined three months after its inception). Along with his wife, Beatrice Webb, Annie Besant, Graham Wallas, Edward R. Pease, Hubert Bland, and Sydney Olivier, Shaw and Webb turned the Fabian Society into the pre-eminent political-intellectual society of England in the Edwardian era and beyond. He wrote the original Clause IV for the British Labour Party.

Background and education[edit]

Webb was born in London to a professional family. He studied law at the Birkbeck Literary and Scientific Institution for a degree of the University of London in his spare time, while holding down an office job. He also studied at King's College London, prior to being called to the Bar in 1885.

Professional life[edit]

In 1895 he helped to establish the London School of Economics, using a bequest left to the Fabian Society. He was appointed Professor of Public Administration in 1912, a post he held for fifteen years. In 1892, Webb married Beatrice Potter, who shared his interests and beliefs. The money she brought with her enabled him to give up his clerical job and concentrate on his other activities. Sidney and Beatrice Webb founded the New Statesman magazine in 1913.[1]

Political career[edit]

Sidney and Beatrice Webb

Webb and Potter were members of the Labour Party and took an active role in politics. Sidney became Member of Parliament for Seaham at the 1922 general election.[2] The couple's influence can be seen in their hosting of the Coefficients, a dining club which attracted some of the leading statesmen and thinkers of the day. In 1929, he was raised to the peerage as Baron Passfield, of Passfield Corner in the County of Southampton.[3] He served as both Secretary of State for the Colonies and Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs in Ramsay MacDonald second Labour Government in 1929. As Colonial Secretary he issued the Passfield White Paper revising the government's policy in Palestine, previously set by the Churchill White Paper of 1922. In 1930 failing health caused him to step down as Dominions Secretary, but he stayed on as Colonial Secretary till the fall of the Labour government in August 1931.

The Webbs were supporters of the Soviet Union until their deaths. Their books, Soviet Communism: A New Civilization? (1935) and The Truth About Soviet Russia (1942) give a very positive assessment of Joseph Stalin's regime. Marxist historian Al Richardson later described Soviet Communism: A New Civilization? as "pure Soviet propaganda at its most mendacious".[4]

Writings[edit]

Webb co-authored, with his wife, a pivotal book on the History of Trade Unionism (1894). For the Fabian Society he wrote on poverty in London,[5] the eight-hour day,[6][7] land nationalisation[8] the nature of socialism,[9] education,[10] eugenics[11] and reform of the House of Lords.[12]

References in literature[edit]

Beatrice and Sidney Webb working together in 1895

In H.G. Wells's The New Machiavelli (1911), the Webbs, as 'the Baileys', are mercilessly lampooned as short-sighted, bourgeois manipulators. The Fabian Society, of which Wells was briefly a member (1903–08), fares no better in his estimation.

In her diary, Beatrice Webb records that they have, "read the caricatures of ourselves … with much interest and amusement. The portraits are very clever in a malicious way."[13] She reviews the book and Wells’ character in detail, summarising “As an attempt at representing a political philosophy the book utterly fails …”.[14]

Personal life[edit]

When Beatrice Webb died in 1943, the casket containing her ashes was buried in the garden of their house in Passfield Corner. Lord Passfield's ashes were also buried there in 1947. Shortly afterwards, George Bernard Shaw launched a petition to have both reburied to Westminster Abbey, which was eventually granted. Today, the Webbs' ashes are interred in the nave of Westminster Abbey, close to those of Clement Attlee and Ernest Bevin.

In 2006 the London School of Economics, alongside the Housing Association landlord Places for People, renamed their Great Dover Street student residence Sidney Webb House in his honour.

Archives[edit]

Sidney Webb's papers are among the Passfield archive at the London School of Economics. Posts about Sidney Webb regularly appear in the LSE Archives blog, Out of the box.

Bibliography[edit]

Works by Sidney Webb
Works by Sidney and Beatrice Webb
  • History of Trade Unionism (1894)
  • Industrial Democracy (1897)
  • English Local Government Vol. I–X (1906 through 1929)
  • The Manor and the Borough (1908)
  • The Break-Up of the Poor Law (1909)
  • English Poor-Law Policy (1910)
  • The Cooperative Movement (1914)
  • Works Manager Today (1917)
  • The Consumer's Cooperative Movement (1921)
  • Decay of Capitalist Civilization (1923)
  • Methods of Social Study (1932)
  • Soviet Communism: A new civilisation? (1935) (the 2nd and 3rd editions of 1941 and 1944 did not have "?" in the title)
  • The Truth About Soviet Russia (1942)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The world movement towards collectivism, Beatrice and Sidney Webb, New Statesman, 12 April 1913;
    Bending the arc of history towards justice and freedom, New Statesman, 12 April 2013; retrieved 13 May 2014.
  2. ^ The History of the Fabian Society, Edward R. Pease, Frank Cass and Co. LTD, 1963
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33509. p. 4189. 25 June 1929.
  4. ^ Al Richardson, "Introduction" to C. L. R. James, World Revolution 1917–1936: The Rise and Fall of the Communist International. Humanities Press, 1937 ISBN 0-391-03790-0
  5. ^ Webb, Sidney (1), "Facts for Londoners: An exhaustive collection of statistical and other facts relating to the metropolis: with suggestions for reform on socialist principles", Fabian Tract 8  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  6. ^ Webb, Sidney (May 1890), "An Eight Hours Bill in the form of an amendment of the Factory Acts, with further provisions for the improvement of the conditions of labour", Fabian Tract 9 
  7. ^ Webb, Sidney (1890), "The case for an Eight Hours Bill", Fabian Tract 23 
  8. ^ Webb, Sidney (1890), "Practicable land nationalization", Fabian Tract 12 
  9. ^ Webb, Sidney (21 January 1894), "Socialism: true and false. A lecture delivered to the Fabian Society", Fabian Tract 51 
  10. ^ Webb, Sidney (1901), "The education muddle and the way out: a constructive criticism of English educational machinery", Fabian Tract 106 
  11. ^ Webb, Sidney (1907), "The decline in the birth-rate", Fabian Tract 131 
  12. ^ Webb, Sidney (1917), "The reform of the House of Lords", Fabian Tract 183 
  13. ^ Beatrice Webb's typescript diary, 2 January 1901 – 10 February 1911, LSE Digital Library http://digital.library.lse.ac.uk/objects/lse:won715bor/read#page/622/mode/2up
  14. ^ Beatrice Webb's typescript diary, 2 January 1901 – 10 February 1911, LSE Digital Library http://digital.library.lse.ac.uk/objects/lse:won715bor/read#page/622/mode/2up/

External links[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Evan Hayward
Member of Parliament for Seaham
19221929
Succeeded by
Ramsay Macdonald
Party political offices
Preceded by
Fred Jowett
Chair of the Labour Party
1922–1923
Succeeded by
Ramsay MacDonald
Political offices
Preceded by
Sir Philip Lloyd-Greame
President of the Board of Trade
1924
Succeeded by
Sir Philip Lloyd-Greame
Preceded by
Leo Amery
Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs
1929–1930
Succeeded by
James Henry Thomas
Secretary of State for the Colonies
1929–1931
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Passfield
1929–1947
Extinct