Siege of Los Angeles

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Siege of Los Angeles
Part of the Mexican–American War
LA-Harbor-plan-1900.gif
San Pedro Bay, 1900.
Date 13 Aug. - 30 Sept. 1846
Location Los Angeles, Alta California,
Result Mexican victory
Belligerents
 United States Mexico Mexico
Commanders and leaders
Robert F. Stockton
John C. Fremont
Archibald H. Gillespie
Jose Maria Castro
José María Flores
José Antonio Carrillo
Andrés Pico
Strength
48[1]:183 150 militia[1]:184
Casualties and losses
0 0

The Siege of Los Angeles was a military occupation by the United States Marines of the Pueblo de Los Angeles during the Mexican–American War.

Background[edit]

Following the Battle of Monterey, the Americans held northern California but General Jose Maria Castro and Governor Pio Pico planned resistance in the south around the Los Angeles area.[1]:172 Commodore Robert F. Stockton arrived Monterey Bay aboard the Congress on 15 July and took over command from John D. Sloat.[1]:170 Stockton accepted the Bear Flag revolutionaries, under the command of Major John C. Frémont, as the California Battalion.[1]:173 Stockton then garrisoned sonoma, San Juan Bautista, Santa Clara, and Sutter's Fort.[1]:173 Stockton's plan for dealing with Castro was to have Commander Samuel Francis Du Pont carry Fremont's men in the Cyane to San Diego to block any movement southwards, while Stockton would land a force at San Pedro which would move overland against Castro.[1]:174 Fremont arrived San Diego on 29 July and reached San Pedro on 6 Aug. in the Congress.[1]:174

Occupation[edit]

Upon holding a council of war, Castro decided to leave California, heading to Sonora with Pico and a few supporters on 11 Aug., while the rest of his force retired to Rancho San Pascual.[1]:176

On 13 August 13 1846, Stockton led his column into town, followed by Fremont's force a half hour later.[1]:176 On the 14 August, the remnants of the California army surrendered.[1]:176

Resistance[edit]

Stockton established a garrison of forty-eight men under Capt. Archibald H. Gillespie and departed in Sept.[1]:177,183 His men, however, were undisciplined in an area with pro-Mexican feelings.[1]:183

Siege[edit]

On 23 Sept., twenty men under the command of Cerbulo Varela exchanged shots with the Americans at Government House, which ignited Los Angeles.[1]:184 On 24 Sept., 150 Californios, organized under José María Flores, a Mexican Officer who remained in California, at Castro's old camp at La Mesa.[1]:184 José Antonio Carrillo and Andrés Pico assembled a vaquero Lancer. Gillespie's forces were effectively besieged, while Gillespie sent Juan "Flaco" Brown to Stockton for help.[1]:184

Gillespie's men retreated to Fort Hill on 28 Sept., but without water, they surrendered the next day.[1]:184 Terms called for Gillespie's men to leave Los Angeles, which they did on 30 September 1846, and boarded the American merchant vessel Vandalia.[1]:184

Flores quickly cleared remaining American forces in southern California.[1]:184

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Bauer, K.J., 1974, The Mexican War, 1846-1848, New York:Macmillan, ISBN0803261071

Additional Reading[edit]