Siege of Barcelona (1713–14)

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Siege of Barcelona
Part of the War of the Spanish Succession
Date 25 July 1713 – 11 September 1714
Location Barcelona, Principality of Catalonia (Spain)
Result Decisive victory for Philip V of Spain
Belligerents
Spain Spain loyal to Philip V of Spain
 France
Spain Spain loyal to Archduke Charles
Commanders and leaders
Duke of Popoli
Duke of Berwick
Antoni de Villarroel
Strength
40,000 regulars
80 cannons
20 howitzers
2,000 regulars
4,700 militians of the Coronela
Some piece of artillery
Casualties and losses
14,000 dead or wounded 7,000 dead or wounded

The Siege of Barcelona (Catalan: Setge de Barcelona, IPA: [ˈsedʒə ðə βərsəˈɫonə]) was a battle at the end of the War of Spanish Succession (1701–1714), which pitted Archduke Charles of Austria (backed by Britain and the Netherlands, i.e. the Grand Alliance), against Philip V of Spain, backed by France in a contest for the Spanish crown.

Prelude[edit]

During the early part of the war, Barcelona had fallen to the forces of Archduke Charles: his fleet had anchored in the port on 22 August 1705, landing troops which surrounded the city. These troops later captured the fort of Montjuïc, and used it to bombard the city into its submission on October 9 of that year.

Battle[edit]

Even though the freshly defeated Catalan court then supported the Archduke against Philip V, the Franco-Spanish forces were not strong enough to attempt a recapture of the city until 1713. By 25 July of that year, the city was surrounded by Bourbon forces under command of Restaino Cantelmo-Stuart, Duke of Popoli, but attacks upon it were unfruitful due to the scarcity of artillery. The Bourbons then waited for a 20,000 man reinforcement force, which arrived in April–May 1714. The assault was renewed, now under the command of the Duke of Berwick, and after entering the city on 30 August, the Bourbons finally triumphed on 11 September. This defeat is now commemorated as the National Day of Catalonia, also known as La Diada Nacional de Catalunya.

Notes:

1. Britain and the Dutch Republic reached a peace agreement to end the war with France on 11 April 1713, Treaty of Utrecht

2. Austria reached a peace agreement to end the war with France on 7 March 1714, Treaty of Rastatt

3. The Holy Roman Empire reached a peace agreement to end the war with France on 7 September 1714, Treaty of Baden

Aftermath[edit]

The war's end in 1714, with the surrender of the pro-Archduke forces to a Franco-Spanish army, marks a two century long period of state system that mirrored the greater centralization of the various monarchies of the European continent. With the War of the Spanish Succession completed, Spain evolved from a de facto unified kingdom to a centralized de jure one. The defenders of the city were buried in a cemetery, now a plaça (in Catalan: square), called Fossar de les Moreres, where Catalans gather every 11 September, known as the National Day of Catalonia or la Diada.

References[edit]

External links[edit]