Siege of Maubeuge
The Siege of Maubeuge took place from 24 August – 7 September 1914, at the start of World War I on the Western Front. The garrison of the fortress surrendered to the Germans after bombardment by heavy and super-heavy artillery, attacks by aircraft and ground troops.
After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 the French built more fortresses on the German border and extended the frontier fortifications northwards by building new ones at Hirson, Maubeuge, Lille and Dunkirk.
French defensive preparations
On 7 August General Fournier, commander of the fortified region of Maubeuge, warned that a German offensive over the Meuse River by six corps was likely. General Joseph Joffre sacked Fournier for defeatism and appointed General Desaleux in his place. At a British Council of War on 12 August, Field Marshal Lord Kitchener predicted a German offensive through Belgium but was compelled to send the British Expeditionary Force ("BEF") to Maubeuge as planned, instead of further back at Amiens. Kitchener ordered General John French not to consider himself under the command of the French Army. The BEF landed in France from 14–17 August and had taken post on the left flank of the French Fifth Army from Maubeuge to Le Cateau by 20 August. Next day the BEF began to advance northwards from Maubeuge towards Mons, despite reconnaissance reports that many German troops were converging on Mons, which were discounted by Sir Henry Wilson.
German offensive preparations
The possibility of the BEF assembling at Maubeuge was known to the Germans but a concentration at the Channel ports was also considered possible. On 21 August, General Karl von Bülow ordered Alexander von Kluck’s 1st Army to veer southwards towards Maubeuge. On 24 August, the VII Corps, on the right flank of the 2nd Army advanced until the 13th Division was forced to halt by French fire from Maubeuge. The corps was ordered to isolate the south-eastern fringe of Maubeuge with the 13th Division and advance against the right flank of the BEF south of Maubeuge towards Aulnoye with the rest of the corps units on 25 August, as news arrived of the fall of most of the Namur forts. Air reconnaissance revealed the beginning of a French retreat to a line from Verdun to Mézières and Maubeuge and the 14th Division of the VII Reserve Corps was ordered south to Binch to link with the IX and VII corps to isolate Maubeuge on both sides of the Sambre, under the impression that the BEF was about to be surrounded. By late afternoon it had been discovered that the BEF had evaded the envelopment. Bulow made General von Einem responsible for the isolation of Maubeuge, with his VII Corps (less the 14th Division), VII Reserve Corps (less the 13th Reserve Division), IX Corps and the artillery and siege units released by the fall of Namur.
The envelopment began on 26 August and next day Lieutenant-General von Zwehl was ordered to conduct the attack on Maubeuge with the VII Reserve Corps and the 17th Division of the IX Corps, as the rest of the troops at Maubeuge were sent south in pursuit of the Franco-British. On 27 August the 13th Reserve Division was sent to Maubeuge and the VII Corps was ordered to leave one brigade behind as it advanced southwards. Von Zwehl planned to attack the fortress from the north-east, with a secondary attack from south of the Sambre. Three sectors were established, one from the Trouille stream to the Sambre below Maubeuge, the second from the Sambre to toe Solre brook and the third sector from the Solre to the Sambre north of the fortifications. A regiment of Cavalry was to cover the gap to the west and north. Heavy and super-heavy artillery from Namur was to be emplaced between Givry and Solre. By 2 September the 27th Reserve Infantry Brigade had taken over the 1st sector, the 26th Infantry Brigade held the southern sector and elements of the 13th Reserve Division held a new 4th sector to the west around Bavai.
On the morning of 24 August French briefly threatened to retreat away from the Charles Lanrezac's Fifth Army towards Amiens, until he was dissuaded by Joffre and French also considered withdrawing the BEF into the fortress of Maubeuge. Later that day German Second Army opened its attack on Maubeuge. Next day the German Second Army bypassed Maubeuge and left behind a corps to cover the fortress. French General Headquarters ("GQG") ordered the fortress commander to hold on and German forces beyond, completed the investment of the fortified area. From 29 August – 5 September the Maubeuge fortresses were bombarded German heavy and super-heavy artillery. German infantry attacked the fortress on 5 September and next day stormed four of the bypassed forts. On the evening of 6 September fortified area of Maubeuge was surrendered to the Germans.
In 1922 in Principal Events, 1914–1918, the British Official Historians recorded that 40,000 French soldiers were taken prisoner. In 2009 Herwig recorded that the Germans took 32,692 prisoners and 450 guns, when Maubeuge was surrendered on 6 September.
- Evans, M. M. (2004). Battles of World War I. Select Editions. ISBN 1-84193-226-4.
- Herwig, H. (2009). The Marne, 1914: The Opening of World War I and the Battle that Changed the World. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1-4000-6671-1.
- Humphries, M. O.; Maker, J. (2013). Der Weltkrieg: 1914 The Battle of the Frontiers and Pursuit to the Marne. Germany's Western Front: Translations from the German Official History of the Great War. I, part 1. Waterloo, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 978-1-55458-373-7.
- Skinner, H. T.; Fitz M. Stacke, H. (1922). Principal Events 1914–1918. History of the Great War Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence. London: HMSO. OCLC 17673086. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- Wyrall, E. (1928). The Story of the 62nd (West Riding) Division, 1914–1919 II (Naval & Military Press 2003 ed.). London: The Bodley Head. ISBN 1-84342-582-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Siege of Maubeuge.|
- German Official History map of Maubeuge
- French site with many photographs
- Siege (French site)
- The Siege of Maubeuge, 1914
- Siege of Maubeuge
- August 1914 Chronology: Introduction, Contents and Sources
- Charles Lanrezac