Siege of Trichinopoly (1743)
|Siege of Trichinopoly|
|Maratha Empire||Mughal Empire|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Murari Rao|| Muhammad Shah
Asaf Jah I
Sadatullah Khan II
Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan
The Siege of Trichinopoly took place in 1743 during an extended series of conflicts between the Nizam and the Maratha Empire for control over some parts of southern India. An army led by Asaf Jah I, the Nizam of Hyderabad, besieged the town of Trichinopoly, which was governed by Murarao Ghorpade. After about four months of siege, the Nizam successfully bribed Murrarao to surrender, which he did on 29 August 1743.
In the 1730s, the Carnatic region of southern India was under the dominion of Asaf Jah 1, the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Nizam had appointed Muhammed Saadatullah Khan as Nawab of the Carnatic in 1710. Saadatullah died in 1732, directing that he be succeeded by his nephew, Dost Ali Khan. Dost Ali refused to pay chauth (a form of tribute) to the Marathas that his predecessors had paid. Following the death of the Maratha rajah of Trichinopoly in 1736, Dost Ali sent his son-in-law and diwan, Chanda Sahib, to the province, claiming its tribute payments were in arrears. He inveigled himself into the court of rani Minakshi, who was acting as regent for her young son. Abusing her trust, he seized the fortress and threw her into prison, where she is said to have died of grief. Dost Ali rewarded Chanda Sahib with the title Nawab of Trichinopoly.
The Maratha peshwa, offended by the loss of Trichinopoly, sent Raghuji Bhonsle to organize a military expedition into the Carnatic in 1739. In early 1740 Raghuji led an estimated 50,000 man army south toward Arcot, Dost Ali's capital, and Dost Ali and Chanda Sahib mobilized to meet him. (The nizam's military forces were occupied on his northern borders, and he was unable to provide significant assistance.) These two forces first met at the Demal Cheru Pass on 20 May 1740. The Marathas were victorious, killing Dost Ali and forcing Chanda Sahib to flee to Trichinopoly. Dost Ali's successor, Safdar Ali Khan, negotiated tribute payments to the Marathas to ensure their recognition of his rule. Raghuji's forces then closely besieged Chanda Sahib in Trichinopoly in early 1741, eventually compelling his surrender by starvation. The Marathas installed Murari Rao to govern Trichinopoly.
Safdar Ali's rule came to an end in 1742 when he was murdered by his brother in law, Muhammed Saadatullah Khan II. Both of them refused to pay tribute as expected to the nizam, who in 1743 led an 80,000 man army into the Carnatic to reassert his control of the area. He deposed Saadatullah, and laid siege to Murari Rao in Trichinopoly. That siege ended on 29 August 1743 when the Nizam essentially bought Murrarao off to change sides.
Three years after the siege, in 1746, Marathas under Peshwa Balaji Bajirao sent a military expedition to Carnatic, led by Sadashivrao Bhau. The Maratha army overran the region and brought it under their control. Nizam's army, under Nasir Jung tried to obstruct the Marathas, but was defeated and repulsed by Sadashivrao Bhau. Maratha influence in the region was replaced by the French and British forces.
- Mehta, J. L. Advanced study in the history of modern India 1707-1813
- Mackenna, P. J. et al. Ancient and modern India